Abstract

Interaction between micrometer-long nanoantennas within an array considerably modifies the plasmonic resonant behaviour; for fundamental resonances in the infrared already at micrometer distances. In order to get systematic knowledge on the relationship between infrared plasmonic resonances and separation distances dx and dy in longitudinal and transverse direction, respectively, we experimentally studied the optical extinction spectra for rectangularly ordered lithographic gold nanorod arrays on silicon wafers. For small dy, strong broadening of resonances and strongly decreased values of far-field extinction are detected which come along with a decreased near-field intensity, as indicated by near-field amplitude maps of the interacting nanoantennas. In contrast, near-field interaction over small dx does only marginally broaden the resonance. Our findings set a path for optimum design of rectangular nanorod lattices for surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (5)

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, A. García-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, C.-H. Wu, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Radiative engineering of plasmon lifetimes in embedded nanoantenna arrays,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4526–4537 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, D. Enders, T. Nagao, and A. Pucci, “Antenna sensing of surface phonon polaritons,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7299–7301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Ultra-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy of protein monolayers with plasmonic nanoantenna arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19227–19232 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Chung, F. Neubrech, and A. Pucci, “Infrared spectroscopy of antenna resonances,” Proc. SPIE 7394, 73941E, 73941E-4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Levin, J. Kundu, A. Barhoumi, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoshell-based substrates for surface enhanced spectroscopic detection of biomolecules,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(9), 1745–1750 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Funston, C. Novo, T. J. Davis, and P. Mulvaney, “Plasmon coupling of gold nanorods at short distances and in different geometries,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1651–1658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (12)

B. Auguié and W. L. Barnes, “Collective resonances in gold nanoparticle arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(14), 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, “Metal-nanoparticle plasmonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(3), 136–159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, and P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: a common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, R. Lovrincic, A. Pucci, M. Lopes, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Resonances of individual lithographic gold nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 163105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Bryant, F. J. García de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Mapping the plasmon resonances of metallic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 631–636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lal, N. K. Grady, J. Kundu, C. S. Levin, J. B. Lassiter, and N. J. Halas, “Tailoring plasmonic substrates for surface enhanced spectroscopies,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 898–911 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, and K. Kneipp, “SERS--a single-molecule and nanoscale tool for bioanalytics,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 1052–1060 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Klevenz, F. Neubrech, R. Lovrincic, M. Jalochowski, and A. Pucci, “Infrared resonances of self-assembled Pb nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 133116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Draine and P. J. Flatau, “Discrete-dipole approximation for periodic targets: theory and tests,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(11), 2693–2703 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Albella, F. Moreno, J. M. Saiz, and F. González, “Surface inspection by monitoring spectral shifts of localized plasmon resonances,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12872–12879 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, K. B. Crozier, F. Capasso, D. Bour, S. Corzine, and G. Höfler, “Plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(26), 266802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the universal scaling behavior of the distance decay of plasmon coupling in metal nanoparticles pairs: a plasmon ruler equation,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 2080–2088 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Optical scattering resonances of single and coupled dimer plasmonic nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17736–17746 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (6)

P. K. Jain, S. Eustis, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Plasmon coupling in nanorod assemblies: optical absorption, discrete dipole approximation simulation, and exciton-coupling model,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(37), 18243–18253 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Billot, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, A. S. Grimault, A. Vial, D. Barchiesi, J. L. Bijeon, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanowire arrays: evidence of strong multipolar surface plasmon resonance enhancement,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 422(4–6), 303–307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Enders and A. Pucci, “Surface enhanced infrared absorption of octadecanethiol on wet-chemically prepared Au nanoparticle films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 184104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, X. Li, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Backscattering enhancement of light by nanoparticles positioned in localized optical intensity peaks,” Appl. Opt. 45(4), 633–638 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (7)

N. Félidj, G. Laurent, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Grating-induced plasmon mode in gold nanoparticle arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(22), 221103 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, “A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(6), 741–745 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Reinhard, M. Siu, H. Agarwal, A. P. Alivisatos, and J. Liphardt, “Calibration of dynamic molecular rulers based on plasmon coupling between gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2246–2252 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Grand, M. L. de la Chapelle, J.-L. Bijeon, P.-M. Adam, A. Vial, and P. Royer, “Role of localized surface plasmons in surface-enhanced Raman scattering of shape-controlled metallic particles in regular arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 033407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Hicks, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, K. G. Spears, R. P. Van Duyne, L. Gunnarsson, T. Rindzevicius, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Controlling plasmon line shapes through diffractive coupling in linear arrays of cylindrical nanoparticles fabricated by electron beam lithography,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1065–1070 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (6)

T. Atay, J.-H. Song, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Strongly interacting plasmon nanoparticle pairs: from dipole-dipole interaction to conductively coupled regime,” Nano Lett. 4(9), 1627–1631 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 899–903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Zou, N. Janel, and G. C. Schatz, “Silver nanoparticle array structures that produce remarkably narrow plasmon lineshapes,” J. Chem. Phys. 120(23), 10871–10875 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zou and G. C. Schatz, “Narrow plasmonic/photonic extinction and scattering line shapes for one and two dimensional silver nanoparticle arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 121(24), 12606–12612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Keilmann and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field microscopy by elastic light scattering from a tip,” Philos. Transact. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 362(1817), 787–805 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 137–141 (2003).
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2002 (3)

N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Enhanced substrate-induced coupling in two-dimensional gold nanoparticle arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 66(24), 245407 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Gluodenis and C. A. Foss, “The effect of mutual orientation on the spectra of metal nanoparticle rod-rod and rod-sphere pairs,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(37), 9484–9489 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402 (2002).
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2000 (1)

B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Metal nanoparticle gratings: influence of dipolar particle interaction on the plasmon resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4721–4724 (2000).
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1997 (2)

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
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K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
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1980 (1)

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L. Billot, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, A. S. Grimault, A. Vial, D. Barchiesi, J. L. Bijeon, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanowire arrays: evidence of strong multipolar surface plasmon resonance enhancement,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 422(4–6), 303–307 (2006).
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Adam, P.-M.

J. Grand, M. L. de la Chapelle, J.-L. Bijeon, P.-M. Adam, A. Vial, and P. Royer, “Role of localized surface plasmons in surface-enhanced Raman scattering of shape-controlled metallic particles in regular arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 033407 (2005).
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Adato, R.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, C.-H. Wu, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Radiative engineering of plasmon lifetimes in embedded nanoantenna arrays,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4526–4537 (2010).
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R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Ultra-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy of protein monolayers with plasmonic nanoantenna arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19227–19232 (2009).
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Agarwal, H.

B. M. Reinhard, M. Siu, H. Agarwal, A. P. Alivisatos, and J. Liphardt, “Calibration of dynamic molecular rulers based on plasmon coupling between gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2246–2252 (2005).
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Aizpurua, J.

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, A. García-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 287–291 (2009).
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G. W. Bryant, F. J. García de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Mapping the plasmon resonances of metallic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 631–636 (2008).
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M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, “Metal-nanoparticle plasmonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(3), 136–159 (2008).
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F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, and P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: a common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Albella, P.

Alivisatos, A. P.

B. M. Reinhard, M. Siu, H. Agarwal, A. P. Alivisatos, and J. Liphardt, “Calibration of dynamic molecular rulers based on plasmon coupling between gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2246–2252 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, “A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(6), 741–745 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alkorta, J.

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altug, H.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, C.-H. Wu, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Radiative engineering of plasmon lifetimes in embedded nanoantenna arrays,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4526–4537 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Ultra-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy of protein monolayers with plasmonic nanoantenna arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19227–19232 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amsden, J. J.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Ultra-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy of protein monolayers with plasmonic nanoantenna arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19227–19232 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Atay, J.-H. Song, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Strongly interacting plasmon nanoparticle pairs: from dipole-dipole interaction to conductively coupled regime,” Nano Lett. 4(9), 1627–1631 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aubard, J.

N. Félidj, G. Laurent, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Grating-induced plasmon mode in gold nanoparticle arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(22), 221103 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Enhanced substrate-induced coupling in two-dimensional gold nanoparticle arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 66(24), 245407 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Auguié, B.

B. Auguié and W. L. Barnes, “Collective resonances in gold nanoparticle arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(14), 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

N. Félidj, G. Laurent, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Grating-induced plasmon mode in gold nanoparticle arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(22), 221103 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 137–141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Enhanced substrate-induced coupling in two-dimensional gold nanoparticle arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 66(24), 245407 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Metal nanoparticle gratings: influence of dipolar particle interaction on the plasmon resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4721–4724 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

Barchiesi, D.

L. Billot, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, A. S. Grimault, A. Vial, D. Barchiesi, J. L. Bijeon, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanowire arrays: evidence of strong multipolar surface plasmon resonance enhancement,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 422(4–6), 303–307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barhoumi, A.

C. S. Levin, J. Kundu, A. Barhoumi, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoshell-based substrates for surface enhanced spectroscopic detection of biomolecules,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(9), 1745–1750 (2009).
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Barnes, W. L.

B. Auguié and W. L. Barnes, “Collective resonances in gold nanoparticle arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(14), 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belkin, M. A.

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, K. B. Crozier, F. Capasso, D. Bour, S. Corzine, and G. Höfler, “Plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bijeon, J. L.

L. Billot, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, A. S. Grimault, A. Vial, D. Barchiesi, J. L. Bijeon, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanowire arrays: evidence of strong multipolar surface plasmon resonance enhancement,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 422(4–6), 303–307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bijeon, J.-L.

J. Grand, M. L. de la Chapelle, J.-L. Bijeon, P.-M. Adam, A. Vial, and P. Royer, “Role of localized surface plasmons in surface-enhanced Raman scattering of shape-controlled metallic particles in regular arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 033407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Billot, L.

L. Billot, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, A. S. Grimault, A. Vial, D. Barchiesi, J. L. Bijeon, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanowire arrays: evidence of strong multipolar surface plasmon resonance enhancement,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 422(4–6), 303–307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bochterle, J.

F. Neubrech, A. García-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D.

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, K. B. Crozier, F. Capasso, D. Bour, S. Corzine, and G. Höfler, “Plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brandl, D. W.

F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, and P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: a common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryant, G.

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, “Metal-nanoparticle plasmonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(3), 136–159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, G. W.

F. Neubrech, A. García-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Bryant, F. J. García de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Mapping the plasmon resonances of metallic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 631–636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, K. B. Crozier, F. Capasso, D. Bour, S. Corzine, and G. Höfler, “Plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Chung, H. V.

H. V. Chung, F. Neubrech, and A. Pucci, “Infrared spectroscopy of antenna resonances,” Proc. SPIE 7394, 73941E, 73941E-4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cornelius, T. W.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Corzine, S.

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, K. B. Crozier, F. Capasso, D. Bour, S. Corzine, and G. Höfler, “Plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crozier, K.

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Crozier, K. B.

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, K. B. Crozier, F. Capasso, D. Bour, S. Corzine, and G. Höfler, “Plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cubukcu, E.

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, K. B. Crozier, F. Capasso, D. Bour, S. Corzine, and G. Höfler, “Plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davis, T. J.

A. M. Funston, C. Novo, T. J. Davis, and P. Mulvaney, “Plasmon coupling of gold nanorods at short distances and in different geometries,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1651–1658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de la Chapelle, M. L.

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, R. Lovrincic, A. Pucci, M. Lopes, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Resonances of individual lithographic gold nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 163105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Grand, M. L. de la Chapelle, J.-L. Bijeon, P.-M. Adam, A. Vial, and P. Royer, “Role of localized surface plasmons in surface-enhanced Raman scattering of shape-controlled metallic particles in regular arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 033407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, L.

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, K. B. Crozier, F. Capasso, D. Bour, S. Corzine, and G. Höfler, “Plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Metal nanoparticle gratings: influence of dipolar particle interaction on the plasmon resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4721–4724 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Draine, B. T.

El-Sayed, M. A.

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the universal scaling behavior of the distance decay of plasmon coupling in metal nanoparticles pairs: a plasmon ruler equation,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 2080–2088 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Jain, S. Eustis, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Plasmon coupling in nanorod assemblies: optical absorption, discrete dipole approximation simulation, and exciton-coupling model,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(37), 18243–18253 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emory, S. R.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enders, D.

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, D. Enders, T. Nagao, and A. Pucci, “Antenna sensing of surface phonon polaritons,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7299–7301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Enders and A. Pucci, “Surface enhanced infrared absorption of octadecanethiol on wet-chemically prepared Au nanoparticle films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 184104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Erramilli, S.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Ultra-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy of protein monolayers with plasmonic nanoantenna arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19227–19232 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eustis, S.

P. K. Jain, S. Eustis, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Plasmon coupling in nanorod assemblies: optical absorption, discrete dipole approximation simulation, and exciton-coupling model,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(37), 18243–18253 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fahsold, G.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Félidj, N.

N. Félidj, G. Laurent, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Grating-induced plasmon mode in gold nanoparticle arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(22), 221103 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Enhanced substrate-induced coupling in two-dimensional gold nanoparticle arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 66(24), 245407 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, V. E.

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flatau, P. J.

Foss, C. A.

M. Gluodenis and C. A. Foss, “The effect of mutual orientation on the spectra of metal nanoparticle rod-rod and rod-sphere pairs,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(37), 9484–9489 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Franzl, T.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fromm, D. P.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Funston, A. M.

A. M. Funston, C. Novo, T. J. Davis, and P. Mulvaney, “Plasmon coupling of gold nanorods at short distances and in different geometries,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1651–1658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García de Abajo, F. J.

G. W. Bryant, F. J. García de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Mapping the plasmon resonances of metallic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 631–636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

García-Etxarri, A.

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, A. García-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giannini, V.

Gluodenis, M.

M. Gluodenis and C. A. Foss, “The effect of mutual orientation on the spectra of metal nanoparticle rod-rod and rod-sphere pairs,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(37), 9484–9489 (2002).
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Gómez Rivas, J.

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C. S. Levin, J. Kundu, A. Barhoumi, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoshell-based substrates for surface enhanced spectroscopic detection of biomolecules,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(9), 1745–1750 (2009).
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M. Klevenz, F. Neubrech, R. Lovrincic, M. Jalochowski, and A. Pucci, “Infrared resonances of self-assembled Pb nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 133116 (2008).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003).
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M. Klevenz, F. Neubrech, R. Lovrincic, M. Jalochowski, and A. Pucci, “Infrared resonances of self-assembled Pb nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 133116 (2008).
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J. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, and K. Kneipp, “SERS--a single-molecule and nanoscale tool for bioanalytics,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 1052–1060 (2008).
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K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
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J. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, and K. Kneipp, “SERS--a single-molecule and nanoscale tool for bioanalytics,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 1052–1060 (2008).
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J. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, and K. Kneipp, “SERS--a single-molecule and nanoscale tool for bioanalytics,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 1052–1060 (2008).
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K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
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F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253104 (2006).
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N. Félidj, G. Laurent, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Grating-induced plasmon mode in gold nanoparticle arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(22), 221103 (2005).
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W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 137–141 (2003).
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N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Enhanced substrate-induced coupling in two-dimensional gold nanoparticle arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 66(24), 245407 (2002).
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B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Metal nanoparticle gratings: influence of dipolar particle interaction on the plasmon resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4721–4724 (2000).
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C. S. Levin, J. Kundu, A. Barhoumi, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoshell-based substrates for surface enhanced spectroscopic detection of biomolecules,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(9), 1745–1750 (2009).
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F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, and P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: a common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lal, N. K. Grady, J. Kundu, C. S. Levin, J. B. Lassiter, and N. J. Halas, “Tailoring plasmonic substrates for surface enhanced spectroscopies,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 898–911 (2008).
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S. Lal, N. K. Grady, J. Kundu, C. S. Levin, J. B. Lassiter, and N. J. Halas, “Tailoring plasmonic substrates for surface enhanced spectroscopies,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 898–911 (2008).
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W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 137–141 (2003).
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B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Metal nanoparticle gratings: influence of dipolar particle interaction on the plasmon resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4721–4724 (2000).
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F. Neubrech, A. García-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213111 (2010).
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S. Lal, N. K. Grady, J. Kundu, C. S. Levin, J. B. Lassiter, and N. J. Halas, “Tailoring plasmonic substrates for surface enhanced spectroscopies,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 898–911 (2008).
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B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Metal nanoparticle gratings: influence of dipolar particle interaction on the plasmon resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4721–4724 (2000).
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W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1–3), 137–141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Enhanced substrate-induced coupling in two-dimensional gold nanoparticle arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 66(24), 245407 (2002).
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B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Metal nanoparticle gratings: influence of dipolar particle interaction on the plasmon resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4721–4724 (2000).
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N. Félidj, G. Laurent, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Grating-induced plasmon mode in gold nanoparticle arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(22), 221103 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Enhanced substrate-induced coupling in two-dimensional gold nanoparticle arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 66(24), 245407 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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C. S. Levin, J. Kundu, A. Barhoumi, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoshell-based substrates for surface enhanced spectroscopic detection of biomolecules,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(9), 1745–1750 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Neubrech, D. Weber, R. Lovrincic, A. Pucci, M. Lopes, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Resonances of individual lithographic gold nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 163105 (2008).
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F. Neubrech, D. Weber, R. Lovrincic, A. Pucci, M. Lopes, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Resonances of individual lithographic gold nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 163105 (2008).
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M. Klevenz, F. Neubrech, R. Lovrincic, M. Jalochowski, and A. Pucci, “Infrared resonances of self-assembled Pb nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 133116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253104 (2006).
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J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003).
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K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
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D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
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F. Neubrech, A. García-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213111 (2010).
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A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
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H. V. Chung, F. Neubrech, and A. Pucci, “Infrared spectroscopy of antenna resonances,” Proc. SPIE 7394, 73941E, 73941E-4 (2009).
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M. Klevenz, F. Neubrech, R. Lovrincic, M. Jalochowski, and A. Pucci, “Infrared resonances of self-assembled Pb nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 133116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, R. Lovrincic, A. Pucci, M. Lopes, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Resonances of individual lithographic gold nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 163105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, R.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253104 (2006).
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P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 899–903 (2004).
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N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101124 (2006).
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R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Ultra-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy of protein monolayers with plasmonic nanoantenna arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19227–19232 (2009).
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P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 899–903 (2004).
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V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
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M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, “Metal-nanoparticle plasmonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(3), 136–159 (2008).
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K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
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C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003).
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Prodan, E.

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 899–903 (2004).
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Pucci, A.

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, D. Enders, T. Nagao, and A. Pucci, “Antenna sensing of surface phonon polaritons,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7299–7301 (2010).
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F. Neubrech, A. García-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
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H. V. Chung, F. Neubrech, and A. Pucci, “Infrared spectroscopy of antenna resonances,” Proc. SPIE 7394, 73941E, 73941E-4 (2009).
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M. Klevenz, F. Neubrech, R. Lovrincic, M. Jalochowski, and A. Pucci, “Infrared resonances of self-assembled Pb nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 133116 (2008).
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F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
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F. Neubrech, D. Weber, R. Lovrincic, A. Pucci, M. Lopes, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Resonances of individual lithographic gold nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 163105 (2008).
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D. Enders and A. Pucci, “Surface enhanced infrared absorption of octadecanethiol on wet-chemically prepared Au nanoparticle films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 184104 (2006).
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F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253104 (2006).
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C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, “A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(6), 741–745 (2005).
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B. M. Reinhard, M. Siu, H. Agarwal, A. P. Alivisatos, and J. Liphardt, “Calibration of dynamic molecular rulers based on plasmon coupling between gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2246–2252 (2005).
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J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
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Royer, P.

L. Billot, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, A. S. Grimault, A. Vial, D. Barchiesi, J. L. Bijeon, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanowire arrays: evidence of strong multipolar surface plasmon resonance enhancement,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 422(4–6), 303–307 (2006).
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J. Grand, M. L. de la Chapelle, J.-L. Bijeon, P.-M. Adam, A. Vial, and P. Royer, “Role of localized surface plasmons in surface-enhanced Raman scattering of shape-controlled metallic particles in regular arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 033407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saiz, J. M.

Sánchez-Gil, J. A.

Schatz, G. C.

E. M. Hicks, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, K. G. Spears, R. P. Van Duyne, L. Gunnarsson, T. Rindzevicius, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Controlling plasmon line shapes through diffractive coupling in linear arrays of cylindrical nanoparticles fabricated by electron beam lithography,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1065–1070 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zou, N. Janel, and G. C. Schatz, “Silver nanoparticle array structures that produce remarkably narrow plasmon lineshapes,” J. Chem. Phys. 120(23), 10871–10875 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zou and G. C. Schatz, “Narrow plasmonic/photonic extinction and scattering line shapes for one and two dimensional silver nanoparticle arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 121(24), 12606–12612 (2004).
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C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Zhao, K. L. Kelly, and G. C. Schatz, “The extinction spectra of silver nanoparticle arrays: influence of array structure on plasmon resonance wavelength and width,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7343–7350 (2003).
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N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Enhanced substrate-induced coupling in two-dimensional gold nanoparticle arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 66(24), 245407 (2002).
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M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
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M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 287–291 (2009).
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D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
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Schultz, S.

K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

F. Neubrech, A. García-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shvets, G.

Siu, M.

B. M. Reinhard, M. Siu, H. Agarwal, A. P. Alivisatos, and J. Liphardt, “Calibration of dynamic molecular rulers based on plasmon coupling between gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2246–2252 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.-H.

T. Atay, J.-H. Song, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Strongly interacting plasmon nanoparticle pairs: from dipole-dipole interaction to conductively coupled regime,” Nano Lett. 4(9), 1627–1631 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sönnichsen, C.

C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, “A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(6), 741–745 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spears, K. G.

E. M. Hicks, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, K. G. Spears, R. P. Van Duyne, L. Gunnarsson, T. Rindzevicius, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Controlling plasmon line shapes through diffractive coupling in linear arrays of cylindrical nanoparticles fabricated by electron beam lithography,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1065–1070 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 899–903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Su, K.-H.

K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sundaramurthy, A.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sweatlock, L. A.

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
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Z. Chen, X. Li, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Backscattering enhancement of light by nanoparticles positioned in localized optical intensity peaks,” Appl. Opt. 45(4), 633–638 (2006).
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A. Taflove, “Application of the finite-difference time-domain method to sinusoidal steady state electromagnetic penetration problems,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 22(3), 191–202 (1980).
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Toimil-Molares, M. E.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toury, T.

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, R. Lovrincic, A. Pucci, M. Lopes, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Resonances of individual lithographic gold nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 163105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Urzhumov, Y. A.

F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, and P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: a common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Duyne, R. P.

E. M. Hicks, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, K. G. Spears, R. P. Van Duyne, L. Gunnarsson, T. Rindzevicius, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Controlling plasmon line shapes through diffractive coupling in linear arrays of cylindrical nanoparticles fabricated by electron beam lithography,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1065–1070 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vial, A.

L. Billot, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, A. S. Grimault, A. Vial, D. Barchiesi, J. L. Bijeon, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanowire arrays: evidence of strong multipolar surface plasmon resonance enhancement,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 422(4–6), 303–307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Grand, M. L. de la Chapelle, J.-L. Bijeon, P.-M. Adam, A. Vial, and P. Royer, “Role of localized surface plasmons in surface-enhanced Raman scattering of shape-controlled metallic particles in regular arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 033407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

von Plessen, G.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, and P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: a common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weber, D.

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, A. García-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, D. Enders, T. Nagao, and A. Pucci, “Antenna sensing of surface phonon polaritons,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7299–7301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, R. Lovrincic, A. Pucci, M. Lopes, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Resonances of individual lithographic gold nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 163105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Q.-H.

K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wilk, T.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, O.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C.-H.

Yanik, A. A.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, C.-H. Wu, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Radiative engineering of plasmon lifetimes in embedded nanoantenna arrays,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4526–4537 (2010).
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R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Ultra-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy of protein monolayers with plasmonic nanoantenna arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19227–19232 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yee, K.

K. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 14(3), 302–307 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, K. B. Crozier, F. Capasso, D. Bour, S. Corzine, and G. Höfler, “Plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. L.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Zhao, K. L. Kelly, and G. C. Schatz, “The extinction spectra of silver nanoparticle arrays: influence of array structure on plasmon resonance wavelength and width,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7343–7350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zou, S.

E. M. Hicks, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, K. G. Spears, R. P. Van Duyne, L. Gunnarsson, T. Rindzevicius, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Controlling plasmon line shapes through diffractive coupling in linear arrays of cylindrical nanoparticles fabricated by electron beam lithography,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1065–1070 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zou and G. C. Schatz, “Narrow plasmonic/photonic extinction and scattering line shapes for one and two dimensional silver nanoparticle arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 121(24), 12606–12612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zou, N. Janel, and G. C. Schatz, “Silver nanoparticle array structures that produce remarkably narrow plasmon lineshapes,” J. Chem. Phys. 120(23), 10871–10875 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, and P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: a common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

C. S. Levin, J. Kundu, A. Barhoumi, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoshell-based substrates for surface enhanced spectroscopic detection of biomolecules,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(9), 1745–1750 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Klevenz, F. Neubrech, R. Lovrincic, M. Jalochowski, and A. Pucci, “Infrared resonances of self-assembled Pb nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 133116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Enders and A. Pucci, “Surface enhanced infrared absorption of octadecanethiol on wet-chemically prepared Au nanoparticle films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 184104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, R. Lovrincic, A. Pucci, M. Lopes, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Resonances of individual lithographic gold nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 163105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, A. García-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, E. Cubukcu, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, K. B. Crozier, F. Capasso, D. Bour, S. Corzine, and G. Höfler, “Plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Billot, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, A. S. Grimault, A. Vial, D. Barchiesi, J. L. Bijeon, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanowire arrays: evidence of strong multipolar surface plasmon resonance enhancement,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 422(4–6), 303–307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (2)

S. Lal, N. K. Grady, J. Kundu, C. S. Levin, J. B. Lassiter, and N. J. Halas, “Tailoring plasmonic substrates for surface enhanced spectroscopies,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 898–911 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, and K. Kneipp, “SERS--a single-molecule and nanoscale tool for bioanalytics,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 37(5), 1052–1060 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

K. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 14(3), 302–307 (1966).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. (1)

A. Taflove, “Application of the finite-difference time-domain method to sinusoidal steady state electromagnetic penetration problems,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 22(3), 191–202 (1980).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM image of a part of a typical gold nanoantenna array on silicon as investigated. The set-specific separation distances dx and dy are indicated. The width w is about 120 nm for the rods of sample 1 and about 90 nm for the rods of sample 2, respectively. The height h is about 100 nm for all rods and the length L is varying in the different arrays between 370 nm and 2060 nm. The orientation of the electric field vector (E) is usually set parallel (as shown here) to the long rod axis to excite the longitudinal plasmon resonance. The incoming wave vector k is always perpendicular to the substrate plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured relative IR transmittance spectra and (b) corresponding extinction cross-sections per nanorod normalized to geometric cross-section [σ ext(λ)/σ geo] for the nanorod arrays d(5/5), d(1/5), and d(0.04/5) with L ≈820 nm, w ≈120 nm, and h ≈100 nm. The orientation of the electric field vector was always parallel to the long rod axis. The numbers in (a) give the approximate quantity of rods which contribute to the corresponding signals. (c) Numerical simulations of σ ext(λ)/σ geo per nanorod for nanoantenna arrays with the same geometrical dimensions as the experimentally investigated nanorods. The numbers indicate the quantity of rods used in the calculations until convergence was achieved.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical wavelength of the fundamental plasmonic resonance (λ res) versus rod length L for different longitudinal distances dx , (a) experiment, (b) simulation. The solid lines show fits according to Eq. (1) using the fixed inputs R = 61 nm and λ p = 138 nm. The simulated resonances in this graph are obtained for dimer rods since they represent quite accurately the longitudinal coupling in full arrays for these separation distances.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

As Fig. 2, but L = 1030 nm, w = 90 nm, dx = 5 µm and dy according to the values given in (a). In all spectra, the polarization of the electric field is parallel to the long rod axis except for the grey curve which shows a spectrum with perpendicular ( | ) polarization of d(5/0.1) for comparison. The small feature between λ = 8 µm and λ = 9 µm is due to the surface phonon-polariton in the natural SiO2 layer covering the Si substrate. The simulations shown in (c) were performed for nanorod arrays (total number of rods given in the figure) with same L, h, and dy as in the experimental situation (a). The only difference between simulation and experiment, besides the total number of rods, is the rod width w which was 120 nm for the simulations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Shift of the spectral resonance position of the sets d(1/5) and d(0.04/5) with respect to the reference set d(5/5). The full blue circles are the results obtained from the numerical simulations of dimers whereas the open blue diamonds are obtained from the simulations of arrays, respectively. In addition, the relative change of the quality factor Q (b) and the maximum extinction at resonance σ ext(λ res)/σ geo (c) compared to d(5/5) are shown. The abscissa represents the ratio between one half of the resonant wavelength in silicon [λ res/(2n Si)] and separation distance dx (see text). All experimental results originate from sample 1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Constructive interference conditions for (a) longitudinal and (b) transverse coupling. In the first case, one half of the wavelength in the substrate (λ res/2n Si) has to match the longitudinal separation distance dx , whereas in the latter one, one full wavelength in the substrate (λ res/n Si) equals the transverse separation distance dy .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

As Fig. 5 but for different separation distances in transverse direction. Note that the abscissa relates one full resonant wavelength in the substrate to the transverse separation distance dy . The relative shift of λ res (a) as well as the relative changes of Q (b) and σ ext(λ res)/σ geo (c) with respect to the reference set d(5/5) are shown for the sets d(5/1) and d(5/2) on sample 1 (w = 120 nm, h = 100 nm) and all sets on sample 2 (w = 90 nm, h = 100 nm). The full red triangles are data from simulations where nanorod dimers are compared to isolated nanorods. In addition, simulations of nanorod arrays (open red diamonds) are shown for comparison. The inset in (c) shows the same data as in (c) but with a logarithmic ordinate scale. As indicated by the solid grey line, the decrease of σ ext(λ res)/σ geo is proportional to (λ res/dy )-3/4.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Near-field amplitude images obtained by s-SNOM of 1.5 µm long gold nanorods with varying transverse distances dy : 5 µm (a), 1 µm (b), 500 nm (c), 250 nm (d), and 100 nm (e). All images are obtained at a wavelength λ = 11.1 µm. For comparison, (f) to (j) show simulations of the near-field for the same structures as (a) to (e). In both cases, the transverse near-field coupling is increased from (a) to (e) and (f) to (j), respectively, but the amplitude of the near-field decreases.

Equations (1)

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2 L = c 2 [ λ res / λ p ] c 1 .

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