Abstract

We show high resolution measurements of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor based on a rectangular nanohole array in a metal film. This SPR setup uses balanced intensity detection between two orthogonal polarizations of a He-Ne laser beam, which allows for sensitivity improvement, noise reduction and rejection of any uncorrelated variation in the intensity signal. A bulk sensitivity resolution of 6.4x10−6 RIU is demonstrated. The proposed methodology is promising for applications in portable nanoplasmonic multisensing and imaging.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “Nanohole arrays in metal films as optofluidic elements: progress and potential,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4(1-2), 107–116 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Ji, J. G. O’Connell, D. J. D. Carter, and D. N. Larson, “High-throughput nanohole array based system to monitor multiple binding events in real time,” Anal. Chem. 80(7), 2491–2498 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. Eftekhari, C. Escobedo, J. Ferreira, X. Duan, E. M. Girotto, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, and D. Sinton, “Nanoholes as nanochannels: flow-through plasmonic sensing,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4308–4311 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T.-Y. Chang, and H. Altug, “Integrated nanoplasmonic nanofluidic biosensors with targeted delivery of analytes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021101 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. S. Kwak, J. Henzie, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Surface plasmon standing waves in large-area subwavelength hole arrays,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 1963–1967 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. L. Skinner, L. L. Hunter, A. A. Talin, J. Provine, and D. A. Horsley, “Large-Area Subwavelength Aperture Arrays Fabricated Using Nanoimprint Lithography,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 7(5), 527–531 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. M. Hwang, L. Pang, E. H. Mullen, and Y. Fainman, “Plasmonic Sensing of Biological Analytes Through Nanoholes,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(12), 2074–2079 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Multiplexed plasmonic sensing based on small-dimension nanohole arrays and intensity interrogation,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(8), 2334–2338 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Eftekhari, R. Gordon, J. Ferreira, A. G. Brolo, and D. Sinton, “Polarization-dependent sensing of a self-assembled monolayer using biaxial nanohole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Laux, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Enhanced optical transmission at the cutoff transition,” Opt. Express 17(9), 6920–6930 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra,” Opt. Commun. 225(4-6), 331–336 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. J. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission throught periodic arrays os subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Letters 92 183901 1–4 (2004)
  20. N. E. Dorsey, “Properties of ordinary water-substance,” Chem. Eng. News 18, 215 (1940).
  21. A. Arce, A. Arce, and A. Soto, “Physical and excess properties of binary and ternary mixtures of 1,1-dimethylethoxy-butane, methanol, ethanol and water at 298.15K,” Thermochim. Acta 435(2), 197–201 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2010

A. A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T.-Y. Chang, and H. Altug, “Integrated nanoplasmonic nanofluidic biosensors with targeted delivery of analytes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

F. Eftekhari, C. Escobedo, J. Ferreira, X. Duan, E. M. Girotto, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, and D. Sinton, “Nanoholes as nanochannels: flow-through plasmonic sensing,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4308–4311 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Multiplexed plasmonic sensing based on small-dimension nanohole arrays and intensity interrogation,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(8), 2334–2338 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Lee, S. H. Wu, and P. K. Wei, “Intensity sensitivity of gold nanostructures and its application for high-throughput biosensing,” Opt. Express 17(25), 23104–23113 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Laux, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Enhanced optical transmission at the cutoff transition,” Opt. Express 17(9), 6920–6930 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

J. L. Skinner, L. L. Hunter, A. A. Talin, J. Provine, and D. A. Horsley, “Large-Area Subwavelength Aperture Arrays Fabricated Using Nanoimprint Lithography,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 7(5), 527–531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Hwang, L. Pang, E. H. Mullen, and Y. Fainman, “Plasmonic Sensing of Biological Analytes Through Nanoholes,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(12), 2074–2079 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, K. S. Lim, and S. H. Oh, “Laser-illuminated nanohole arrays for multiplex plasmonic microarray sensing,” Opt. Express 16(1), 219–224 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “Nanohole arrays in metal films as optofluidic elements: progress and potential,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4(1-2), 107–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Ji, J. G. O’Connell, D. J. D. Carter, and D. N. Larson, “High-throughput nanohole array based system to monitor multiple binding events in real time,” Anal. Chem. 80(7), 2491–2498 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Eftekhari, R. Gordon, J. Ferreira, A. G. Brolo, and D. Sinton, “Polarization-dependent sensing of a self-assembled monolayer using biaxial nanohole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Arce, A. Arce, and A. Soto, “Physical and excess properties of binary and ternary mixtures of 1,1-dimethylethoxy-butane, methanol, ethanol and water at 298.15K,” Thermochim. Acta 435(2), 197–201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Kwak, J. Henzie, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Surface plasmon standing waves in large-area subwavelength hole arrays,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 1963–1967 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra,” Opt. Commun. 225(4-6), 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Homola, I. Koudela, and S. S. Yee, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors based on diffraction gratings and prism couplers: sensitivity comparison,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 16–24 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1940

N. E. Dorsey, “Properties of ordinary water-substance,” Chem. Eng. News 18, 215 (1940).

Altug, H.

A. A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T.-Y. Chang, and H. Altug, “Integrated nanoplasmonic nanofluidic biosensors with targeted delivery of analytes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arce, A.

A. Arce, A. Arce, and A. Soto, “Physical and excess properties of binary and ternary mixtures of 1,1-dimethylethoxy-butane, methanol, ethanol and water at 298.15K,” Thermochim. Acta 435(2), 197–201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Arce, A. Arce, and A. Soto, “Physical and excess properties of binary and ternary mixtures of 1,1-dimethylethoxy-butane, methanol, ethanol and water at 298.15K,” Thermochim. Acta 435(2), 197–201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Artar, A.

A. A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T.-Y. Chang, and H. Altug, “Integrated nanoplasmonic nanofluidic biosensors with targeted delivery of analytes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brolo, A. G.

F. Eftekhari, C. Escobedo, J. Ferreira, X. Duan, E. M. Girotto, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, and D. Sinton, “Nanoholes as nanochannels: flow-through plasmonic sensing,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4308–4311 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “Nanohole arrays in metal films as optofluidic elements: progress and potential,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4(1-2), 107–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Eftekhari, R. Gordon, J. Ferreira, A. G. Brolo, and D. Sinton, “Polarization-dependent sensing of a self-assembled monolayer using biaxial nanohole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carter, D. J. D.

J. Ji, J. G. O’Connell, D. J. D. Carter, and D. N. Larson, “High-throughput nanohole array based system to monitor multiple binding events in real time,” Anal. Chem. 80(7), 2491–2498 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S. H.

E. S. Kwak, J. Henzie, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Surface plasmon standing waves in large-area subwavelength hole arrays,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 1963–1967 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, T.-Y.

A. A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T.-Y. Chang, and H. Altug, “Integrated nanoplasmonic nanofluidic biosensors with targeted delivery of analytes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dorsey, N. E.

N. E. Dorsey, “Properties of ordinary water-substance,” Chem. Eng. News 18, 215 (1940).

Duan, X.

F. Eftekhari, C. Escobedo, J. Ferreira, X. Duan, E. M. Girotto, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, and D. Sinton, “Nanoholes as nanochannels: flow-through plasmonic sensing,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4308–4311 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

E. Laux, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Enhanced optical transmission at the cutoff transition,” Opt. Express 17(9), 6920–6930 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eftekhari, F.

F. Eftekhari, C. Escobedo, J. Ferreira, X. Duan, E. M. Girotto, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, and D. Sinton, “Nanoholes as nanochannels: flow-through plasmonic sensing,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4308–4311 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Eftekhari, R. Gordon, J. Ferreira, A. G. Brolo, and D. Sinton, “Polarization-dependent sensing of a self-assembled monolayer using biaxial nanohole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Escobedo, C.

F. Eftekhari, C. Escobedo, J. Ferreira, X. Duan, E. M. Girotto, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, and D. Sinton, “Nanoholes as nanochannels: flow-through plasmonic sensing,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4308–4311 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fainman, Y.

G. M. Hwang, L. Pang, E. H. Mullen, and Y. Fainman, “Plasmonic Sensing of Biological Analytes Through Nanoholes,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(12), 2074–2079 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, J.

F. Eftekhari, C. Escobedo, J. Ferreira, X. Duan, E. M. Girotto, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, and D. Sinton, “Nanoholes as nanochannels: flow-through plasmonic sensing,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4308–4311 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Eftekhari, R. Gordon, J. Ferreira, A. G. Brolo, and D. Sinton, “Polarization-dependent sensing of a self-assembled monolayer using biaxial nanohole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Genet, C.

E. Laux, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Enhanced optical transmission at the cutoff transition,” Opt. Express 17(9), 6920–6930 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra,” Opt. Commun. 225(4-6), 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Girotto, E. M.

F. Eftekhari, C. Escobedo, J. Ferreira, X. Duan, E. M. Girotto, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, and D. Sinton, “Nanoholes as nanochannels: flow-through plasmonic sensing,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4308–4311 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, R.

F. Eftekhari, C. Escobedo, J. Ferreira, X. Duan, E. M. Girotto, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, and D. Sinton, “Nanoholes as nanochannels: flow-through plasmonic sensing,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4308–4311 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “Nanohole arrays in metal films as optofluidic elements: progress and potential,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4(1-2), 107–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Eftekhari, R. Gordon, J. Ferreira, A. G. Brolo, and D. Sinton, “Polarization-dependent sensing of a self-assembled monolayer using biaxial nanohole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gray, S. K.

E. S. Kwak, J. Henzie, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Surface plasmon standing waves in large-area subwavelength hole arrays,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 1963–1967 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grupp, D. E.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Henzie, J.

E. S. Kwak, J. Henzie, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Surface plasmon standing waves in large-area subwavelength hole arrays,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 1963–1967 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hogle, J. M.

J. C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Multiplexed plasmonic sensing based on small-dimension nanohole arrays and intensity interrogation,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(8), 2334–2338 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, I. Koudela, and S. S. Yee, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors based on diffraction gratings and prism couplers: sensitivity comparison,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 16–24 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Horsley, D. A.

J. L. Skinner, L. L. Hunter, A. A. Talin, J. Provine, and D. A. Horsley, “Large-Area Subwavelength Aperture Arrays Fabricated Using Nanoimprint Lithography,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 7(5), 527–531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

A. A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T.-Y. Chang, and H. Altug, “Integrated nanoplasmonic nanofluidic biosensors with targeted delivery of analytes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, L. L.

J. L. Skinner, L. L. Hunter, A. A. Talin, J. Provine, and D. A. Horsley, “Large-Area Subwavelength Aperture Arrays Fabricated Using Nanoimprint Lithography,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 7(5), 527–531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, G. M.

G. M. Hwang, L. Pang, E. H. Mullen, and Y. Fainman, “Plasmonic Sensing of Biological Analytes Through Nanoholes,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(12), 2074–2079 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Im, H.

Ji, J.

J. C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Multiplexed plasmonic sensing based on small-dimension nanohole arrays and intensity interrogation,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(8), 2334–2338 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ji, J. G. O’Connell, D. J. D. Carter, and D. N. Larson, “High-throughput nanohole array based system to monitor multiple binding events in real time,” Anal. Chem. 80(7), 2491–2498 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kavanagh, K. L.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koudela, I.

J. Homola, I. Koudela, and S. S. Yee, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors based on diffraction gratings and prism couplers: sensitivity comparison,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 16–24 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kwak, E. S.

E. S. Kwak, J. Henzie, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Surface plasmon standing waves in large-area subwavelength hole arrays,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 1963–1967 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larson, D. N.

J. C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Multiplexed plasmonic sensing based on small-dimension nanohole arrays and intensity interrogation,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(8), 2334–2338 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ji, J. G. O’Connell, D. J. D. Carter, and D. N. Larson, “High-throughput nanohole array based system to monitor multiple binding events in real time,” Anal. Chem. 80(7), 2491–2498 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laux, E.

Leathem, B.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. L.

Lesuffleur, A.

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lim, K. S.

Lindquist, N. C.

Mullen, E. H.

G. M. Hwang, L. Pang, E. H. Mullen, and Y. Fainman, “Plasmonic Sensing of Biological Analytes Through Nanoholes,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(12), 2074–2079 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O’Connell, J. G.

J. Ji, J. G. O’Connell, D. J. D. Carter, and D. N. Larson, “High-throughput nanohole array based system to monitor multiple binding events in real time,” Anal. Chem. 80(7), 2491–2498 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Odom, T. W.

E. S. Kwak, J. Henzie, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Surface plasmon standing waves in large-area subwavelength hole arrays,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 1963–1967 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, S. H.

Pang, L.

G. M. Hwang, L. Pang, E. H. Mullen, and Y. Fainman, “Plasmonic Sensing of Biological Analytes Through Nanoholes,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(12), 2074–2079 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Provine, J.

J. L. Skinner, L. L. Hunter, A. A. Talin, J. Provine, and D. A. Horsley, “Large-Area Subwavelength Aperture Arrays Fabricated Using Nanoimprint Lithography,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 7(5), 527–531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

E. S. Kwak, J. Henzie, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Surface plasmon standing waves in large-area subwavelength hole arrays,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 1963–1967 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sinton, D.

F. Eftekhari, C. Escobedo, J. Ferreira, X. Duan, E. M. Girotto, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, and D. Sinton, “Nanoholes as nanochannels: flow-through plasmonic sensing,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4308–4311 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “Nanohole arrays in metal films as optofluidic elements: progress and potential,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4(1-2), 107–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Eftekhari, R. Gordon, J. Ferreira, A. G. Brolo, and D. Sinton, “Polarization-dependent sensing of a self-assembled monolayer using biaxial nanohole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, J. L.

J. L. Skinner, L. L. Hunter, A. A. Talin, J. Provine, and D. A. Horsley, “Large-Area Subwavelength Aperture Arrays Fabricated Using Nanoimprint Lithography,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 7(5), 527–531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soto, A.

A. Arce, A. Arce, and A. Soto, “Physical and excess properties of binary and ternary mixtures of 1,1-dimethylethoxy-butane, methanol, ethanol and water at 298.15K,” Thermochim. Acta 435(2), 197–201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Talin, A. A.

J. L. Skinner, L. L. Hunter, A. A. Talin, J. Provine, and D. A. Horsley, “Large-Area Subwavelength Aperture Arrays Fabricated Using Nanoimprint Lithography,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 7(5), 527–531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M. P.

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra,” Opt. Commun. 225(4-6), 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wei, P. K.

Woerdman, J. P.

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra,” Opt. Commun. 225(4-6), 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. H.

Yang, J. C.

J. C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Multiplexed plasmonic sensing based on small-dimension nanohole arrays and intensity interrogation,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(8), 2334–2338 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yanik, A. A.

A. A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T.-Y. Chang, and H. Altug, “Integrated nanoplasmonic nanofluidic biosensors with targeted delivery of analytes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, I. Koudela, and S. S. Yee, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors based on diffraction gratings and prism couplers: sensitivity comparison,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 16–24 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

J. Ji, J. G. O’Connell, D. J. D. Carter, and D. N. Larson, “High-throughput nanohole array based system to monitor multiple binding events in real time,” Anal. Chem. 80(7), 2491–2498 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Eftekhari, C. Escobedo, J. Ferreira, X. Duan, E. M. Girotto, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, and D. Sinton, “Nanoholes as nanochannels: flow-through plasmonic sensing,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4308–4311 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. A. Yanik, M. Huang, A. Artar, T.-Y. Chang, and H. Altug, “Integrated nanoplasmonic nanofluidic biosensors with targeted delivery of analytes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Eftekhari, R. Gordon, J. Ferreira, A. G. Brolo, and D. Sinton, “Polarization-dependent sensing of a self-assembled monolayer using biaxial nanohole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron.

J. C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Multiplexed plasmonic sensing based on small-dimension nanohole arrays and intensity interrogation,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(8), 2334–2338 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Eng. News

N. E. Dorsey, “Properties of ordinary water-substance,” Chem. Eng. News 18, 215 (1940).

IEEE Sens. J.

G. M. Hwang, L. Pang, E. H. Mullen, and Y. Fainman, “Plasmonic Sensing of Biological Analytes Through Nanoholes,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(12), 2074–2079 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol.

J. L. Skinner, L. L. Hunter, A. A. Talin, J. Provine, and D. A. Horsley, “Large-Area Subwavelength Aperture Arrays Fabricated Using Nanoimprint Lithography,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 7(5), 527–531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microfluid. Nanofluid.

D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “Nanohole arrays in metal films as optofluidic elements: progress and potential,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4(1-2), 107–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

E. S. Kwak, J. Henzie, S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Surface plasmon standing waves in large-area subwavelength hole arrays,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 1963–1967 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra,” Opt. Commun. 225(4-6), 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem.

J. Homola, I. Koudela, and S. S. Yee, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors based on diffraction gratings and prism couplers: sensitivity comparison,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 16–24 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thermochim. Acta

A. Arce, A. Arce, and A. Soto, “Physical and excess properties of binary and ternary mixtures of 1,1-dimethylethoxy-butane, methanol, ethanol and water at 298.15K,” Thermochim. Acta 435(2), 197–201 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

K. J. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission throught periodic arrays os subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Letters 92 183901 1–4 (2004)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of the proposed technique using a nanohole rectangular array with different periodicities ax and ay along the two main axes. The transmission spectrum of such a structure is shown with resonant peaks at different wavelength for the two orthogonal polarizations. The point of intersection (Point A) corresponds to the initial calibration point. The change in refractive index (red curves) shows an increase of intensity for one polarization (point B) and a decrease for the other polarization (point C).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Scanning electron microscopy image of an example of a nanohole rectangular array 380 nm x 420 nm (b) Transmission spectra of nanohole rectangular arrays with period 380 x 415nm (solid line), 390 x 425 nm (dashed line) and 395 x 435 nm (dotted-dashed line). The positions of the peaks are red-shifted of (from left to right 28 nm, 27 nm, 29 nm, 28 nm, 29 nm, 26 nm in comparison to the dispersion relation (square dots).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematics of the optical setup used for the sensing experiment. (b) Adjustment of the initial calibration point by rotating the second polarizer from 45° to 35°. The intensities for both polarizations intersect at the source’s wavelength.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Transmission spectra of the nanohole array with 380 x 420 nm as periods in water and ethanol. (b) Responses of the sensing system for small increase of ethanol. Insert: Noise levels from the signal of the balanced detection and from the signal of a single polarization.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ = [ ( m a x ) + ( n a y ) ] 1 / 2 ε m n a 2 ε m + n a 2 ,
cos 2 ( θ ) + cos ( θ ) sin ( θ )
sin 2 ( θ ) + cos ( θ ) sin ( θ )

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