Abstract

The recent development of diffraction-unlimited far-field fluorescence microscopy has overcome the classical resolution limit of ~250 nm of conventional light microscopy by about a factor of ten. The improved resolution, however, reveals not only biological structures at an unprecedented resolution, but is also susceptible to sample drift on a much finer scale than previously relevant. Without correction, sample drift leads to smeared images with decreased resolution, and in the worst case to misinterpretation of the imaged structures. This poses a problem especially for techniques such as Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy (FPALM/PALM) or Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM), which often require minutes recording time. Here we discuss an approach that corrects for three-dimensional (3D) drift in images of fixed samples without the requirement for fiduciary markers or instrument modifications. Drift is determined by calculating the spatial cross-correlation function between subsets of localized particles imaged at different times. Correction down to ~5 nm precision is achieved despite the fact that different molecules are imaged in each frame. We demonstrate the performance of our drift correction algorithm with different simulated structures and analyze its dependence on particle density and localization precision. By imaging mitochondria with Biplane FPALM we show our algorithm’s feasibility in a practical application.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, and J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Methods 5(6), 527–529 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. R. P. Pavani, A. Greengard, and R. Piestun, “Three-dimensional localization with nanometer accuracy using a detector-limited double-helix point spread function system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021103–021103 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. von Middendorff, A. Egner, C. Geisler, S. W. Hell, and A. Schönle, “Isotropic 3D Nanoscopy based on single emitter switching,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20774–20788 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. A. Jones, S.-H. Shim, J. He, and X. Zhuang, “Fast, three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of live cells,” Nat. Methods 8(6), 499–505 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  15. B. Huang, S. A. Jones, B. Brandenburg, and X. Zhuang, “Whole-cell 3D STORM reveals interactions between cellular structures with nanometer-scale resolution,” Nat. Methods 5(12), 1047–1052 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. Schaffer, W. Grogger, and G. Kothleitner, “Automated spatial drift correction for EFTEM image series,” Ultramicroscopy 102(1), 27–36 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. Heil and H. Kohl, “Optimization of EFTEM image acquisition by using elastically filtered images for drift correction,” Ultramicroscopy 110(7), 745–753 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. Rahe, R. Bechstein, and A. Kühnle, “Vertical and lateral drift corrections of scanning probe microscopy images,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(3), (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. S. Salmons, D. R. Katz, and M. L. Trawick, “Correction of distortion due to thermal drift in scanning probe microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 110(4), 339–349 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. J. Mlodzianoski, M. F. Juette, G. L. Beane, and J. Bewersdorf, “Experimental characterization of 3D localization techniques for particle-tracking and super-resolution microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8264–8277 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

D. Aquino, A. Schonle, C. Geisler, C. V. Middendorff, C. A. Wurm, Y. Okamura, T. Lang, S. W. Hell, and A. Egner, “Two-color nanoscopy of three-dimensional volumes by 4Pi detection of stochastically switched fluorophores,” Nat. Methods 8(4), 353–359 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Jones, S.-H. Shim, J. He, and X. Zhuang, “Fast, three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of live cells,” Nat. Methods 8(6), 499–505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

T. Heil and H. Kohl, “Optimization of EFTEM image acquisition by using elastically filtered images for drift correction,” Ultramicroscopy 110(7), 745–753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rahe, R. Bechstein, and A. Kühnle, “Vertical and lateral drift corrections of scanning probe microscopy images,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(3), (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Salmons, D. R. Katz, and M. L. Trawick, “Correction of distortion due to thermal drift in scanning probe microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 110(4), 339–349 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Toomre and J. Bewersdorf, “A new wave of cellular imaging,” Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 26(1), 285–314 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

S. R. P. Pavani, A. Greengard, and R. Piestun, “Three-dimensional localization with nanometer accuracy using a detector-limited double-helix point spread function system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021103–021103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Mlodzianoski, M. F. Juette, G. L. Beane, and J. Bewersdorf, “Experimental characterization of 3D localization techniques for particle-tracking and super-resolution microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8264–8277 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Gould, V. V. Verkhusha, and S. T. Hess, “Imaging biological structures with fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy,” Nat. Protoc. 4(3), 291–308 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Shtengel, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, J. M. Gillette, S. Manley, R. Sougrat, C. M. Waterman, P. Kanchanawong, M. W. Davidson, R. D. Fetter, and H. F. Hess, “Interferometric fluorescent super-resolution microscopy resolves 3D cellular ultrastructure,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(9), 3125–3130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

B. Huang, S. A. Jones, B. Brandenburg, and X. Zhuang, “Whole-cell 3D STORM reveals interactions between cellular structures with nanometer-scale resolution,” Nat. Methods 5(12), 1047–1052 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. von Middendorff, A. Egner, C. Geisler, S. W. Hell, and A. Schönle, “Isotropic 3D Nanoscopy based on single emitter switching,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20774–20788 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, and J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Methods 5(6), 527–529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy,” Science 319(5864), 810–813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

H. Shroff, C. G. Galbraith, J. A. Galbraith, H. White, J. Gillette, S. Olenych, M. W. Davidson, and E. Betzig, “Dual-color superresolution imaging of genetically expressed probes within individual adhesion complexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(51), 20308–20313 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bates, B. Huang, G. T. Dempsey, and X. Zhuang, “Multicolor super-resolution imaging with photo-switchable fluorescent probes,” Science 317(5845), 1749–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

S. T. Hess, T. P. Girirajan, and M. D. Mason, “Ultra-high resolution imaging by fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(11), 4258–4272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

B. Schaffer, W. Grogger, and G. Kothleitner, “Automated spatial drift correction for EFTEM image series,” Ultramicroscopy 102(1), 27–36 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aquino, D.

D. Aquino, A. Schonle, C. Geisler, C. V. Middendorff, C. A. Wurm, Y. Okamura, T. Lang, S. W. Hell, and A. Egner, “Two-color nanoscopy of three-dimensional volumes by 4Pi detection of stochastically switched fluorophores,” Nat. Methods 8(4), 353–359 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bates, M.

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy,” Science 319(5864), 810–813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bates, B. Huang, G. T. Dempsey, and X. Zhuang, “Multicolor super-resolution imaging with photo-switchable fluorescent probes,” Science 317(5845), 1749–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beane, G. L.

Bechstein, R.

P. Rahe, R. Bechstein, and A. Kühnle, “Vertical and lateral drift corrections of scanning probe microscopy images,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(3), (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. T.

M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, and J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Methods 5(6), 527–529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betzig, E.

H. Shroff, C. G. Galbraith, J. A. Galbraith, H. White, J. Gillette, S. Olenych, M. W. Davidson, and E. Betzig, “Dual-color superresolution imaging of genetically expressed probes within individual adhesion complexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(51), 20308–20313 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bewersdorf, J.

D. Toomre and J. Bewersdorf, “A new wave of cellular imaging,” Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 26(1), 285–314 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Mlodzianoski, M. F. Juette, G. L. Beane, and J. Bewersdorf, “Experimental characterization of 3D localization techniques for particle-tracking and super-resolution microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8264–8277 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, and J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Methods 5(6), 527–529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonifacino, J. S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brandenburg, B.

B. Huang, S. A. Jones, B. Brandenburg, and X. Zhuang, “Whole-cell 3D STORM reveals interactions between cellular structures with nanometer-scale resolution,” Nat. Methods 5(12), 1047–1052 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidson, M. W.

G. Shtengel, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, J. M. Gillette, S. Manley, R. Sougrat, C. M. Waterman, P. Kanchanawong, M. W. Davidson, R. D. Fetter, and H. F. Hess, “Interferometric fluorescent super-resolution microscopy resolves 3D cellular ultrastructure,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(9), 3125–3130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shroff, C. G. Galbraith, J. A. Galbraith, H. White, J. Gillette, S. Olenych, M. W. Davidson, and E. Betzig, “Dual-color superresolution imaging of genetically expressed probes within individual adhesion complexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(51), 20308–20313 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dempsey, G. T.

M. Bates, B. Huang, G. T. Dempsey, and X. Zhuang, “Multicolor super-resolution imaging with photo-switchable fluorescent probes,” Science 317(5845), 1749–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Egner, A.

D. Aquino, A. Schonle, C. Geisler, C. V. Middendorff, C. A. Wurm, Y. Okamura, T. Lang, S. W. Hell, and A. Egner, “Two-color nanoscopy of three-dimensional volumes by 4Pi detection of stochastically switched fluorophores,” Nat. Methods 8(4), 353–359 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. von Middendorff, A. Egner, C. Geisler, S. W. Hell, and A. Schönle, “Isotropic 3D Nanoscopy based on single emitter switching,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20774–20788 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fetter, R. D.

G. Shtengel, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, J. M. Gillette, S. Manley, R. Sougrat, C. M. Waterman, P. Kanchanawong, M. W. Davidson, R. D. Fetter, and H. F. Hess, “Interferometric fluorescent super-resolution microscopy resolves 3D cellular ultrastructure,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(9), 3125–3130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galbraith, C. G.

G. Shtengel, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, J. M. Gillette, S. Manley, R. Sougrat, C. M. Waterman, P. Kanchanawong, M. W. Davidson, R. D. Fetter, and H. F. Hess, “Interferometric fluorescent super-resolution microscopy resolves 3D cellular ultrastructure,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(9), 3125–3130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shroff, C. G. Galbraith, J. A. Galbraith, H. White, J. Gillette, S. Olenych, M. W. Davidson, and E. Betzig, “Dual-color superresolution imaging of genetically expressed probes within individual adhesion complexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(51), 20308–20313 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galbraith, J. A.

G. Shtengel, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, J. M. Gillette, S. Manley, R. Sougrat, C. M. Waterman, P. Kanchanawong, M. W. Davidson, R. D. Fetter, and H. F. Hess, “Interferometric fluorescent super-resolution microscopy resolves 3D cellular ultrastructure,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(9), 3125–3130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shroff, C. G. Galbraith, J. A. Galbraith, H. White, J. Gillette, S. Olenych, M. W. Davidson, and E. Betzig, “Dual-color superresolution imaging of genetically expressed probes within individual adhesion complexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(51), 20308–20313 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geisler, C.

D. Aquino, A. Schonle, C. Geisler, C. V. Middendorff, C. A. Wurm, Y. Okamura, T. Lang, S. W. Hell, and A. Egner, “Two-color nanoscopy of three-dimensional volumes by 4Pi detection of stochastically switched fluorophores,” Nat. Methods 8(4), 353–359 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. von Middendorff, A. Egner, C. Geisler, S. W. Hell, and A. Schönle, “Isotropic 3D Nanoscopy based on single emitter switching,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20774–20788 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillette, J.

H. Shroff, C. G. Galbraith, J. A. Galbraith, H. White, J. Gillette, S. Olenych, M. W. Davidson, and E. Betzig, “Dual-color superresolution imaging of genetically expressed probes within individual adhesion complexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(51), 20308–20313 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillette, J. M.

G. Shtengel, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, J. M. Gillette, S. Manley, R. Sougrat, C. M. Waterman, P. Kanchanawong, M. W. Davidson, R. D. Fetter, and H. F. Hess, “Interferometric fluorescent super-resolution microscopy resolves 3D cellular ultrastructure,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(9), 3125–3130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girirajan, T. P.

S. T. Hess, T. P. Girirajan, and M. D. Mason, “Ultra-high resolution imaging by fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(11), 4258–4272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gould, T. J.

T. J. Gould, V. V. Verkhusha, and S. T. Hess, “Imaging biological structures with fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy,” Nat. Protoc. 4(3), 291–308 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, and J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Methods 5(6), 527–529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greengard, A.

S. R. P. Pavani, A. Greengard, and R. Piestun, “Three-dimensional localization with nanometer accuracy using a detector-limited double-helix point spread function system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021103–021103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grogger, W.

B. Schaffer, W. Grogger, and G. Kothleitner, “Automated spatial drift correction for EFTEM image series,” Ultramicroscopy 102(1), 27–36 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, J.

S. A. Jones, S.-H. Shim, J. He, and X. Zhuang, “Fast, three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of live cells,” Nat. Methods 8(6), 499–505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heil, T.

T. Heil and H. Kohl, “Optimization of EFTEM image acquisition by using elastically filtered images for drift correction,” Ultramicroscopy 110(7), 745–753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hell, S. W.

D. Aquino, A. Schonle, C. Geisler, C. V. Middendorff, C. A. Wurm, Y. Okamura, T. Lang, S. W. Hell, and A. Egner, “Two-color nanoscopy of three-dimensional volumes by 4Pi detection of stochastically switched fluorophores,” Nat. Methods 8(4), 353–359 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. von Middendorff, A. Egner, C. Geisler, S. W. Hell, and A. Schönle, “Isotropic 3D Nanoscopy based on single emitter switching,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20774–20788 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, H. F.

G. Shtengel, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, J. M. Gillette, S. Manley, R. Sougrat, C. M. Waterman, P. Kanchanawong, M. W. Davidson, R. D. Fetter, and H. F. Hess, “Interferometric fluorescent super-resolution microscopy resolves 3D cellular ultrastructure,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(9), 3125–3130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, S. T.

T. J. Gould, V. V. Verkhusha, and S. T. Hess, “Imaging biological structures with fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy,” Nat. Protoc. 4(3), 291–308 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, and J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Methods 5(6), 527–529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Hess, T. P. Girirajan, and M. D. Mason, “Ultra-high resolution imaging by fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(11), 4258–4272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, B.

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy,” Science 319(5864), 810–813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Huang, S. A. Jones, B. Brandenburg, and X. Zhuang, “Whole-cell 3D STORM reveals interactions between cellular structures with nanometer-scale resolution,” Nat. Methods 5(12), 1047–1052 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bates, B. Huang, G. T. Dempsey, and X. Zhuang, “Multicolor super-resolution imaging with photo-switchable fluorescent probes,” Science 317(5845), 1749–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, S. A.

S. A. Jones, S.-H. Shim, J. He, and X. Zhuang, “Fast, three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of live cells,” Nat. Methods 8(6), 499–505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Huang, S. A. Jones, B. Brandenburg, and X. Zhuang, “Whole-cell 3D STORM reveals interactions between cellular structures with nanometer-scale resolution,” Nat. Methods 5(12), 1047–1052 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juette, M. F.

M. J. Mlodzianoski, M. F. Juette, G. L. Beane, and J. Bewersdorf, “Experimental characterization of 3D localization techniques for particle-tracking and super-resolution microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8264–8277 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, and J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Methods 5(6), 527–529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanchanawong, P.

G. Shtengel, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, J. M. Gillette, S. Manley, R. Sougrat, C. M. Waterman, P. Kanchanawong, M. W. Davidson, R. D. Fetter, and H. F. Hess, “Interferometric fluorescent super-resolution microscopy resolves 3D cellular ultrastructure,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(9), 3125–3130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katz, D. R.

B. S. Salmons, D. R. Katz, and M. L. Trawick, “Correction of distortion due to thermal drift in scanning probe microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 110(4), 339–349 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohl, H.

T. Heil and H. Kohl, “Optimization of EFTEM image acquisition by using elastically filtered images for drift correction,” Ultramicroscopy 110(7), 745–753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kothleitner, G.

B. Schaffer, W. Grogger, and G. Kothleitner, “Automated spatial drift correction for EFTEM image series,” Ultramicroscopy 102(1), 27–36 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kühnle, A.

P. Rahe, R. Bechstein, and A. Kühnle, “Vertical and lateral drift corrections of scanning probe microscopy images,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(3), (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lang, T.

D. Aquino, A. Schonle, C. Geisler, C. V. Middendorff, C. A. Wurm, Y. Okamura, T. Lang, S. W. Hell, and A. Egner, “Two-color nanoscopy of three-dimensional volumes by 4Pi detection of stochastically switched fluorophores,” Nat. Methods 8(4), 353–359 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lessard, M. D.

M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, and J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Methods 5(6), 527–529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindwasser, O. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lippincott-Schwartz, J.

G. Shtengel, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, J. M. Gillette, S. Manley, R. Sougrat, C. M. Waterman, P. Kanchanawong, M. W. Davidson, R. D. Fetter, and H. F. Hess, “Interferometric fluorescent super-resolution microscopy resolves 3D cellular ultrastructure,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(9), 3125–3130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manley, S.

G. Shtengel, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, J. M. Gillette, S. Manley, R. Sougrat, C. M. Waterman, P. Kanchanawong, M. W. Davidson, R. D. Fetter, and H. F. Hess, “Interferometric fluorescent super-resolution microscopy resolves 3D cellular ultrastructure,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(9), 3125–3130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mason, M. D.

S. T. Hess, T. P. Girirajan, and M. D. Mason, “Ultra-high resolution imaging by fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(11), 4258–4272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Middendorff, C. V.

D. Aquino, A. Schonle, C. Geisler, C. V. Middendorff, C. A. Wurm, Y. Okamura, T. Lang, S. W. Hell, and A. Egner, “Two-color nanoscopy of three-dimensional volumes by 4Pi detection of stochastically switched fluorophores,” Nat. Methods 8(4), 353–359 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mlodzianoski, M. J.

M. J. Mlodzianoski, M. F. Juette, G. L. Beane, and J. Bewersdorf, “Experimental characterization of 3D localization techniques for particle-tracking and super-resolution microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8264–8277 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, and J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Methods 5(6), 527–529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagpure, B. S.

M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, and J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Methods 5(6), 527–529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamura, Y.

D. Aquino, A. Schonle, C. Geisler, C. V. Middendorff, C. A. Wurm, Y. Okamura, T. Lang, S. W. Hell, and A. Egner, “Two-color nanoscopy of three-dimensional volumes by 4Pi detection of stochastically switched fluorophores,” Nat. Methods 8(4), 353–359 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olenych, S.

H. Shroff, C. G. Galbraith, J. A. Galbraith, H. White, J. Gillette, S. Olenych, M. W. Davidson, and E. Betzig, “Dual-color superresolution imaging of genetically expressed probes within individual adhesion complexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(51), 20308–20313 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, G. H.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavani, S. R. P.

S. R. P. Pavani, A. Greengard, and R. Piestun, “Three-dimensional localization with nanometer accuracy using a detector-limited double-helix point spread function system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021103–021103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Piestun, R.

S. R. P. Pavani, A. Greengard, and R. Piestun, “Three-dimensional localization with nanometer accuracy using a detector-limited double-helix point spread function system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021103–021103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rahe, P.

P. Rahe, R. Bechstein, and A. Kühnle, “Vertical and lateral drift corrections of scanning probe microscopy images,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(3), (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rust, M. J.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salmons, B. S.

B. S. Salmons, D. R. Katz, and M. L. Trawick, “Correction of distortion due to thermal drift in scanning probe microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 110(4), 339–349 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaffer, B.

B. Schaffer, W. Grogger, and G. Kothleitner, “Automated spatial drift correction for EFTEM image series,” Ultramicroscopy 102(1), 27–36 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schonle, A.

D. Aquino, A. Schonle, C. Geisler, C. V. Middendorff, C. A. Wurm, Y. Okamura, T. Lang, S. W. Hell, and A. Egner, “Two-color nanoscopy of three-dimensional volumes by 4Pi detection of stochastically switched fluorophores,” Nat. Methods 8(4), 353–359 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schönle, A.

Shim, S.-H.

S. A. Jones, S.-H. Shim, J. He, and X. Zhuang, “Fast, three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of live cells,” Nat. Methods 8(6), 499–505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shroff, H.

H. Shroff, C. G. Galbraith, J. A. Galbraith, H. White, J. Gillette, S. Olenych, M. W. Davidson, and E. Betzig, “Dual-color superresolution imaging of genetically expressed probes within individual adhesion complexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(51), 20308–20313 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shtengel, G.

G. Shtengel, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, J. M. Gillette, S. Manley, R. Sougrat, C. M. Waterman, P. Kanchanawong, M. W. Davidson, R. D. Fetter, and H. F. Hess, “Interferometric fluorescent super-resolution microscopy resolves 3D cellular ultrastructure,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(9), 3125–3130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sougrat, R.

G. Shtengel, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, J. M. Gillette, S. Manley, R. Sougrat, C. M. Waterman, P. Kanchanawong, M. W. Davidson, R. D. Fetter, and H. F. Hess, “Interferometric fluorescent super-resolution microscopy resolves 3D cellular ultrastructure,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(9), 3125–3130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toomre, D.

D. Toomre and J. Bewersdorf, “A new wave of cellular imaging,” Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 26(1), 285–314 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trawick, M. L.

B. S. Salmons, D. R. Katz, and M. L. Trawick, “Correction of distortion due to thermal drift in scanning probe microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 110(4), 339–349 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verkhusha, V. V.

T. J. Gould, V. V. Verkhusha, and S. T. Hess, “Imaging biological structures with fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy,” Nat. Protoc. 4(3), 291–308 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Middendorff, C.

Wang, W.

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy,” Science 319(5864), 810–813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waterman, C. M.

G. Shtengel, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, J. M. Gillette, S. Manley, R. Sougrat, C. M. Waterman, P. Kanchanawong, M. W. Davidson, R. D. Fetter, and H. F. Hess, “Interferometric fluorescent super-resolution microscopy resolves 3D cellular ultrastructure,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(9), 3125–3130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, H.

H. Shroff, C. G. Galbraith, J. A. Galbraith, H. White, J. Gillette, S. Olenych, M. W. Davidson, and E. Betzig, “Dual-color superresolution imaging of genetically expressed probes within individual adhesion complexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(51), 20308–20313 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wurm, C. A.

D. Aquino, A. Schonle, C. Geisler, C. V. Middendorff, C. A. Wurm, Y. Okamura, T. Lang, S. W. Hell, and A. Egner, “Two-color nanoscopy of three-dimensional volumes by 4Pi detection of stochastically switched fluorophores,” Nat. Methods 8(4), 353–359 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhuang, X.

S. A. Jones, S.-H. Shim, J. He, and X. Zhuang, “Fast, three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of live cells,” Nat. Methods 8(6), 499–505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy,” Science 319(5864), 810–813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Huang, S. A. Jones, B. Brandenburg, and X. Zhuang, “Whole-cell 3D STORM reveals interactions between cellular structures with nanometer-scale resolution,” Nat. Methods 5(12), 1047–1052 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bates, B. Huang, G. T. Dempsey, and X. Zhuang, “Multicolor super-resolution imaging with photo-switchable fluorescent probes,” Science 317(5845), 1749–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol.

D. Toomre and J. Bewersdorf, “A new wave of cellular imaging,” Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 26(1), 285–314 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. R. P. Pavani, A. Greengard, and R. Piestun, “Three-dimensional localization with nanometer accuracy using a detector-limited double-helix point spread function system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021103–021103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

S. T. Hess, T. P. Girirajan, and M. D. Mason, “Ultra-high resolution imaging by fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(11), 4258–4272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

P. Rahe, R. Bechstein, and A. Kühnle, “Vertical and lateral drift corrections of scanning probe microscopy images,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(3), (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods

B. Huang, S. A. Jones, B. Brandenburg, and X. Zhuang, “Whole-cell 3D STORM reveals interactions between cellular structures with nanometer-scale resolution,” Nat. Methods 5(12), 1047–1052 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, and J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Methods 5(6), 527–529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Aquino, A. Schonle, C. Geisler, C. V. Middendorff, C. A. Wurm, Y. Okamura, T. Lang, S. W. Hell, and A. Egner, “Two-color nanoscopy of three-dimensional volumes by 4Pi detection of stochastically switched fluorophores,” Nat. Methods 8(4), 353–359 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Jones, S.-H. Shim, J. He, and X. Zhuang, “Fast, three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of live cells,” Nat. Methods 8(6), 499–505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Protoc.

T. J. Gould, V. V. Verkhusha, and S. T. Hess, “Imaging biological structures with fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy,” Nat. Protoc. 4(3), 291–308 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

G. Shtengel, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, J. M. Gillette, S. Manley, R. Sougrat, C. M. Waterman, P. Kanchanawong, M. W. Davidson, R. D. Fetter, and H. F. Hess, “Interferometric fluorescent super-resolution microscopy resolves 3D cellular ultrastructure,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(9), 3125–3130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shroff, C. G. Galbraith, J. A. Galbraith, H. White, J. Gillette, S. Olenych, M. W. Davidson, and E. Betzig, “Dual-color superresolution imaging of genetically expressed probes within individual adhesion complexes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(51), 20308–20313 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

M. Bates, B. Huang, G. T. Dempsey, and X. Zhuang, “Multicolor super-resolution imaging with photo-switchable fluorescent probes,” Science 317(5845), 1749–1753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy,” Science 319(5864), 810–813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy

B. Schaffer, W. Grogger, and G. Kothleitner, “Automated spatial drift correction for EFTEM image series,” Ultramicroscopy 102(1), 27–36 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Heil and H. Kohl, “Optimization of EFTEM image acquisition by using elastically filtered images for drift correction,” Ultramicroscopy 110(7), 745–753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Salmons, D. R. Katz, and M. L. Trawick, “Correction of distortion due to thermal drift in scanning probe microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 110(4), 339–349 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulated test structures and influence of drift. (a, b) Projections of the “mitochondria” structure (pixel size 25 nm). (c, d) Projections of the “cytoskeleton” structure (pixel size 10 nm). (e) Overview of drift values as a function of the time interval t applied as offsets to the particle positions. (f-i) Projections corresponding to (a-d) after application of drift values. Both structures consist of 80,000 particles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Drift correction for different structures and numbers of particles. (a) Simulated drift (solid lines/circles) and example of drift determined by the drift correction algorithm (dashed lines/hollow circles). (b) Difference between simulated and detected drift for the mitochondria simulation at n=2,000. (c, d) z and x-projections of the data set after correction of drift. (e-g) Same representation as shown in (b-d) for the cytoskeletal structure. (h-m) Analysis equivalent to (b-g) for n=100 (mitochondria) and n=200 (cytoskeleton). Scale bars are 500 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Examples of projections for different time intervals and the corresponding cross-correlation functions. (a, b) z-projections of the mitochondria simulation for t=0 and t=16. The particles are plotted in 10 nm pixels. (c) Smoothed cross-correlation function of the data displayed in (a) and (b). The cross represents the peak of the autocorrelation function denoting zero drift. (d-f) Data corresponding to (a-c) for the x-projections. (g-l) Equivalent analysis for the cytoskeletal structure. Scale bars are 500 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Standard deviation, σd , of Δd as a function of localization precision ξ and the number of particles n per time interval for the mitochondria simulation. (a, b) Values for x and y-drift. (c, d) Values for z-drift.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Standard deviation, σd , of Δd as a function of localization precision ξ and the number of particles n per time interval for the cytoskeleton simulation. (a, b) Values for x and y-drift. (c, d) Values for z-drift.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mitochondria network in a HepG2 cell labeled by mtEos2 and imaged with a Biplane FPALM instrument after drift correction. Approximately 1 million particles were localized over a 14 µm by 26 µm area and an axial range of ~8 µm. (a) z-projection. The color bar represents the number of detected molecules in each 50 nm pixel. (b) Same data with color-coded axial positions for each molecule. (c) 3D volume rendering using the Vutara SRX software. Scale bars are 1 µm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Biplane FPALM image of mitochondria (red; mtEos2) and nucleoids (green; PS-CFP2-TFAM) in a HepG2 cell prior to and after drift correction, in (a) and (b), respectively. Area denoted by the cyan box in (b) is shown in separate channels in (c, d). The color tables denote numbers of molecules in each 50 nm pixel. The color table is saturated to highlight lower densities. Scale bars are 1 µm.

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