Abstract

We present a monolithic, robustly polarised thulium fibre laser which produces pulses with 25 ns duration and energy of up to 35 µJ. A pulsed 1.55 μm source was used to gain switch the laser at repetition rates of up to 300 kHz, producing average powers of up to 8 W at 2.044 µm. To the best of our knowledge this is the highest power gain-switched thulium fibre laser and it is also the first with a linearly polarised output. The large repetition rate, pulse energy and average power will enable efficient energy extraction from a large mode-area, polarisation maintaining thulium fibre amplifier.

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  1. E. Lippert, H. Fonnum, G. Arisholm, and K. Stenersen, “A 22-watt mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator with V-shaped 3-mirror ring resonator,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26475–26483 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-25-26475 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Hemming, J. Richards, S. Bennetts, A. Davidson, N. Carmody, P. Davies, L. Corena, and D. Lancaster, “A high power hybrid mid-IR laser source”, Opt. Comm., Volume 283, Issue 20, 15 October 2010, Pages 4041–4045 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TVF-50F3X75-1/2/3b92c3b158467ea0330bb874660fd3c9
  3. G. D. Goodno, L. D. Book, and J. E. Rothenberg, “Low-phase-noise, single-frequency, single-mode 608 W thulium fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1204–1206 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-8-1204 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Ehrenreich, R. Leveille, I. Majid, K. Tankala, G. Rines, and P. Moulton, “1-kW, All-glass Tm:fibre Laser” SPIE Phtonics West 2010: LASE, Fibre Lasers VII: Technology, Sysltems and Applications, Conference 7850 http://www.qpeak.com/Meetings/PW%202010%201kW%20Tm_fibre%20laser.pdf
  5. P. G. Schunemann, S. D. Setzler, L. Mohnkern, T. M. Pollak, D. F. Bliss, D. Weyburne, and K. O'Hearn, K, “2.05-μm-laser-pumped orientation-patterned gallium arsenide (OPGaAs) OPO,” Lasers and Electro-Optics,2005. (CLEO). Conference on, vol.3, no., pp. 1835- 1837 Vol. 3, 22–27 May 2005 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1573357&isnumber=33270
  6. C. Kieleck, M. Eichhorn, A. Hirth, D. Faye, and E. Lallier, “High-efficiency 20-50 kHz mid-infrared orientation-patterned GaAs optical parametric oscillator pumped by a 2 microm holmium laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 262–264 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-3-262 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. C. C. Willis, L. Shah, M. Baudelet, P. Kadwani, T. S. McComb, R. A. Sims, V. Sudesh, and M. Richardson, “V. S. and M. Richardson, “High-energy Q-switched Tm3+-doped polarisation maintaining silica fibre laser,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758003, 758003–758006 (2010), http://spiedigitallibrary.org/proceedings/resource/2/psisdg/7580/1/758003_1 .
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Creeden, P. A. Ketteridge, P. Budni, K. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, “Multi-watt mid-IR fiber-pumped OPO,” CLEO/QELS2008. vol., no., pp.1–2, 4–9 May 2008 URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4571926&isnumber=4571172
  9. M. Jiang and P. Tayebati, “Stable 10 ns, kilowatt peak-power pulse generation from a gain-switched Tm-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1797–1799 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-13-1797 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Frith, T. McComb, B. Samson, W. Torruellas, M. Dennis, A. Carter, V. Khitrov, and K. Tankala, “Frequency Doubling of Tm-Doped Fibre Lasers for Efficient 950nm Generation,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper WB5. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ASSP-2009-WB5
  11. N. Jovanovic, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, G. E. Town, S. Bennetts, D. G. Lancaster, and M. J. Withford, “Highly Narrow Linewidth, CW, All-Fibre Oscillator With a Switchable Linear Polarisation,” Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE, vol.20, no.10, pp.809–811, May15, 2008 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4492816&isnumber=4490017
  12. A. Shirakawa, J. Ota, H. Maruyama, and K. Ueda, Linearly-Polarised Yb-Doped Fibre Laser Directly Operating at 1178 nm for 589-nm Generation,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper MD1. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ASSP-2007-MD1
  13. A. Shirakawa, M. Kamijo, and J. Ota, K. -i Ueda, K. Mizuuchi, H. Furuya and K Yamamoto, “Characteristics of Linearly Polarised Yb-Doped Fibre Laser in an All-Fibre Configuration,” Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE, vol.19, no.20, pp.1664–1666, Oct.15, 2007 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4336159&isnumber=4305220
  14. C. P. Spiegelberg, “Compact 100 mW fibre laser with 2 kHz linewidth,” in Optical Fibre Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD45. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD45
  15. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986) Chap. 26.

2010

C. C. C. Willis, L. Shah, M. Baudelet, P. Kadwani, T. S. McComb, R. A. Sims, V. Sudesh, and M. Richardson, “V. S. and M. Richardson, “High-energy Q-switched Tm3+-doped polarisation maintaining silica fibre laser,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758003, 758003–758006 (2010), http://spiedigitallibrary.org/proceedings/resource/2/psisdg/7580/1/758003_1 .
[CrossRef]

E. Lippert, H. Fonnum, G. Arisholm, and K. Stenersen, “A 22-watt mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator with V-shaped 3-mirror ring resonator,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26475–26483 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-25-26475 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2007

Arisholm, G.

Baudelet, M.

C. C. C. Willis, L. Shah, M. Baudelet, P. Kadwani, T. S. McComb, R. A. Sims, V. Sudesh, and M. Richardson, “V. S. and M. Richardson, “High-energy Q-switched Tm3+-doped polarisation maintaining silica fibre laser,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758003, 758003–758006 (2010), http://spiedigitallibrary.org/proceedings/resource/2/psisdg/7580/1/758003_1 .
[CrossRef]

Book, L. D.

Eichhorn, M.

Faye, D.

Fonnum, H.

Goodno, G. D.

Hirth, A.

Jiang, M.

Kadwani, P.

C. C. C. Willis, L. Shah, M. Baudelet, P. Kadwani, T. S. McComb, R. A. Sims, V. Sudesh, and M. Richardson, “V. S. and M. Richardson, “High-energy Q-switched Tm3+-doped polarisation maintaining silica fibre laser,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758003, 758003–758006 (2010), http://spiedigitallibrary.org/proceedings/resource/2/psisdg/7580/1/758003_1 .
[CrossRef]

Kieleck, C.

Lallier, E.

Lippert, E.

McComb, T. S.

C. C. C. Willis, L. Shah, M. Baudelet, P. Kadwani, T. S. McComb, R. A. Sims, V. Sudesh, and M. Richardson, “V. S. and M. Richardson, “High-energy Q-switched Tm3+-doped polarisation maintaining silica fibre laser,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758003, 758003–758006 (2010), http://spiedigitallibrary.org/proceedings/resource/2/psisdg/7580/1/758003_1 .
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

C. C. C. Willis, L. Shah, M. Baudelet, P. Kadwani, T. S. McComb, R. A. Sims, V. Sudesh, and M. Richardson, “V. S. and M. Richardson, “High-energy Q-switched Tm3+-doped polarisation maintaining silica fibre laser,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758003, 758003–758006 (2010), http://spiedigitallibrary.org/proceedings/resource/2/psisdg/7580/1/758003_1 .
[CrossRef]

Rothenberg, J. E.

Shah, L.

C. C. C. Willis, L. Shah, M. Baudelet, P. Kadwani, T. S. McComb, R. A. Sims, V. Sudesh, and M. Richardson, “V. S. and M. Richardson, “High-energy Q-switched Tm3+-doped polarisation maintaining silica fibre laser,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758003, 758003–758006 (2010), http://spiedigitallibrary.org/proceedings/resource/2/psisdg/7580/1/758003_1 .
[CrossRef]

Sims, R. A.

C. C. C. Willis, L. Shah, M. Baudelet, P. Kadwani, T. S. McComb, R. A. Sims, V. Sudesh, and M. Richardson, “V. S. and M. Richardson, “High-energy Q-switched Tm3+-doped polarisation maintaining silica fibre laser,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758003, 758003–758006 (2010), http://spiedigitallibrary.org/proceedings/resource/2/psisdg/7580/1/758003_1 .
[CrossRef]

Stenersen, K.

Sudesh, V.

C. C. C. Willis, L. Shah, M. Baudelet, P. Kadwani, T. S. McComb, R. A. Sims, V. Sudesh, and M. Richardson, “V. S. and M. Richardson, “High-energy Q-switched Tm3+-doped polarisation maintaining silica fibre laser,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758003, 758003–758006 (2010), http://spiedigitallibrary.org/proceedings/resource/2/psisdg/7580/1/758003_1 .
[CrossRef]

Tayebati, P.

Willis, C. C. C.

C. C. C. Willis, L. Shah, M. Baudelet, P. Kadwani, T. S. McComb, R. A. Sims, V. Sudesh, and M. Richardson, “V. S. and M. Richardson, “High-energy Q-switched Tm3+-doped polarisation maintaining silica fibre laser,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758003, 758003–758006 (2010), http://spiedigitallibrary.org/proceedings/resource/2/psisdg/7580/1/758003_1 .
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

C. C. C. Willis, L. Shah, M. Baudelet, P. Kadwani, T. S. McComb, R. A. Sims, V. Sudesh, and M. Richardson, “V. S. and M. Richardson, “High-energy Q-switched Tm3+-doped polarisation maintaining silica fibre laser,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758003, 758003–758006 (2010), http://spiedigitallibrary.org/proceedings/resource/2/psisdg/7580/1/758003_1 .
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Creeden, P. A. Ketteridge, P. Budni, K. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, “Multi-watt mid-IR fiber-pumped OPO,” CLEO/QELS2008. vol., no., pp.1–2, 4–9 May 2008 URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4571926&isnumber=4571172

A. Hemming, J. Richards, S. Bennetts, A. Davidson, N. Carmody, P. Davies, L. Corena, and D. Lancaster, “A high power hybrid mid-IR laser source”, Opt. Comm., Volume 283, Issue 20, 15 October 2010, Pages 4041–4045 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TVF-50F3X75-1/2/3b92c3b158467ea0330bb874660fd3c9

T. Ehrenreich, R. Leveille, I. Majid, K. Tankala, G. Rines, and P. Moulton, “1-kW, All-glass Tm:fibre Laser” SPIE Phtonics West 2010: LASE, Fibre Lasers VII: Technology, Sysltems and Applications, Conference 7850 http://www.qpeak.com/Meetings/PW%202010%201kW%20Tm_fibre%20laser.pdf

P. G. Schunemann, S. D. Setzler, L. Mohnkern, T. M. Pollak, D. F. Bliss, D. Weyburne, and K. O'Hearn, K, “2.05-μm-laser-pumped orientation-patterned gallium arsenide (OPGaAs) OPO,” Lasers and Electro-Optics,2005. (CLEO). Conference on, vol.3, no., pp. 1835- 1837 Vol. 3, 22–27 May 2005 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1573357&isnumber=33270

G. Frith, T. McComb, B. Samson, W. Torruellas, M. Dennis, A. Carter, V. Khitrov, and K. Tankala, “Frequency Doubling of Tm-Doped Fibre Lasers for Efficient 950nm Generation,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper WB5. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ASSP-2009-WB5

N. Jovanovic, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, G. E. Town, S. Bennetts, D. G. Lancaster, and M. J. Withford, “Highly Narrow Linewidth, CW, All-Fibre Oscillator With a Switchable Linear Polarisation,” Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE, vol.20, no.10, pp.809–811, May15, 2008 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4492816&isnumber=4490017

A. Shirakawa, J. Ota, H. Maruyama, and K. Ueda, Linearly-Polarised Yb-Doped Fibre Laser Directly Operating at 1178 nm for 589-nm Generation,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper MD1. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ASSP-2007-MD1

A. Shirakawa, M. Kamijo, and J. Ota, K. -i Ueda, K. Mizuuchi, H. Furuya and K Yamamoto, “Characteristics of Linearly Polarised Yb-Doped Fibre Laser in an All-Fibre Configuration,” Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE, vol.19, no.20, pp.1664–1666, Oct.15, 2007 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4336159&isnumber=4305220

C. P. Spiegelberg, “Compact 100 mW fibre laser with 2 kHz linewidth,” in Optical Fibre Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD45. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2003-PD45

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986) Chap. 26.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of 1550 nm pulsed pump source and gain-switched Thulium fibre laser. Also shown is the 90° splice to the strain tuned output coupler (OC) which enables single polarisation operation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Shown are the grating spectra as measured by an unpolarised source with a spectrum analyser at 0.05 nm resolution. The 2 peaks correspond to the fast and slow axis of the highly birefringent fibre. The gratings were strain tuned during the writing process such that the out-coupler slow axis overlapped with the high reflector’s fast axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The second stage of the 1.55 μm pump operates at a slope efficiency of 34% indicating that the stored energy is extracted efficiently. The power was measured at the output of a passive 10 µm, 0.15 NA core fibre which contained the high reflectivity grating of the Thulium laser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Thulium laser output power vs. 1.55 μm pump power for output coupler reflectivities of 5%, 8% and 10% at a repetition rate of 300 kHz. Inset: Average 2.044 µm output power at different repetition rates.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pulse duration as a function of thulium fibre output energy, Inset: Temporal trace of the pulses from the 1.55 μm seed diode, the 1.55 μm amplifier and the 2.044 µm thulium laser.

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