Abstract

New zirconia-germano-alumino silicate, nano-particles based, Ytterbium doped fibers are obtained through the conventional modified chemical vapour deposition and solution doping techniques. The start fiber preforms are characterized by means of electron micro probe, energy dispersive x-ray, and electron diffraction analyses, revealing the presence of phase-separated nano-sized Ytterbium-rich areas in the core, while the final fibers are inspected in the sense of spectroscopy and laser properties.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (1)

D. L. Griscom, “Trapped-electron centers in pure and doped glassy silica: A review and synthesis,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8-9), 1945–1962 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2009 (4)

G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J.-L. Auguste, and J.-M. Blondy, “Cascade emissions of an erbium-yyterbium doped silica-zirconia nanostructured optical fiber under supercontinuum irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J.-L. Auguste, S. Hautreux, J.-M. Blondy, A. Lecomte, F. Sandoz, and C. Pedrido, “Nanoscaled optical fibre obtained by the sol-gel process in the SiO2–ZrO2 system doped with rare earth ions,” Opt. Mater. 31(5), 765–768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, and M. C. Paul, “Er doped oxide nanoparticles in silica based optical fibres,” Glass Technol.: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. A 50, 79–81 (2009).

Y.-W. Lee, M. J. F. Digonnet, S. Sinha, K. E. Urbanek, R. L. Byer, and S. Jiang, “High-power Yb3+-doped phosphate fiber amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 93–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. J. Koponen, M. J. Soderlund, H. J. Hoffman, D. A. Kliner, J. P. Koplow, and M. Hotoleanu, “Photodarkening rate in Yb-doped silica fibers,” Appl. Opt. 47(9), 1247–1256 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Barua, E. H. Sekiya, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Influences of Yb3+ ion concentration on the spectroscopic properties of silica glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(42-44), 4760–4764 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

V. F. Khopin, A. A. Umnikov, N. N. Vechkanov, A. E. Rozental’, A. N. Gur’yanov, M. M. Bubnov, A. A. Rybaltovskii, A. V. Belov, and E. M. Dianov, “Effect of core glass composition on the optical properties of active fibers,” Inorg. Mater. 41(4), 434–437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Rajala, K. Janka, and P. Kykkänen, “An Industrial method for nanoparticle synthesis with a wide range of compositions,” Adv. Mater. Sci. 5, 493–497 (2003).

2002 (1)

A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion in Er3+:ZrO2 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(8), 1909–1912 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

W. T. Nichols, J. W. Keto, D. E. Henneke, J. R. Brock, G. Malyavanatham, M. F. Becker, and H. D. Glicksman, “Large-scale production of nanocrystals by laser ablation of microparticles in a flowing aerosol,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(8), 1128–1130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, O. McCarthy, A. Martucci, and M. Guglielmi, “Sol-gel fabrication of rare earth doped photonic components,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Tech. (Paris) 19, 231–236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Wilk, R. M. Wallace, and J. M. Anthony, “Hafnium and zirconium silicates for advanced gate dielectrics,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(1), 484–492 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J.St. John stJ. L. Coffer, Y. D. Chen, and R. F. Pinizzotto, “Synthesis and characterization of discrete luminescent erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 1888–1892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.St. John stJ. L. Coffer, Y. D. Chen, and R. F. Pinizzotto, “Synthesis and characterization of discrete luminescent erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 1888–1892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Chryssou, A. J. Kenyon, T. S. Iwayama, C. W. Pitt, and D. E. Hole, “Evidence of energy coupling between Si nanocrystals and Er3+ in ion-implanted silica thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(14), 2011–2013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “Photoluminescence from SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals and Er: Effects of nanocrystalline size on the photoluminescence efficiency of Er3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(8), 4525–4531 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

C. Urlacher, J. Dumas, J. Serughetti, J. Mugnier, and M. Munoz, “Planar ZrO2 waveguides prepared by the sol–gel process: Structural and optical properties,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 8(1-3), 999–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev, O. D. Sazhin, V. V. Brazhkin, and V. A. Sidorov, “Optical absorption and luminescence of germanium oxygen-deficient centers in densified germanosilicate glass,” Opt. Lett. 22(14), 1089–1091 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

V. C. Costa, M. J. Lochhead, and K. L. Bray, “Fluorescence line narrowing study of Eu3+ -doped sol-gel silica,” Chem. Mater. 8(3), 783–790 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. Vomacka, O. Babushkin, and R. Warren, “Zirconia as a nucleating agent in a yttria-alumina-silica glass,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 15(11), 1111–1117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Solution doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 23(7), 329–331 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

P. F. James, “Liquid-phase separation in glass-forming systems,” J. Mater. Sci. 10(10), 1802–1825 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

D. E. Harrison, N. T. Melamed, and E. C. Subbarao, “A new family of self-activated phosphors,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 110(1), 23–28 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1940 (1)

B. E. Warren and A. G. Pines, “Atomic consideration of immiscibility in glass systems,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 23(10), 301–220 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, H.

Ahmad, M. M.

E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, O. McCarthy, A. Martucci, and M. Guglielmi, “Sol-gel fabrication of rare earth doped photonic components,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Tech. (Paris) 19, 231–236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anthony, J. M.

G. D. Wilk, R. M. Wallace, and J. M. Anthony, “Hafnium and zirconium silicates for advanced gate dielectrics,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(1), 484–492 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Auguste, J.-L.

G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J.-L. Auguste, and J.-M. Blondy, “Cascade emissions of an erbium-yyterbium doped silica-zirconia nanostructured optical fiber under supercontinuum irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J.-L. Auguste, S. Hautreux, J.-M. Blondy, A. Lecomte, F. Sandoz, and C. Pedrido, “Nanoscaled optical fibre obtained by the sol-gel process in the SiO2–ZrO2 system doped with rare earth ions,” Opt. Mater. 31(5), 765–768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Babushkin, O.

P. Vomacka, O. Babushkin, and R. Warren, “Zirconia as a nucleating agent in a yttria-alumina-silica glass,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 15(11), 1111–1117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barmenkov, Yu. O.

A. D. Guzman-Chávez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Yu. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photo bleaching of Ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977-nm and 543-nm irradiation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(10), 734–739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barua, P.

P. Barua, E. H. Sekiya, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Influences of Yb3+ ion concentration on the spectroscopic properties of silica glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(42-44), 4760–4764 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Basu, C.

Becker, M. F.

W. T. Nichols, J. W. Keto, D. E. Henneke, J. R. Brock, G. Malyavanatham, M. F. Becker, and H. D. Glicksman, “Large-scale production of nanocrystals by laser ablation of microparticles in a flowing aerosol,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(8), 1128–1130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Belov, A. V.

V. F. Khopin, A. A. Umnikov, N. N. Vechkanov, A. E. Rozental’, A. N. Gur’yanov, M. M. Bubnov, A. A. Rybaltovskii, A. V. Belov, and E. M. Dianov, “Effect of core glass composition on the optical properties of active fibers,” Inorg. Mater. 41(4), 434–437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bhadra, S. K.

M. C. Paul, S. W. Harun, N. A. D. Huri, A. Hamzah, S. Das, M. Pal, S. K. Bhadra, H. Ahmad, S. Yoo, M. P. Kalita, A. J. Boyland, and J. K. Sahu, “Performance comparison of Zr-based and Bi-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2882–2884 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yoo, M. P. Kalita, A. J. Boyland, A. S. Webb, R. J. Standish, J. K. Sahu, M. C. Paul, S. Das, S. K. Bhadra, and M. Pal, “Ytterbium-doped Y2O3 nanoparticle silica optical fibers for high power fiber lasers with suppressed photodarkening,” Opt. Commun. 283(18), 3423–3427 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Blanc, W.

W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, and M. C. Paul, “Er doped oxide nanoparticles in silica based optical fibres,” Glass Technol.: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. A 50, 79–81 (2009).

Blondy, J.-M.

G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J.-L. Auguste, and J.-M. Blondy, “Cascade emissions of an erbium-yyterbium doped silica-zirconia nanostructured optical fiber under supercontinuum irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J.-L. Auguste, S. Hautreux, J.-M. Blondy, A. Lecomte, F. Sandoz, and C. Pedrido, “Nanoscaled optical fibre obtained by the sol-gel process in the SiO2–ZrO2 system doped with rare earth ions,” Opt. Mater. 31(5), 765–768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boyland, A. J.

Brasse, G.

G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J.-L. Auguste, S. Hautreux, J.-M. Blondy, A. Lecomte, F. Sandoz, and C. Pedrido, “Nanoscaled optical fibre obtained by the sol-gel process in the SiO2–ZrO2 system doped with rare earth ions,” Opt. Mater. 31(5), 765–768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J.-L. Auguste, and J.-M. Blondy, “Cascade emissions of an erbium-yyterbium doped silica-zirconia nanostructured optical fiber under supercontinuum irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bray, K. L.

V. C. Costa, M. J. Lochhead, and K. L. Bray, “Fluorescence line narrowing study of Eu3+ -doped sol-gel silica,” Chem. Mater. 8(3), 783–790 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brazhkin, V. V.

Brock, J. R.

W. T. Nichols, J. W. Keto, D. E. Henneke, J. R. Brock, G. Malyavanatham, M. F. Becker, and H. D. Glicksman, “Large-scale production of nanocrystals by laser ablation of microparticles in a flowing aerosol,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(8), 1128–1130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bubnov, M. M.

V. F. Khopin, A. A. Umnikov, N. N. Vechkanov, A. E. Rozental’, A. N. Gur’yanov, M. M. Bubnov, A. A. Rybaltovskii, A. V. Belov, and E. M. Dianov, “Effect of core glass composition on the optical properties of active fibers,” Inorg. Mater. 41(4), 434–437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Y.-W. Lee, M. J. F. Digonnet, S. Sinha, K. E. Urbanek, R. L. Byer, and S. Jiang, “High-power Yb3+-doped phosphate fiber amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 93–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, C. S.

Chen, Y. D.

J.St. John stJ. L. Coffer, Y. D. Chen, and R. F. Pinizzotto, “Synthesis and characterization of discrete luminescent erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 1888–1892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chibisov, A. N.

V. G. Zavodinsky and A. N. Chibisov, “Zirconia nanoparticles and nanostructured systems,” J. Phys: Conference Series 29, 173–176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chryssou, C. E.

C. E. Chryssou, A. J. Kenyon, T. S. Iwayama, C. W. Pitt, and D. E. Hole, “Evidence of energy coupling between Si nanocrystals and Er3+ in ion-implanted silica thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(14), 2011–2013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Coffer, J. L.

J.St. John stJ. L. Coffer, Y. D. Chen, and R. F. Pinizzotto, “Synthesis and characterization of discrete luminescent erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 1888–1892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Costa, V. C.

V. C. Costa, M. J. Lochhead, and K. L. Bray, “Fluorescence line narrowing study of Eu3+ -doped sol-gel silica,” Chem. Mater. 8(3), 783–790 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Croteau, A.

Das, S.

M. C. Paul, S. W. Harun, N. A. D. Huri, A. Hamzah, S. Das, M. Pal, S. K. Bhadra, H. Ahmad, S. Yoo, M. P. Kalita, A. J. Boyland, and J. K. Sahu, “Performance comparison of Zr-based and Bi-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2882–2884 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yoo, M. P. Kalita, A. J. Boyland, A. S. Webb, R. J. Standish, J. K. Sahu, M. C. Paul, S. Das, S. K. Bhadra, and M. Pal, “Ytterbium-doped Y2O3 nanoparticle silica optical fibers for high power fiber lasers with suppressed photodarkening,” Opt. Commun. 283(18), 3423–3427 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

V. F. Khopin, A. A. Umnikov, N. N. Vechkanov, A. E. Rozental’, A. N. Gur’yanov, M. M. Bubnov, A. A. Rybaltovskii, A. V. Belov, and E. M. Dianov, “Effect of core glass composition on the optical properties of active fibers,” Inorg. Mater. 41(4), 434–437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. B. Neustruev, O. D. Sazhin, V. V. Brazhkin, and V. A. Sidorov, “Optical absorption and luminescence of germanium oxygen-deficient centers in densified germanosilicate glass,” Opt. Lett. 22(14), 1089–1091 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Digonnet, M. J. F.

Y.-W. Lee, M. J. F. Digonnet, S. Sinha, K. E. Urbanek, R. L. Byer, and S. Jiang, “High-power Yb3+-doped phosphate fiber amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 93–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dragic, P. D.

Dumas, J.

C. Urlacher, J. Dumas, J. Serughetti, J. Mugnier, and M. Munoz, “Planar ZrO2 waveguides prepared by the sol–gel process: Structural and optical properties,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 8(1-3), 999–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dussardier, B.

W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, and M. C. Paul, “Er doped oxide nanoparticles in silica based optical fibres,” Glass Technol.: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. A 50, 79–81 (2009).

Eden, J. G.

Friend, C. S.

A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion in Er3+:ZrO2 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(8), 1909–1912 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, M.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “Photoluminescence from SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals and Er: Effects of nanocrystalline size on the photoluminescence efficiency of Er3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(8), 4525–4531 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glicksman, H. D.

W. T. Nichols, J. W. Keto, D. E. Henneke, J. R. Brock, G. Malyavanatham, M. F. Becker, and H. D. Glicksman, “Large-scale production of nanocrystals by laser ablation of microparticles in a flowing aerosol,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(8), 1128–1130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Griscom, D. L.

D. L. Griscom, “Trapped-electron centers in pure and doped glassy silica: A review and synthesis,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8-9), 1945–1962 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guglielmi, M.

E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, O. McCarthy, A. Martucci, and M. Guglielmi, “Sol-gel fabrication of rare earth doped photonic components,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Tech. (Paris) 19, 231–236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gur’yanov, A. N.

V. F. Khopin, A. A. Umnikov, N. N. Vechkanov, A. E. Rozental’, A. N. Gur’yanov, M. M. Bubnov, A. A. Rybaltovskii, A. V. Belov, and E. M. Dianov, “Effect of core glass composition on the optical properties of active fibers,” Inorg. Mater. 41(4), 434–437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guzman-Chávez, A. D.

A. D. Guzman-Chávez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Yu. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photo bleaching of Ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977-nm and 543-nm irradiation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(10), 734–739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hamzah, A.

Harrison, D. E.

D. E. Harrison, N. T. Melamed, and E. C. Subbarao, “A new family of self-activated phosphors,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 110(1), 23–28 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Harun, S. W.

Hautreux, S.

G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J.-L. Auguste, S. Hautreux, J.-M. Blondy, A. Lecomte, F. Sandoz, and C. Pedrido, “Nanoscaled optical fibre obtained by the sol-gel process in the SiO2–ZrO2 system doped with rare earth ions,” Opt. Mater. 31(5), 765–768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “Photoluminescence from SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals and Er: Effects of nanocrystalline size on the photoluminescence efficiency of Er3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(8), 4525–4531 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Henneke, D. E.

W. T. Nichols, J. W. Keto, D. E. Henneke, J. R. Brock, G. Malyavanatham, M. F. Becker, and H. D. Glicksman, “Large-scale production of nanocrystals by laser ablation of microparticles in a flowing aerosol,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(8), 1128–1130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, H. J.

Hole, D. E.

C. E. Chryssou, A. J. Kenyon, T. S. Iwayama, C. W. Pitt, and D. E. Hole, “Evidence of energy coupling between Si nanocrystals and Er3+ in ion-implanted silica thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(14), 2011–2013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hotoleanu, M.

Huri, N. A. D.

Ikushima, A. J.

P. Barua, E. H. Sekiya, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Influences of Yb3+ ion concentration on the spectroscopic properties of silica glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(42-44), 4760–4764 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Il’ichev, N. N.

A. D. Guzman-Chávez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Yu. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photo bleaching of Ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977-nm and 543-nm irradiation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(10), 734–739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iwayama, T. S.

C. E. Chryssou, A. J. Kenyon, T. S. Iwayama, C. W. Pitt, and D. E. Hole, “Evidence of energy coupling between Si nanocrystals and Er3+ in ion-implanted silica thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(14), 2011–2013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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P. F. James, “Liquid-phase separation in glass-forming systems,” J. Mater. Sci. 10(10), 1802–1825 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Janka, K.

M. Rajala, K. Janka, and P. Kykkänen, “An Industrial method for nanoparticle synthesis with a wide range of compositions,” Adv. Mater. Sci. 5, 493–497 (2003).

Jetschke, S.

Jiang, S.

Y.-W. Lee, M. J. F. Digonnet, S. Sinha, K. E. Urbanek, R. L. Byer, and S. Jiang, “High-power Yb3+-doped phosphate fiber amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 93–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

John, J.St.

J.St. John stJ. L. Coffer, Y. D. Chen, and R. F. Pinizzotto, “Synthesis and characterization of discrete luminescent erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 1888–1892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kalita, M. P.

S. Yoo, M. P. Kalita, A. J. Boyland, A. S. Webb, R. J. Standish, J. K. Sahu, M. C. Paul, S. Das, S. K. Bhadra, and M. Pal, “Ytterbium-doped Y2O3 nanoparticle silica optical fibers for high power fiber lasers with suppressed photodarkening,” Opt. Commun. 283(18), 3423–3427 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Paul, S. W. Harun, N. A. D. Huri, A. Hamzah, S. Das, M. Pal, S. K. Bhadra, H. Ahmad, S. Yoo, M. P. Kalita, A. J. Boyland, and J. K. Sahu, “Performance comparison of Zr-based and Bi-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2882–2884 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapoor, R.

A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion in Er3+:ZrO2 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(8), 1909–1912 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Keister, K. E.

Kenyon, A. J.

C. E. Chryssou, A. J. Kenyon, T. S. Iwayama, C. W. Pitt, and D. E. Hole, “Evidence of energy coupling between Si nanocrystals and Er3+ in ion-implanted silica thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(14), 2011–2013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Keto, J. W.

W. T. Nichols, J. W. Keto, D. E. Henneke, J. R. Brock, G. Malyavanatham, M. F. Becker, and H. D. Glicksman, “Large-scale production of nanocrystals by laser ablation of microparticles in a flowing aerosol,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(8), 1128–1130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Khopin, V. F.

V. F. Khopin, A. A. Umnikov, N. N. Vechkanov, A. E. Rozental’, A. N. Gur’yanov, M. M. Bubnov, A. A. Rybaltovskii, A. V. Belov, and E. M. Dianov, “Effect of core glass composition on the optical properties of active fibers,” Inorg. Mater. 41(4), 434–437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kir’yanov, A. V.

A. D. Guzman-Chávez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Yu. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photo bleaching of Ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977-nm and 543-nm irradiation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(10), 734–739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kirchhof, J.

Kliner, D. A.

Koplow, J. P.

Koponen, J. J.

Kykkänen, P.

M. Rajala, K. Janka, and P. Kykkänen, “An Industrial method for nanoparticle synthesis with a wide range of compositions,” Adv. Mater. Sci. 5, 493–497 (2003).

Lecomte, A.

G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J.-L. Auguste, S. Hautreux, J.-M. Blondy, A. Lecomte, F. Sandoz, and C. Pedrido, “Nanoscaled optical fibre obtained by the sol-gel process in the SiO2–ZrO2 system doped with rare earth ions,” Opt. Mater. 31(5), 765–768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-W.

Y.-W. Lee, M. J. F. Digonnet, S. Sinha, K. E. Urbanek, R. L. Byer, and S. Jiang, “High-power Yb3+-doped phosphate fiber amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 93–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lochhead, M. J.

V. C. Costa, M. J. Lochhead, and K. L. Bray, “Fluorescence line narrowing study of Eu3+ -doped sol-gel silica,” Chem. Mater. 8(3), 783–790 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Malyavanatham, G.

W. T. Nichols, J. W. Keto, D. E. Henneke, J. R. Brock, G. Malyavanatham, M. F. Becker, and H. D. Glicksman, “Large-scale production of nanocrystals by laser ablation of microparticles in a flowing aerosol,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(8), 1128–1130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Martucci, A.

E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, O. McCarthy, A. Martucci, and M. Guglielmi, “Sol-gel fabrication of rare earth doped photonic components,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Tech. (Paris) 19, 231–236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mashinsky, V. M.

McCarthy, O.

E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, O. McCarthy, A. Martucci, and M. Guglielmi, “Sol-gel fabrication of rare earth doped photonic components,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Tech. (Paris) 19, 231–236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Melamed, N. T.

D. E. Harrison, N. T. Melamed, and E. C. Subbarao, “A new family of self-activated phosphors,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 110(1), 23–28 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Mugnier, J.

C. Urlacher, J. Dumas, J. Serughetti, J. Mugnier, and M. Munoz, “Planar ZrO2 waveguides prepared by the sol–gel process: Structural and optical properties,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 8(1-3), 999–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Munoz, M.

C. Urlacher, J. Dumas, J. Serughetti, J. Mugnier, and M. Munoz, “Planar ZrO2 waveguides prepared by the sol–gel process: Structural and optical properties,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 8(1-3), 999–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Neustruev, V. B.

Nichols, W. T.

W. T. Nichols, J. W. Keto, D. E. Henneke, J. R. Brock, G. Malyavanatham, M. F. Becker, and H. D. Glicksman, “Large-scale production of nanocrystals by laser ablation of microparticles in a flowing aerosol,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(8), 1128–1130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

Pal, M.

M. C. Paul, S. W. Harun, N. A. D. Huri, A. Hamzah, S. Das, M. Pal, S. K. Bhadra, H. Ahmad, S. Yoo, M. P. Kalita, A. J. Boyland, and J. K. Sahu, “Performance comparison of Zr-based and Bi-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2882–2884 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yoo, M. P. Kalita, A. J. Boyland, A. S. Webb, R. J. Standish, J. K. Sahu, M. C. Paul, S. Das, S. K. Bhadra, and M. Pal, “Ytterbium-doped Y2O3 nanoparticle silica optical fibers for high power fiber lasers with suppressed photodarkening,” Opt. Commun. 283(18), 3423–3427 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Patra, A.

A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion in Er3+:ZrO2 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(8), 1909–1912 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Paul, M. C.

M. C. Paul, S. W. Harun, N. A. D. Huri, A. Hamzah, S. Das, M. Pal, S. K. Bhadra, H. Ahmad, S. Yoo, M. P. Kalita, A. J. Boyland, and J. K. Sahu, “Performance comparison of Zr-based and Bi-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2882–2884 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yoo, M. P. Kalita, A. J. Boyland, A. S. Webb, R. J. Standish, J. K. Sahu, M. C. Paul, S. Das, S. K. Bhadra, and M. Pal, “Ytterbium-doped Y2O3 nanoparticle silica optical fibers for high power fiber lasers with suppressed photodarkening,” Opt. Commun. 283(18), 3423–3427 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, and M. C. Paul, “Er doped oxide nanoparticles in silica based optical fibres,” Glass Technol.: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. A 50, 79–81 (2009).

Payne, D.

Payne, D. N.

J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Solution doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 23(7), 329–331 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pedrido, C.

G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J.-L. Auguste, S. Hautreux, J.-M. Blondy, A. Lecomte, F. Sandoz, and C. Pedrido, “Nanoscaled optical fibre obtained by the sol-gel process in the SiO2–ZrO2 system doped with rare earth ions,” Opt. Mater. 31(5), 765–768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pines, A. G.

B. E. Warren and A. G. Pines, “Atomic consideration of immiscibility in glass systems,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 23(10), 301–220 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Pinizzotto, R. F.

J.St. John stJ. L. Coffer, Y. D. Chen, and R. F. Pinizzotto, “Synthesis and characterization of discrete luminescent erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 1888–1892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pitt, C. W.

C. E. Chryssou, A. J. Kenyon, T. S. Iwayama, C. W. Pitt, and D. E. Hole, “Evidence of energy coupling between Si nanocrystals and Er3+ in ion-implanted silica thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(14), 2011–2013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Poole, S. B.

J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Solution doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 23(7), 329–331 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion in Er3+:ZrO2 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(8), 1909–1912 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rajala, M.

M. Rajala, K. Janka, and P. Kykkänen, “An Industrial method for nanoparticle synthesis with a wide range of compositions,” Adv. Mater. Sci. 5, 493–497 (2003).

Restoin, C.

G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J.-L. Auguste, and J.-M. Blondy, “Cascade emissions of an erbium-yyterbium doped silica-zirconia nanostructured optical fiber under supercontinuum irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J.-L. Auguste, S. Hautreux, J.-M. Blondy, A. Lecomte, F. Sandoz, and C. Pedrido, “Nanoscaled optical fibre obtained by the sol-gel process in the SiO2–ZrO2 system doped with rare earth ions,” Opt. Mater. 31(5), 765–768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ropke, U.

Rozental’, A. E.

V. F. Khopin, A. A. Umnikov, N. N. Vechkanov, A. E. Rozental’, A. N. Gur’yanov, M. M. Bubnov, A. A. Rybaltovskii, A. V. Belov, and E. M. Dianov, “Effect of core glass composition on the optical properties of active fibers,” Inorg. Mater. 41(4), 434–437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rybaltovskii, A. A.

V. F. Khopin, A. A. Umnikov, N. N. Vechkanov, A. E. Rozental’, A. N. Gur’yanov, M. M. Bubnov, A. A. Rybaltovskii, A. V. Belov, and E. M. Dianov, “Effect of core glass composition on the optical properties of active fibers,” Inorg. Mater. 41(4), 434–437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, J. K.

Saito, K.

P. Barua, E. H. Sekiya, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Influences of Yb3+ ion concentration on the spectroscopic properties of silica glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(42-44), 4760–4764 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sandoz, F.

G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J.-L. Auguste, S. Hautreux, J.-M. Blondy, A. Lecomte, F. Sandoz, and C. Pedrido, “Nanoscaled optical fibre obtained by the sol-gel process in the SiO2–ZrO2 system doped with rare earth ions,” Opt. Mater. 31(5), 765–768 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sazhin, O. D.

Sekiya, E. H.

P. Barua, E. H. Sekiya, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Influences of Yb3+ ion concentration on the spectroscopic properties of silica glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(42-44), 4760–4764 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Serughetti, J.

C. Urlacher, J. Dumas, J. Serughetti, J. Mugnier, and M. Munoz, “Planar ZrO2 waveguides prepared by the sol–gel process: Structural and optical properties,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 8(1-3), 999–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sidorov, V. A.

Sinha, S.

Y.-W. Lee, M. J. F. Digonnet, S. Sinha, K. E. Urbanek, R. L. Byer, and S. Jiang, “High-power Yb3+-doped phosphate fiber amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 93–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soderlund, M. J.

Söderlund, M. J.

Sones, C.

Standish, R. J.

S. Yoo, M. P. Kalita, A. J. Boyland, A. S. Webb, R. J. Standish, J. K. Sahu, M. C. Paul, S. Das, S. K. Bhadra, and M. Pal, “Ytterbium-doped Y2O3 nanoparticle silica optical fibers for high power fiber lasers with suppressed photodarkening,” Opt. Commun. 283(18), 3423–3427 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Subbarao, E. C.

D. E. Harrison, N. T. Melamed, and E. C. Subbarao, “A new family of self-activated phosphors,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 110(1), 23–28 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Tammela, S. K. T.

Townsend, J. E.

J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Solution doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 23(7), 329–331 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Umnikov, A. A.

V. F. Khopin, A. A. Umnikov, N. N. Vechkanov, A. E. Rozental’, A. N. Gur’yanov, M. M. Bubnov, A. A. Rybaltovskii, A. V. Belov, and E. M. Dianov, “Effect of core glass composition on the optical properties of active fibers,” Inorg. Mater. 41(4), 434–437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Unger, S.

Urbanek, K. E.

Y.-W. Lee, M. J. F. Digonnet, S. Sinha, K. E. Urbanek, R. L. Byer, and S. Jiang, “High-power Yb3+-doped phosphate fiber amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 93–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Urlacher, C.

C. Urlacher, J. Dumas, J. Serughetti, J. Mugnier, and M. Munoz, “Planar ZrO2 waveguides prepared by the sol–gel process: Structural and optical properties,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 8(1-3), 999–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vechkanov, N. N.

V. F. Khopin, A. A. Umnikov, N. N. Vechkanov, A. E. Rozental’, A. N. Gur’yanov, M. M. Bubnov, A. A. Rybaltovskii, A. V. Belov, and E. M. Dianov, “Effect of core glass composition on the optical properties of active fibers,” Inorg. Mater. 41(4), 434–437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vomacka, P.

P. Vomacka, O. Babushkin, and R. Warren, “Zirconia as a nucleating agent in a yttria-alumina-silica glass,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 15(11), 1111–1117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, R. M.

G. D. Wilk, R. M. Wallace, and J. M. Anthony, “Hafnium and zirconium silicates for advanced gate dielectrics,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(1), 484–492 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Warren, B. E.

B. E. Warren and A. G. Pines, “Atomic consideration of immiscibility in glass systems,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 23(10), 301–220 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Warren, R.

P. Vomacka, O. Babushkin, and R. Warren, “Zirconia as a nucleating agent in a yttria-alumina-silica glass,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 15(11), 1111–1117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Webb, A. S.

S. Yoo, M. P. Kalita, A. J. Boyland, A. S. Webb, R. J. Standish, J. K. Sahu, M. C. Paul, S. Das, S. K. Bhadra, and M. Pal, “Ytterbium-doped Y2O3 nanoparticle silica optical fibers for high power fiber lasers with suppressed photodarkening,” Opt. Commun. 283(18), 3423–3427 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wilk, G. D.

G. D. Wilk, R. M. Wallace, and J. M. Anthony, “Hafnium and zirconium silicates for advanced gate dielectrics,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(1), 484–492 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “Photoluminescence from SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals and Er: Effects of nanocrystalline size on the photoluminescence efficiency of Er3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(8), 4525–4531 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yeatman, E. M.

E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, O. McCarthy, A. Martucci, and M. Guglielmi, “Sol-gel fabrication of rare earth doped photonic components,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Tech. (Paris) 19, 231–236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S.

Yoshida, M.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “Photoluminescence from SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals and Er: Effects of nanocrystalline size on the photoluminescence efficiency of Er3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(8), 4525–4531 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zavodinsky, V. G.

V. G. Zavodinsky and A. N. Chibisov, “Zirconia nanoparticles and nanostructured systems,” J. Phys: Conference Series 29, 173–176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. Sci. (1)

M. Rajala, K. Janka, and P. Kykkänen, “An Industrial method for nanoparticle synthesis with a wide range of compositions,” Adv. Mater. Sci. 5, 493–497 (2003).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. E. Chryssou, A. J. Kenyon, T. S. Iwayama, C. W. Pitt, and D. E. Hole, “Evidence of energy coupling between Si nanocrystals and Er3+ in ion-implanted silica thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(14), 2011–2013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Nichols, J. W. Keto, D. E. Henneke, J. R. Brock, G. Malyavanatham, M. F. Becker, and H. D. Glicksman, “Large-scale production of nanocrystals by laser ablation of microparticles in a flowing aerosol,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(8), 1128–1130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J.-L. Auguste, and J.-M. Blondy, “Cascade emissions of an erbium-yyterbium doped silica-zirconia nanostructured optical fiber under supercontinuum irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

V. C. Costa, M. J. Lochhead, and K. L. Bray, “Fluorescence line narrowing study of Eu3+ -doped sol-gel silica,” Chem. Mater. 8(3), 783–790 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Solution doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 23(7), 329–331 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Glass Technol.: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. A (1)

W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, and M. C. Paul, “Er doped oxide nanoparticles in silica based optical fibres,” Glass Technol.: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. A 50, 79–81 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y.-W. Lee, M. J. F. Digonnet, S. Sinha, K. E. Urbanek, R. L. Byer, and S. Jiang, “High-power Yb3+-doped phosphate fiber amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 93–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Inorg. Mater. (1)

V. F. Khopin, A. A. Umnikov, N. N. Vechkanov, A. E. Rozental’, A. N. Gur’yanov, M. M. Bubnov, A. A. Rybaltovskii, A. V. Belov, and E. M. Dianov, “Effect of core glass composition on the optical properties of active fibers,” Inorg. Mater. 41(4), 434–437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

B. E. Warren and A. G. Pines, “Atomic consideration of immiscibility in glass systems,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 23(10), 301–220 (1940).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

J.St. John stJ. L. Coffer, Y. D. Chen, and R. F. Pinizzotto, “Synthesis and characterization of discrete luminescent erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 1888–1892 (1999).
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J. Appl. Phys. (2)

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Distributions of doping levels of GeO2 (a), Al2O3 (b), ZrO2 (c), and Yb2O3 (d) across the core area of optical fiber preforms SM-1 and SM-2 obtained from EPMA.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

TEM pictures of the neck-down preform (SM-1) which comes out from the electrically controlled furnace of fiber drawing tower after its heating at 2000°C before drawing of fiber. Shown are the different areas (from right to left): (a) center of the core; (b) the region between core and core-cladding interface; (c) the core-cladding interface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TEM pictures of the neck-down preform (SM-2) which comes out from the electrically controlled furnace of fiber drawing tower after its heating at 2000°C before drawing of fiber. The different areas are shown from right to left: (a) center of the core; (b) the region between core and core-cladding interface; (c) the core-cladding interface. Inset – the electron diffraction pattern.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Refractive index profile of the nano-engineered YF SM-2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

TEM pictures of the nano-engineered YF SM-1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

EDX spectra taken out (a) and on (b) of the particles in center of the core region (preform SM-2).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Attenuation spectra of SM-1 (red curve) and SM-2 (blue curve) YFs. Inset demonstrates the spectral details originated from other than Yb3+ features.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Attenuation (a) and fluorescence (b) spectra of SM-2 (blue curves 1) and “standard” Yb:Al:Ge (gray curves 2) YFs, having comparable contents of Yb3+ ions. All the spectra are normalized on the peak values of absorption and fluorescence (at 975-nm excitation).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental fluorescence decay kinetics (symbols) of SM-1 (a) and SM-2 (b) YFs after excitation at 975-nm wavelength. Plain curves are single-exponent fits of the data.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental setup employed in the emission spectra measurements.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Emission spectra (main frames) and saturation curves (insets) obtained for SM-1 (a) and SM-2 (b) YFs.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Experimental setups for laser performance of YFs: Shown are the laser configurations with 100 & 4% couplers (a) and 100 & 10% couplers (b).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Pump-power dependent lasing spectra of YF-based lasers obtained at the laser configuration with 100 & 4% couplers (a) and at the one with 100 & 10% couplers (b). Levels of pump power are given in insets to the figures.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Laser performances of YF-based lasers: Red (2,4) and blue (1,3) curves relate to SM-1 and SM-2 YFs, respectively. Curves 1 and 2 are for the laser configuration with 100 & 4% couplers and curves 3 and 4 – for the one with 100 & 10% couplers. Laser slope efficiencies are 64 (curve 1); 72 (curve 2); 29 (curve 3); 51 (curve 4) %.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Temporal behaviors of normalized transmitted power at 633 nm at CW pumping (975 nm, 255 mW) of SM-1 and SM-2 YFs.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

The examples of difference (PD loss) spectra obtained for SM-1 (a) and SM-2 (b) YFs after 10 and 90 min of 975-nm pumping.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Doping levels within core regions of preforms

Tables Icon

Table 2 Final fiber parameters

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