Abstract

In this paper we present a novel technological approach for the fabrication of multilevel gratings in the resonance domain. A coded chromium mask is used to avoid alignment errors in electron beam lithography, which typically occur within the standard multistep binary micro-optics technology. The lateral features of all phase levels of the grating are encoded in a single chromium mask. The final profile of the structure is obtained by selective etching process for each level. This new technological method is applied for the fabrication of two different three-level gratings in resonance domain. The corresponding optical response as well as structural characterizations are presented and discussed. In particular, a first order diffraction efficiency of 90% is demonstrated for a grating period twice the wavelength at normal incidence.

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2010

2006

2000

C. David, “Fabrication of stair-case profiles with high aspect ratios for blazed diffractive optical elements,” Microelectron. Eng. 53(1-4), 677–680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M.-S. L. Lee, P. Lalanne, J.-C. Rodier, and E. Cambril, “Wide-field-angle behavior of blazed-binary gratings in the resonance domain,” Opt. Lett. 25(23), 1690–1692 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

1998

1997

M. B. Fleming and M. C. Hutley, “Blazed diffractive optics,” Appl. Opt. 36(20), 4635–4643 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kuittinen and J. Turunen, “Mask misalignment in photolithographic fabrication of resonance-domain diffractive elements,” Opt. Commun. 142(1-3), 14–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992

Astilean, S.

Benkenstein, T.

M. Oliva, D. Michaelis, T. Benkenstein, J. Dunkel, T. Harzendorf, A. Matthes, and U. D. Zeitner, “Highly efficient three-level blazed grating in the resonance domain,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2774–2776 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Oliva, T. Benkenstein, J. Dunkel, T. Harzendorf, A. Matthes, D. Michaelis, and U. D. Zeitner, “Smart technology for blazed multilevel gratings in resonance domain,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77161L (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, R.

Cambril, E.

Chavel, P.

David, C.

C. David, “Fabrication of stair-case profiles with high aspect ratios for blazed diffractive optical elements,” Microelectron. Eng. 53(1-4), 677–680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dunkel, J.

M. Oliva, T. Benkenstein, J. Dunkel, T. Harzendorf, A. Matthes, D. Michaelis, and U. D. Zeitner, “Smart technology for blazed multilevel gratings in resonance domain,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77161L (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Oliva, D. Michaelis, T. Benkenstein, J. Dunkel, T. Harzendorf, A. Matthes, and U. D. Zeitner, “Highly efficient three-level blazed grating in the resonance domain,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2774–2776 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

Erdmann, M.

U. D. Zeitner, D. Michaelis, E.-B. Kley, and M. Erdmann, “High performance gratings for space applications,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77161K (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, M. B.

Fujikawa, H.

Harzendorf, T.

M. Oliva, D. Michaelis, T. Benkenstein, J. Dunkel, T. Harzendorf, A. Matthes, and U. D. Zeitner, “Highly efficient three-level blazed grating in the resonance domain,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2774–2776 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Oliva, T. Benkenstein, J. Dunkel, T. Harzendorf, A. Matthes, D. Michaelis, and U. D. Zeitner, “Smart technology for blazed multilevel gratings in resonance domain,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77161L (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hutley, M. C.

Hyvärinen, H. J.

Iizuka, H.

Karvinen, P.

Kley, E. B.

U. D. Zeitner and E. B. Kley, “Advanced lithography for micro-optics,” Proc. SPIE 6290, 629009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E.-B.

U. D. Zeitner, D. Michaelis, E.-B. Kley, and M. Erdmann, “High performance gratings for space applications,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77161K (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuittinen, M.

M. Kuittinen and J. Turunen, “Mask misalignment in photolithographic fabrication of resonance-domain diffractive elements,” Opt. Commun. 142(1-3), 14–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

Launois, H.

Lee, M.-S. L.

Matthes, A.

M. Oliva, D. Michaelis, T. Benkenstein, J. Dunkel, T. Harzendorf, A. Matthes, and U. D. Zeitner, “Highly efficient three-level blazed grating in the resonance domain,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2774–2776 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Oliva, T. Benkenstein, J. Dunkel, T. Harzendorf, A. Matthes, D. Michaelis, and U. D. Zeitner, “Smart technology for blazed multilevel gratings in resonance domain,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77161L (2010).
[CrossRef]

Michaelis, D.

M. Oliva, T. Benkenstein, J. Dunkel, T. Harzendorf, A. Matthes, D. Michaelis, and U. D. Zeitner, “Smart technology for blazed multilevel gratings in resonance domain,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77161L (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. D. Zeitner, D. Michaelis, E.-B. Kley, and M. Erdmann, “High performance gratings for space applications,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77161K (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Oliva, D. Michaelis, T. Benkenstein, J. Dunkel, T. Harzendorf, A. Matthes, and U. D. Zeitner, “Highly efficient three-level blazed grating in the resonance domain,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2774–2776 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noponen, E.

Oliva, M.

M. Oliva, T. Benkenstein, J. Dunkel, T. Harzendorf, A. Matthes, D. Michaelis, and U. D. Zeitner, “Smart technology for blazed multilevel gratings in resonance domain,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77161L (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Oliva, D. Michaelis, T. Benkenstein, J. Dunkel, T. Harzendorf, A. Matthes, and U. D. Zeitner, “Highly efficient three-level blazed grating in the resonance domain,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2774–2776 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pätz, D.

Rodier, J.-C.

Ruoff, J.

Sandfuchs, O.

Sato, K.

Sinzinger, S.

Takeda, Y.

Turunen, J.

Vasara, A.

Zeitner, U. D.

U. D. Zeitner, D. Michaelis, E.-B. Kley, and M. Erdmann, “High performance gratings for space applications,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77161K (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Oliva, T. Benkenstein, J. Dunkel, T. Harzendorf, A. Matthes, D. Michaelis, and U. D. Zeitner, “Smart technology for blazed multilevel gratings in resonance domain,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77161L (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Oliva, D. Michaelis, T. Benkenstein, J. Dunkel, T. Harzendorf, A. Matthes, and U. D. Zeitner, “Highly efficient three-level blazed grating in the resonance domain,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2774–2776 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. D. Zeitner and E. B. Kley, “Advanced lithography for micro-optics,” Proc. SPIE 6290, 629009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Microelectron. Eng.

C. David, “Fabrication of stair-case profiles with high aspect ratios for blazed diffractive optical elements,” Microelectron. Eng. 53(1-4), 677–680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. Kuittinen and J. Turunen, “Mask misalignment in photolithographic fabrication of resonance-domain diffractive elements,” Opt. Commun. 142(1-3), 14–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

U. D. Zeitner, D. Michaelis, E.-B. Kley, and M. Erdmann, “High performance gratings for space applications,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77161K (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Oliva, T. Benkenstein, J. Dunkel, T. Harzendorf, A. Matthes, D. Michaelis, and U. D. Zeitner, “Smart technology for blazed multilevel gratings in resonance domain,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 77161L (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. D. Zeitner and E. B. Kley, “Advanced lithography for micro-optics,” Proc. SPIE 6290, 629009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. J. Swanson, “Binary optics technology: theoretical limits on the diffraction efficiency of multilevel diffractive elements,” MIT Tech. rep. 914 (MIT, 1989).

M. B. Stern, “Binary optics fabrication,” in Microoptics: Elements, Systems and Application, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, 1997), pp. 53–85.

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