Abstract

10 Gbit/s silicon modulator based on carrier depletion in interdigitated PN junctions is experimentally demonstrated. The phase-shifter is integrated in a ring resonator, and high extinction ratio larger than 10 dB is obtained in both TE and TM polarizations. VπLπ of about 2.5 V × cm and optical loss lower than 1 dB are estimated. 10 Gbit/s data transmission is demonstrated with an extinction ratio of 4 dB.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. S. Koehl, A. Liu, and M. Paniccia, “Integrated silicon photonics: harnessing the data explosion,” Opt. Photon. News 22(3), 24–39 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, F. Milesi, and J.-M. Fédéli, “High speed silicon optical modulator with self aligned fabrication process,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19064–19069 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators an germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25 µm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. W. Park, J.-B. You, I. G. Kim, and G. Kim, “High-modulation efficiency silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator based on carrier depletion in a PN Diode,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15520–15524 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Rasigade, M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, J. M. Fédéli, F. Milesi, P. Grosse, D. Bouville, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “High extinction ratio 10 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” Opt. Express 19(7), 5827–5832 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11804–11814 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Y. Gardes, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. O’Faolain, F. Dong, J. M. Fédéli, P. Dumon, L. Vivien, T. F. Krauss, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High-speed modulation of a compact silicon ring resonator based on a reverse-biased pn diode,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21986–21991 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and E. Cassan, “Performance evolutions of carrier depletion silicon optical modulators: from PN to PIPIN diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 179–184 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z.-Y. Li, D.-X. Xu, W. R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and J.-Z. Yu, “Silicon waveguide modulator based on carrier depletion in periodically interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15947–15958 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, M. Ziebell, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Analytical model for depletion-based silicon modulator simulation,” Opt. Express 19(5), 3919–3924 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

2010 (4)

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25 µm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, F. Milesi, and J.-M. Fédéli, “High speed silicon optical modulator with self aligned fabrication process,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19064–19069 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators an germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and E. Cassan, “Performance evolutions of carrier depletion silicon optical modulators: from PN to PIPIN diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 179–184 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

2007 (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ang, K.-W.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators an germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bouville, D.

Brimont, A.

Cassan, E.

Cheben, P.

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

Dong, F.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

Emerson, N. G.

Fang, Q.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators an germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fédéli, J. M.

Fédéli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Gardes, F. Y.

Grosse, P.

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

Kim, G.

Kim, I. G.

Koehl, S.

S. Koehl, A. Liu, and M. Paniccia, “Integrated silicon photonics: harnessing the data explosion,” Opt. Photon. News 22(3), 24–39 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kung, C.-C.

Kwong, D.-L.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators an germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Li, Z.-Y.

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, S.

Liow, T.-Y.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators an germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

S. Koehl, A. Liu, and M. Paniccia, “Integrated silicon photonics: harnessing the data explosion,” Opt. Photon. News 22(3), 24–39 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G.-Q.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators an germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

Martí, J.

McKinnon, W. R.

Milesi, F.

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O’Faolain, L.

Paniccia, M.

S. Koehl, A. Liu, and M. Paniccia, “Integrated silicon photonics: harnessing the data explosion,” Opt. Photon. News 22(3), 24–39 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. W.

Qian, W.

Rasigade, G.

Reed, G. T.

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanchis, P.

Schmid, J. H.

Shafiiha, R.

Song, J.-F.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators an germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D. J.

Vivien, L.

Xiong, Y.-Z.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators an germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.-X.

You, J.-B.

Yu, J.-Z.

Yu, M.-B.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators an germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

Ziebell, M.

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators an germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and E. Cassan, “Performance evolutions of carrier depletion silicon optical modulators: from PN to PIPIN diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 179–184 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (9)

J. W. Park, J.-B. You, I. G. Kim, and G. Kim, “High-modulation efficiency silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator based on carrier depletion in a PN Diode,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15520–15524 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.-Y. Li, D.-X. Xu, W. R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and J.-Z. Yu, “Silicon waveguide modulator based on carrier depletion in periodically interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15947–15958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Y. Gardes, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. O’Faolain, F. Dong, J. M. Fédéli, P. Dumon, L. Vivien, T. F. Krauss, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High-speed modulation of a compact silicon ring resonator based on a reverse-biased pn diode,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21986–21991 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25 µm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, F. Milesi, and J.-M. Fédéli, “High speed silicon optical modulator with self aligned fabrication process,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19064–19069 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, M. Ziebell, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Analytical model for depletion-based silicon modulator simulation,” Opt. Express 19(5), 3919–3924 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rasigade, M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, J. M. Fédéli, F. Milesi, P. Grosse, D. Bouville, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “High extinction ratio 10 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” Opt. Express 19(7), 5827–5832 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11804–11814 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Photon. News (1)

S. Koehl, A. Liu, and M. Paniccia, “Integrated silicon photonics: harnessing the data explosion,” Opt. Photon. News 22(3), 24–39 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) and (b) Top views of the ring resonator reporting the series of P and N regions along the ring (c) Schematic 3D view of the phase shifter with periodically PN junctions along the waveguide. P+ and N+ regions between the waveguide and the contacts are not represented here for clarity purposes. White-colored regions in the waveguide represent non-intentionally doped silicon (d) Optical microscope view of the fabricated ring resonator modulator. The silicon rib waveguide width is 420 nm, the height is 390 nm and the etching depth is 290 nm, respectively. The lengths of P and N regions are 400 nm and 300 nm, respectively. Ring resonator radius is 50 µm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized transmission of ring resonator modulator as a function of the wavelength for different applied reverse bias for (a) TE polarization: maximum ER = 11dB at 1546.695 nm and (b) TM polarization: maximum ER = 10 dB at 1549.71 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Effective index variation as a function of the reverse bias deduced from Fig. 2. (b): VπLπ as a function of the reverse bias deduced from (a). Both TE and TM polarizations are reported.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

10 Gbit/s optical eye diagram (a): TE polarization, (b): TM polarization.

Equations (1)

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Energy/bit = C × V p p 2 4

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