Abstract

A tunable multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium comb fiber laser with ultra-narrow wavelength spacing and a large wavelength number, employing a 135-m highly nonlinear fiber, has been experimentally demonstrated. The simultaneous presence of Brillouin pump and Stokes lines within the ring cavity initiate higher-order Stokes and anti-Stokes lines via multiple four-wave mixing processes. The experiment demonstrates that this is an effective solution of increasing the number of lasing lines. Up to 150 lasing lines in single-longitudinal-mode operation with a rigid wavelength spacing of 0.075 nm have been achieved at 1480 nm pump powers of 165 mW and Brillouin pump power of 12.0 dBm. The multiwavelength source exhibits a good stability on both the operating wavelengths and the output powers, and a 6-nm tuning range from 1562 nm to 1568 nm is obtained.

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  1. L. Zhan, J. H. Ji, J. Xia, S. Y. Luo, and Y. X. Xia, “160-line multiwavelength generation of linear-cavity self-seeded Brillouin-ebium fiber laser,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10233–10238 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Z. Zhang, L. Zhan, and Y. Xia, “Tunable self-seeded multiwavelength Brillouin-Erbium fiber laser with enhanced power efficiency,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9731–9736 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. J. Song, L. Zhan, J. H. Ji, Y. Su, Q. H. Ye, and Y. X. Xia, “Self-seeded multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 486–488 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. G. Han and S. B. Lee, “Flexibly tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on four-wave mixing effect in dispersion-shifted fibers,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10134–10139 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Li and L. R. Chen, “Tunable and reconfigurable multiwavelength fiber optical parametric oscillator with 25 GHz spacing,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1872–1874 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. M. H. Al-Mansoori, S. J. Iqbal, M. K. Abdullah, and M. A. Mahdi, “Low threshold characteristics of an L-band Brillouin-erbium comb fiber laser in a linear cavity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(11), 2281–2284 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. M. A. Mahdi, M. H. Al-Mansoori, and M. Premaratne, “Enhancement of multiwavelength generation in the L-band by using a novel Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with a passive EDF booster section,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11570–11575 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. H. Al-Mansoori and M. A. Mahdi, “Multiwavelength L-band Brillouin–erbium comb fiber laser utilizing nonlinearamplifying loop mirror,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(22), 5038–5044 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. H. Al-Mansoori, M. A. Mahdi, and M. Premaratne, “Novel multiwavelength L-band Brillouin-erbium fiber laser utilizing double-pass brillouin pump preamplified technique,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 415–421 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Y. Stepanov and G. J. Cowle, “30-channel 10-GHz laser comb from a multiline Brillouin/erbium fiber laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol 11 of 1997 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper CTuG6.
  21. M. Ajiya, M. A. Mahdi, M. H. Al-Mansoori, M. Mokhtar, and S. Hitam, “Broadly tunable multiple wavelength Brillouin fiber laser exploiting erbium amplification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(9), 1789–1794 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. X. Liu, X. Zhou, and C. Lu, “Four-wave mixing assisted stability enhancement: theory, experiment, and application,” Opt. Lett. 30(17), 2257–2259 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. X. Liu and C. Lu, “Self-stabilizing effect of four-wave mixing and its applications on multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2541–2543 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Y.-G. Han, T. V. A. Tran, and S. B. Lee, “Wavelength-spacing tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on four-wave mixing of dispersion-shifted fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 697–699 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. Y. Stepanov and G. J. Cowle, “Properties of Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(4), 1049–1057 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (4)

M. H. Al-Mansoori and M. A. Mahdi, “Multiwavelength L-band Brillouin–erbium comb fiber laser utilizing nonlinearamplifying loop mirror,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(22), 5038–5044 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Al-Mansoori, M. A. Mahdi, and M. Premaratne, “Novel multiwavelength L-band Brillouin-erbium fiber laser utilizing double-pass brillouin pump preamplified technique,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 415–421 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Shahi, S. W. Harun, and H. Ahmad, “Multi-wavelength Brillouin fiber laser using a holey fiber and a bismuth-oxide based erbium-doped fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(6), 454–457 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ajiya, M. A. Mahdi, M. H. Al-Mansoori, M. Mokhtar, and S. Hitam, “Broadly tunable multiple wavelength Brillouin fiber laser exploiting erbium amplification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(9), 1789–1794 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Y. Huang, L. Zhan, J. H. Ji, S. Y. Luo, and Y. Xia, “Multiwavelength self-seeded Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with 45-nm tunable range,” Opt. Commun. 281(3), 452–456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Liu, D. N. Wang, and X. Y. Dong, “Stable room-temperature multi-wavelength lasing oscillations in a Brillouin-Raman fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 281(21), 5400–5404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (4)

2005 (6)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Sun, J. Qiu, and D. Huang, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers exploiting polarization hole burning,” Opt. Commun. 182(1–3), 193–197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

G. J. Cowie, D. Yu, and Y.-T. Chieng, “Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(7), 1198–1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Stepanov and G. J. Cowle, “Properties of Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(4), 1049–1057 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Abd-Rahman, M. K.

Abdullah, M. K.

Ahmad, H.

S. Shahi, S. W. Harun, and H. Ahmad, “Multi-wavelength Brillouin fiber laser using a holey fiber and a bismuth-oxide based erbium-doped fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(6), 454–457 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J. T.

Ajiya, M.

Al-Mansoori, M. H.

Andrekson, P. A.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blake, M.

J. Geng, S. Staines, Z. Wang, J. Zong, M. Blake, and S. Jiang, “Highly stable low-noise Brillouin fiber laser with ultranarrow spectral linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1813–1815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. R.

Chieng, Y.-T.

G. J. Cowie, D. Yu, and Y.-T. Chieng, “Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(7), 1198–1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cowie, G. J.

G. J. Cowie, D. Yu, and Y.-T. Chieng, “Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(7), 1198–1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cowle, G. J.

D. Y. Stepanov and G. J. Cowle, “Properties of Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(4), 1049–1057 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Cowle and D. Y. Stepanov, “Hybrid Brillouin/erbium fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(16), 1250–1252 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culshaw, B.

Dong, X. Y.

Y. G. Liu, D. N. Wang, and X. Y. Dong, “Stable room-temperature multi-wavelength lasing oscillations in a Brillouin-Raman fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 281(21), 5400–5404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geng, J.

J. Geng, S. Staines, Z. Wang, J. Zong, M. Blake, and S. Jiang, “Highly stable low-noise Brillouin fiber laser with ultranarrow spectral linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1813–1815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y. G.

Han, Y.-G.

Hansryd, J.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harun, S. W.

S. Shahi, S. W. Harun, and H. Ahmad, “Multi-wavelength Brillouin fiber laser using a holey fiber and a bismuth-oxide based erbium-doped fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(6), 454–457 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hedekvist, P.-O.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hitam, S.

Huang, D.

J. Sun, J. Qiu, and D. Huang, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers exploiting polarization hole burning,” Opt. Commun. 182(1–3), 193–197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, L. Zhan, J. H. Ji, S. Y. Luo, and Y. Xia, “Multiwavelength self-seeded Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with 45-nm tunable range,” Opt. Commun. 281(3), 452–456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Iqbal, S. J.

Jeon, M.-Y.

Ji, J. H.

Jiang, S.

J. Geng, S. Staines, Z. Wang, J. Zong, M. Blake, and S. Jiang, “Highly stable low-noise Brillouin fiber laser with ultranarrow spectral linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1813–1815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kang, S. B.

Kim, K. H.

Lee, H. K.

Lee, S. B.

Li, J.

J. Li and L. R. Chen, “Tunable and reconfigurable multiwavelength fiber optical parametric oscillator with 25 GHz spacing,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1872–1874 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. S.

Liu, X.

X. Liu and C. Lu, “Self-stabilizing effect of four-wave mixing and its applications on multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2541–2543 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, X. Zhou, and C. Lu, “Four-wave mixing assisted stability enhancement: theory, experiment, and application,” Opt. Lett. 30(17), 2257–2259 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, X. Zhou, and C. Lu, “Multiple four-wave mixing self-stability in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(1), 013811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. G.

Y. G. Liu, D. N. Wang, and X. Y. Dong, “Stable room-temperature multi-wavelength lasing oscillations in a Brillouin-Raman fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 281(21), 5400–5404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

X. Liu, X. Zhou, and C. Lu, “Multiple four-wave mixing self-stability in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(1), 013811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu and C. Lu, “Self-stabilizing effect of four-wave mixing and its applications on multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2541–2543 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, X. Zhou, and C. Lu, “Four-wave mixing assisted stability enhancement: theory, experiment, and application,” Opt. Lett. 30(17), 2257–2259 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, S. Y.

Y. Huang, L. Zhan, J. H. Ji, S. Y. Luo, and Y. Xia, “Multiwavelength self-seeded Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with 45-nm tunable range,” Opt. Commun. 281(3), 452–456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhan, J. H. Ji, J. Xia, S. Y. Luo, and Y. X. Xia, “160-line multiwavelength generation of linear-cavity self-seeded Brillouin-ebium fiber laser,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10233–10238 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahamd Adikan, F. R.

Mahdi, M. A.

Mahdi, M. A. M. A.

Mokhtar, M.

Premaratne, M.

M. H. Al-Mansoori, M. A. Mahdi, and M. Premaratne, “Novel multiwavelength L-band Brillouin-erbium fiber laser utilizing double-pass brillouin pump preamplified technique,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 415–421 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Mahdi, M. H. Al-Mansoori, and M. Premaratne, “Enhancement of multiwavelength generation in the L-band by using a novel Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with a passive EDF booster section,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11570–11575 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, J.

J. Sun, J. Qiu, and D. Huang, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers exploiting polarization hole burning,” Opt. Commun. 182(1–3), 193–197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shahi, S.

S. Shahi, S. W. Harun, and H. Ahmad, “Multi-wavelength Brillouin fiber laser using a holey fiber and a bismuth-oxide based erbium-doped fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(6), 454–457 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. J.

Staines, S.

J. Geng, S. Staines, Z. Wang, J. Zong, M. Blake, and S. Jiang, “Highly stable low-noise Brillouin fiber laser with ultranarrow spectral linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1813–1815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, D. Y.

D. Y. Stepanov and G. J. Cowle, “Properties of Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(4), 1049–1057 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Cowle and D. Y. Stepanov, “Hybrid Brillouin/erbium fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(16), 1250–1252 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, G.

Su, Y.

Sun, J.

J. Sun, “Stable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser using self-lasing feedback,” Opt. Eng. 46(1), 014203–014204 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, J. Qiu, and D. Huang, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers exploiting polarization hole burning,” Opt. Commun. 182(1–3), 193–197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tran, T. V. A.

Wang, D. N.

Y. G. Liu, D. N. Wang, and X. Y. Dong, “Stable room-temperature multi-wavelength lasing oscillations in a Brillouin-Raman fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 281(21), 5400–5404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

J. Geng, S. Staines, Z. Wang, J. Zong, M. Blake, and S. Jiang, “Highly stable low-noise Brillouin fiber laser with ultranarrow spectral linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1813–1815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Westlund, M.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Whitenett, G.

Xia, J.

Xia, Y.

Y. Huang, L. Zhan, J. H. Ji, S. Y. Luo, and Y. Xia, “Multiwavelength self-seeded Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with 45-nm tunable range,” Opt. Commun. 281(3), 452–456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, L. Zhan, and Y. Xia, “Tunable self-seeded multiwavelength Brillouin-Erbium fiber laser with enhanced power efficiency,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9731–9736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, Y. X.

Ye, Q. H.

Yu, D.

G. J. Cowie, D. Yu, and Y.-T. Chieng, “Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(7), 1198–1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

Zhan, L.

Zhang, Z.

Zhou, X.

X. Liu, X. Zhou, and C. Lu, “Multiple four-wave mixing self-stability in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(1), 013811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, X. Zhou, and C. Lu, “Four-wave mixing assisted stability enhancement: theory, experiment, and application,” Opt. Lett. 30(17), 2257–2259 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zong, J.

J. Geng, S. Staines, Z. Wang, J. Zong, M. Blake, and S. Jiang, “Highly stable low-noise Brillouin fiber laser with ultranarrow spectral linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1813–1815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

M. H. Al-Mansoori, M. A. Mahdi, and M. Premaratne, “Novel multiwavelength L-band Brillouin-erbium fiber laser utilizing double-pass brillouin pump preamplified technique,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 415–421 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Stepanov and G. J. Cowle, “Properties of Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(4), 1049–1057 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

X. Liu and C. Lu, “Self-stabilizing effect of four-wave mixing and its applications on multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2541–2543 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Geng, S. Staines, Z. Wang, J. Zong, M. Blake, and S. Jiang, “Highly stable low-noise Brillouin fiber laser with ultranarrow spectral linewidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1813–1815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Shahi, S. W. Harun, and H. Ahmad, “Multi-wavelength Brillouin fiber laser using a holey fiber and a bismuth-oxide based erbium-doped fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(6), 454–457 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

Y. G. Liu, D. N. Wang, and X. Y. Dong, “Stable room-temperature multi-wavelength lasing oscillations in a Brillouin-Raman fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 281(21), 5400–5404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, J. Qiu, and D. Huang, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers exploiting polarization hole burning,” Opt. Commun. 182(1–3), 193–197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, L. Zhan, J. H. Ji, S. Y. Luo, and Y. Xia, “Multiwavelength self-seeded Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with 45-nm tunable range,” Opt. Commun. 281(3), 452–456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Sun, “Stable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser using self-lasing feedback,” Opt. Eng. 46(1), 014203–014204 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

X. Liu, X. Zhou, and C. Lu, “Multiple four-wave mixing self-stability in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(1), 013811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. Y. Stepanov and G. J. Cowle, “30-channel 10-GHz laser comb from a multiline Brillouin/erbium fiber laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol 11 of 1997 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper CTuG6.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the proposed multiwavelength BEFL.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectra of the generated multiwavelength BEFL at BP power of 12.0 dBm with (a) full span and self-lasing cavity modes, and the zoom-in views of (b) 1563.5-1568 nm and (c) 1572-1676.5 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output spectra of the proposed multiwavelength BEFL for different pump powers and BP powers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Tunability of the proposed multiwavelength BEFL at 80-mW both P1 and P2, and 5-dBm BP power.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Electrical spectra of the beating signal observed at the output of the photo-detector (a) disconnecting and (b) connecting a tunable bandpass filter.

Equations (1)

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Δ β = 2 π c λ 0 2 d D c d λ ( λ p λ s ) 2 ( λ p λ 0 )

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