Abstract

A GaN-based light-emitting diode (LED) with a direct-Ohmic contact structure, formed by an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) transparent film and Au thermal-diffused and removed layer, is studied. By depositing an Au metallic film on the Mg-doped GaN layer followed by thermal annealing and removed processes, an ITO direct-Ohmic contact at p-GaN/ITO interface is formed. An enhanced light output power of 18.0% is also found at this condition. This is mainly attributed to the larger and more uniform light-emission area resulted from the improved current spreading capability by the use of an ITO direct-Ohmic contact structure.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, “Current crowding in GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes on insulating substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4191 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Zhou, W. Lanford, A. T. Ping, I. Adesida, J. W. Yang, and A. Khan, “Low resistance Ti/Pt/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(23), 3451 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, T. Y. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “On a GaN-based light-emitting diode with a p-GaN/i-InGaN superlattice structure,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1149–1151 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. M. Chang, J. Y. Chu, and C. C. Cheng, “Highly reliable GaN-based light-emitting diodes formed by p–In0.1Ga0.9N–ITO structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1807 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. H. Kuo, W. C. Lai, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, J. M. Tsai, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “High brightness InGaN green LEDs with an ITO on n ++ -SPS upper contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(11), 2208–2212 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Gessmann, Y. L. Li, E. L. Waldron, J. W. Graff, and J. K. Sheu, “Ohmic contacts to p-type GaN mediated by polarization fields in thin InxGa1-xN capping layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 986 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, C. H. Hsu, K. H. Yu, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “Impact of An indium oxide/indium–tin oxide mixed structure for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Rev. 16(6), 575–577 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. K. Julita, G. Szymon, L. S. Elzbieta, P. Ryszard, N. Grzegorz, L. Michał, P. Piotr, T. Ewa, K. Jan, and K. Stanisław, “Ni–Au contacts to p-type GaN – Structure and properties,” Solid-State Electron. 54(7), 701–709 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. L. Lee, M. Weber, J. K. Kim, J. W. Lee, Y. J. Park, T. Kim, and K. Lynn, “Ohmic contact formation mechanism of nonalloyed Pd contacts to p-type GaN observed by positron annihilation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2289 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Koide, T. Maeda, T. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Uemura, N. Shibata, and M. Murakami, “Effects of annealing in an oxygen ambient on electrical properties of ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(3), 341–346 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Nakahara and E. Kinsbron, “Room temperature interdiffusion study of Au/Ga thin film couples,” Thin Solid Films 113(1), 15–26 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Puselj and J. Schubert, “Kristallstruktur von Au2Ga,” J. Less-Common Met. 38(1), 83–90 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. Waki, H. Fujioka, M. Oshima, H. Miki, and A. Fukizawa, “Low-temperature activation of Mg-doped GaN using Ni films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2899 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. S. Jang, “High output power GaN-based light-emitting diodes using an electrically reverse-connected p-Schottky diode and p-InGaN–GaN superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081118 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, K. H. Yu, P. L. Lin, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, T. Y. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “Characteristics of an AlGaInP-based light emitting diode with an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) direct Ohmic contact structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 246–252 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

S. K. Julita, G. Szymon, L. S. Elzbieta, P. Ryszard, N. Grzegorz, L. Michał, P. Piotr, T. Ewa, K. Jan, and K. Stanisław, “Ni–Au contacts to p-type GaN – Structure and properties,” Solid-State Electron. 54(7), 701–709 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, K. H. Yu, P. L. Lin, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, T. Y. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “Characteristics of an AlGaInP-based light emitting diode with an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) direct Ohmic contact structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 246–252 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, C. H. Hsu, K. H. Yu, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “Impact of An indium oxide/indium–tin oxide mixed structure for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Rev. 16(6), 575–577 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, T. Y. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “On a GaN-based light-emitting diode with a p-GaN/i-InGaN superlattice structure,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1149–1151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. S. Jang, “High output power GaN-based light-emitting diodes using an electrically reverse-connected p-Schottky diode and p-InGaN–GaN superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. M. Chang, J. Y. Chu, and C. C. Cheng, “Highly reliable GaN-based light-emitting diodes formed by p–In0.1Ga0.9N–ITO structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1807 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. H. Kuo, W. C. Lai, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, J. M. Tsai, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “High brightness InGaN green LEDs with an ITO on n ++ -SPS upper contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(11), 2208–2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Gessmann, Y. L. Li, E. L. Waldron, J. W. Graff, and J. K. Sheu, “Ohmic contacts to p-type GaN mediated by polarization fields in thin InxGa1-xN capping layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 986 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

I. Waki, H. Fujioka, M. Oshima, H. Miki, and A. Fukizawa, “Low-temperature activation of Mg-doped GaN using Ni films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2899 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, “Current crowding in GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes on insulating substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L. Zhou, W. Lanford, A. T. Ping, I. Adesida, J. W. Yang, and A. Khan, “Low resistance Ti/Pt/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(23), 3451 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. L. Lee, M. Weber, J. K. Kim, J. W. Lee, Y. J. Park, T. Kim, and K. Lynn, “Ohmic contact formation mechanism of nonalloyed Pd contacts to p-type GaN observed by positron annihilation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2289 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koide, T. Maeda, T. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Uemura, N. Shibata, and M. Murakami, “Effects of annealing in an oxygen ambient on electrical properties of ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(3), 341–346 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

S. Nakahara and E. Kinsbron, “Room temperature interdiffusion study of Au/Ga thin film couples,” Thin Solid Films 113(1), 15–26 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

M. Puselj and J. Schubert, “Kristallstruktur von Au2Ga,” J. Less-Common Met. 38(1), 83–90 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Adesida, I.

L. Zhou, W. Lanford, A. T. Ping, I. Adesida, J. W. Yang, and A. Khan, “Low resistance Ti/Pt/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(23), 3451 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. S.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. H. Kuo, W. C. Lai, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, J. M. Tsai, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “High brightness InGaN green LEDs with an ITO on n ++ -SPS upper contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(11), 2208–2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, K. M.

K. M. Chang, J. Y. Chu, and C. C. Cheng, “Highly reliable GaN-based light-emitting diodes formed by p–In0.1Ga0.9N–ITO structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1807 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. H. Kuo, W. C. Lai, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, J. M. Tsai, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “High brightness InGaN green LEDs with an ITO on n ++ -SPS upper contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(11), 2208–2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. Y.

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, K. H. Yu, P. L. Lin, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, T. Y. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “Characteristics of an AlGaInP-based light emitting diode with an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) direct Ohmic contact structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 246–252 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, T. Y. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “On a GaN-based light-emitting diode with a p-GaN/i-InGaN superlattice structure,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1149–1151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, C. H. Hsu, K. H. Yu, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “Impact of An indium oxide/indium–tin oxide mixed structure for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Rev. 16(6), 575–577 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. C.

K. M. Chang, J. Y. Chu, and C. C. Cheng, “Highly reliable GaN-based light-emitting diodes formed by p–In0.1Ga0.9N–ITO structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1807 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. Y.

K. M. Chang, J. Y. Chu, and C. C. Cheng, “Highly reliable GaN-based light-emitting diodes formed by p–In0.1Ga0.9N–ITO structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1807 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Elzbieta, L. S.

S. K. Julita, G. Szymon, L. S. Elzbieta, P. Ryszard, N. Grzegorz, L. Michał, P. Piotr, T. Ewa, K. Jan, and K. Stanisław, “Ni–Au contacts to p-type GaN – Structure and properties,” Solid-State Electron. 54(7), 701–709 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ewa, T.

S. K. Julita, G. Szymon, L. S. Elzbieta, P. Ryszard, N. Grzegorz, L. Michał, P. Piotr, T. Ewa, K. Jan, and K. Stanisław, “Ni–Au contacts to p-type GaN – Structure and properties,” Solid-State Electron. 54(7), 701–709 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fujioka, H.

I. Waki, H. Fujioka, M. Oshima, H. Miki, and A. Fukizawa, “Low-temperature activation of Mg-doped GaN using Ni films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2899 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, S.

Y. Koide, T. Maeda, T. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Uemura, N. Shibata, and M. Murakami, “Effects of annealing in an oxygen ambient on electrical properties of ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(3), 341–346 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fukizawa, A.

I. Waki, H. Fujioka, M. Oshima, H. Miki, and A. Fukizawa, “Low-temperature activation of Mg-doped GaN using Ni films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2899 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gessmann, T.

T. Gessmann, Y. L. Li, E. L. Waldron, J. W. Graff, and J. K. Sheu, “Ohmic contacts to p-type GaN mediated by polarization fields in thin InxGa1-xN capping layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 986 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Graff, J. W.

T. Gessmann, Y. L. Li, E. L. Waldron, J. W. Graff, and J. K. Sheu, “Ohmic contacts to p-type GaN mediated by polarization fields in thin InxGa1-xN capping layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 986 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grzegorz, N.

S. K. Julita, G. Szymon, L. S. Elzbieta, P. Ryszard, N. Grzegorz, L. Michał, P. Piotr, T. Ewa, K. Jan, and K. Stanisław, “Ni–Au contacts to p-type GaN – Structure and properties,” Solid-State Electron. 54(7), 701–709 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, “Current crowding in GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes on insulating substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. H.

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, C. H. Hsu, K. H. Yu, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “Impact of An indium oxide/indium–tin oxide mixed structure for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Rev. 16(6), 575–577 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, Y. P.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. H. Kuo, W. C. Lai, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, J. M. Tsai, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “High brightness InGaN green LEDs with an ITO on n ++ -SPS upper contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(11), 2208–2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jan, K.

S. K. Julita, G. Szymon, L. S. Elzbieta, P. Ryszard, N. Grzegorz, L. Michał, P. Piotr, T. Ewa, K. Jan, and K. Stanisław, “Ni–Au contacts to p-type GaN – Structure and properties,” Solid-State Electron. 54(7), 701–709 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J. S.

J. S. Jang, “High output power GaN-based light-emitting diodes using an electrically reverse-connected p-Schottky diode and p-InGaN–GaN superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Julita, S. K.

S. K. Julita, G. Szymon, L. S. Elzbieta, P. Ryszard, N. Grzegorz, L. Michał, P. Piotr, T. Ewa, K. Jan, and K. Stanisław, “Ni–Au contacts to p-type GaN – Structure and properties,” Solid-State Electron. 54(7), 701–709 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, T.

Y. Koide, T. Maeda, T. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Uemura, N. Shibata, and M. Murakami, “Effects of annealing in an oxygen ambient on electrical properties of ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(3), 341–346 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ke, J. C.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. H. Kuo, W. C. Lai, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, J. M. Tsai, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “High brightness InGaN green LEDs with an ITO on n ++ -SPS upper contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(11), 2208–2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Khan, A.

L. Zhou, W. Lanford, A. T. Ping, I. Adesida, J. W. Yang, and A. Khan, “Low resistance Ti/Pt/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(23), 3451 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J. L. Lee, M. Weber, J. K. Kim, J. W. Lee, Y. J. Park, T. Kim, and K. Lynn, “Ohmic contact formation mechanism of nonalloyed Pd contacts to p-type GaN observed by positron annihilation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2289 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.

J. L. Lee, M. Weber, J. K. Kim, J. W. Lee, Y. J. Park, T. Kim, and K. Lynn, “Ohmic contact formation mechanism of nonalloyed Pd contacts to p-type GaN observed by positron annihilation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2289 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kinsbron, E.

S. Nakahara and E. Kinsbron, “Room temperature interdiffusion study of Au/Ga thin film couples,” Thin Solid Films 113(1), 15–26 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Koide, Y.

Y. Koide, T. Maeda, T. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Uemura, N. Shibata, and M. Murakami, “Effects of annealing in an oxygen ambient on electrical properties of ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(3), 341–346 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. H.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. H. Kuo, W. C. Lai, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, J. M. Tsai, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “High brightness InGaN green LEDs with an ITO on n ++ -SPS upper contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(11), 2208–2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. H. Kuo, W. C. Lai, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, J. M. Tsai, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “High brightness InGaN green LEDs with an ITO on n ++ -SPS upper contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(11), 2208–2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lanford, W.

L. Zhou, W. Lanford, A. T. Ping, I. Adesida, J. W. Yang, and A. Khan, “Low resistance Ti/Pt/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(23), 3451 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. L.

J. L. Lee, M. Weber, J. K. Kim, J. W. Lee, Y. J. Park, T. Kim, and K. Lynn, “Ohmic contact formation mechanism of nonalloyed Pd contacts to p-type GaN observed by positron annihilation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2289 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. W.

J. L. Lee, M. Weber, J. K. Kim, J. W. Lee, Y. J. Park, T. Kim, and K. Lynn, “Ohmic contact formation mechanism of nonalloyed Pd contacts to p-type GaN observed by positron annihilation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2289 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. L.

T. Gessmann, Y. L. Li, E. L. Waldron, J. W. Graff, and J. K. Sheu, “Ohmic contacts to p-type GaN mediated by polarization fields in thin InxGa1-xN capping layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 986 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, P. L.

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, K. H. Yu, P. L. Lin, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, T. Y. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “Characteristics of an AlGaInP-based light emitting diode with an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) direct Ohmic contact structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 246–252 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. C.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. H. Kuo, W. C. Lai, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, J. M. Tsai, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “High brightness InGaN green LEDs with an ITO on n ++ -SPS upper contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(11), 2208–2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. C.

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, K. H. Yu, P. L. Lin, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, T. Y. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “Characteristics of an AlGaInP-based light emitting diode with an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) direct Ohmic contact structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 246–252 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, T. Y. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “On a GaN-based light-emitting diode with a p-GaN/i-InGaN superlattice structure,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1149–1151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, C. H. Hsu, K. H. Yu, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “Impact of An indium oxide/indium–tin oxide mixed structure for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Rev. 16(6), 575–577 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. J.

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, K. H. Yu, P. L. Lin, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, T. Y. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “Characteristics of an AlGaInP-based light emitting diode with an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) direct Ohmic contact structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 246–252 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, T. Y. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “On a GaN-based light-emitting diode with a p-GaN/i-InGaN superlattice structure,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1149–1151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, C. H. Hsu, K. H. Yu, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “Impact of An indium oxide/indium–tin oxide mixed structure for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Rev. 16(6), 575–577 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lo, H. M.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. H. Kuo, W. C. Lai, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, J. M. Tsai, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “High brightness InGaN green LEDs with an ITO on n ++ -SPS upper contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(11), 2208–2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lynn, K.

J. L. Lee, M. Weber, J. K. Kim, J. W. Lee, Y. J. Park, T. Kim, and K. Lynn, “Ohmic contact formation mechanism of nonalloyed Pd contacts to p-type GaN observed by positron annihilation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2289 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, T.

Y. Koide, T. Maeda, T. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Uemura, N. Shibata, and M. Murakami, “Effects of annealing in an oxygen ambient on electrical properties of ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(3), 341–346 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Michal, L.

S. K. Julita, G. Szymon, L. S. Elzbieta, P. Ryszard, N. Grzegorz, L. Michał, P. Piotr, T. Ewa, K. Jan, and K. Stanisław, “Ni–Au contacts to p-type GaN – Structure and properties,” Solid-State Electron. 54(7), 701–709 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miki, H.

I. Waki, H. Fujioka, M. Oshima, H. Miki, and A. Fukizawa, “Low-temperature activation of Mg-doped GaN using Ni films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2899 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, M.

Y. Koide, T. Maeda, T. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Uemura, N. Shibata, and M. Murakami, “Effects of annealing in an oxygen ambient on electrical properties of ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(3), 341–346 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakahara, S.

S. Nakahara and E. Kinsbron, “Room temperature interdiffusion study of Au/Ga thin film couples,” Thin Solid Films 113(1), 15–26 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Oshima, M.

I. Waki, H. Fujioka, M. Oshima, H. Miki, and A. Fukizawa, “Low-temperature activation of Mg-doped GaN using Ni films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2899 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. J.

J. L. Lee, M. Weber, J. K. Kim, J. W. Lee, Y. J. Park, T. Kim, and K. Lynn, “Ohmic contact formation mechanism of nonalloyed Pd contacts to p-type GaN observed by positron annihilation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2289 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ping, A. T.

L. Zhou, W. Lanford, A. T. Ping, I. Adesida, J. W. Yang, and A. Khan, “Low resistance Ti/Pt/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(23), 3451 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Piotr, P.

S. K. Julita, G. Szymon, L. S. Elzbieta, P. Ryszard, N. Grzegorz, L. Michał, P. Piotr, T. Ewa, K. Jan, and K. Stanisław, “Ni–Au contacts to p-type GaN – Structure and properties,” Solid-State Electron. 54(7), 701–709 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Puselj, M.

M. Puselj and J. Schubert, “Kristallstruktur von Au2Ga,” J. Less-Common Met. 38(1), 83–90 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ryszard, P.

S. K. Julita, G. Szymon, L. S. Elzbieta, P. Ryszard, N. Grzegorz, L. Michał, P. Piotr, T. Ewa, K. Jan, and K. Stanisław, “Ni–Au contacts to p-type GaN – Structure and properties,” Solid-State Electron. 54(7), 701–709 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, “Current crowding in GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes on insulating substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, J.

M. Puselj and J. Schubert, “Kristallstruktur von Au2Ga,” J. Less-Common Met. 38(1), 83–90 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Shei, S. C.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. H. Kuo, W. C. Lai, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, J. M. Tsai, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “High brightness InGaN green LEDs with an ITO on n ++ -SPS upper contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(11), 2208–2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. H. Kuo, W. C. Lai, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, J. M. Tsai, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “High brightness InGaN green LEDs with an ITO on n ++ -SPS upper contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(11), 2208–2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Gessmann, Y. L. Li, E. L. Waldron, J. W. Graff, and J. K. Sheu, “Ohmic contacts to p-type GaN mediated by polarization fields in thin InxGa1-xN capping layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 986 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, N.

Y. Koide, T. Maeda, T. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Uemura, N. Shibata, and M. Murakami, “Effects of annealing in an oxygen ambient on electrical properties of ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(3), 341–346 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stanislaw, K.

S. K. Julita, G. Szymon, L. S. Elzbieta, P. Ryszard, N. Grzegorz, L. Michał, P. Piotr, T. Ewa, K. Jan, and K. Stanisław, “Ni–Au contacts to p-type GaN – Structure and properties,” Solid-State Electron. 54(7), 701–709 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. K.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. H. Kuo, W. C. Lai, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, J. M. Tsai, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “High brightness InGaN green LEDs with an ITO on n ++ -SPS upper contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(11), 2208–2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Szymon, G.

S. K. Julita, G. Szymon, L. S. Elzbieta, P. Ryszard, N. Grzegorz, L. Michał, P. Piotr, T. Ewa, K. Jan, and K. Stanisław, “Ni–Au contacts to p-type GaN – Structure and properties,” Solid-State Electron. 54(7), 701–709 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J. M.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. H. Kuo, W. C. Lai, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, J. M. Tsai, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “High brightness InGaN green LEDs with an ITO on n ++ -SPS upper contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(11), 2208–2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, T. H.

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, K. H. Yu, P. L. Lin, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, T. Y. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “Characteristics of an AlGaInP-based light emitting diode with an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) direct Ohmic contact structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 246–252 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, C. H. Hsu, K. H. Yu, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “Impact of An indium oxide/indium–tin oxide mixed structure for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Rev. 16(6), 575–577 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, T. Y. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “On a GaN-based light-emitting diode with a p-GaN/i-InGaN superlattice structure,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1149–1151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, T. Y.

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, K. H. Yu, P. L. Lin, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, T. Y. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “Characteristics of an AlGaInP-based light emitting diode with an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) direct Ohmic contact structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 246–252 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, T. Y. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “On a GaN-based light-emitting diode with a p-GaN/i-InGaN superlattice structure,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1149–1151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uemura, T.

Y. Koide, T. Maeda, T. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Uemura, N. Shibata, and M. Murakami, “Effects of annealing in an oxygen ambient on electrical properties of ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(3), 341–346 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Waki, I.

I. Waki, H. Fujioka, M. Oshima, H. Miki, and A. Fukizawa, “Low-temperature activation of Mg-doped GaN using Ni films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2899 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Waldron, E. L.

T. Gessmann, Y. L. Li, E. L. Waldron, J. W. Graff, and J. K. Sheu, “Ohmic contacts to p-type GaN mediated by polarization fields in thin InxGa1-xN capping layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 986 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M.

J. L. Lee, M. Weber, J. K. Kim, J. W. Lee, Y. J. Park, T. Kim, and K. Lynn, “Ohmic contact formation mechanism of nonalloyed Pd contacts to p-type GaN observed by positron annihilation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2289 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. W.

L. Zhou, W. Lanford, A. T. Ping, I. Adesida, J. W. Yang, and A. Khan, “Low resistance Ti/Pt/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(23), 3451 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yen, C. H.

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, K. H. Yu, P. L. Lin, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, T. Y. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “Characteristics of an AlGaInP-based light emitting diode with an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) direct Ohmic contact structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 246–252 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, T. Y. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “On a GaN-based light-emitting diode with a p-GaN/i-InGaN superlattice structure,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1149–1151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, C. H. Hsu, K. H. Yu, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “Impact of An indium oxide/indium–tin oxide mixed structure for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Rev. 16(6), 575–577 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, K. H.

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, K. H. Yu, P. L. Lin, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, T. Y. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “Characteristics of an AlGaInP-based light emitting diode with an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) direct Ohmic contact structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 246–252 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, C. H. Hsu, K. H. Yu, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “Impact of An indium oxide/indium–tin oxide mixed structure for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Rev. 16(6), 575–577 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

L. Zhou, W. Lanford, A. T. Ping, I. Adesida, J. W. Yang, and A. Khan, “Low resistance Ti/Pt/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(23), 3451 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

L. Zhou, W. Lanford, A. T. Ping, I. Adesida, J. W. Yang, and A. Khan, “Low resistance Ti/Pt/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(23), 3451 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Gessmann, Y. L. Li, E. L. Waldron, J. W. Graff, and J. K. Sheu, “Ohmic contacts to p-type GaN mediated by polarization fields in thin InxGa1-xN capping layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 986 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Lee, M. Weber, J. K. Kim, J. W. Lee, Y. J. Park, T. Kim, and K. Lynn, “Ohmic contact formation mechanism of nonalloyed Pd contacts to p-type GaN observed by positron annihilation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2289 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Waki, H. Fujioka, M. Oshima, H. Miki, and A. Fukizawa, “Low-temperature activation of Mg-doped GaN using Ni films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2899 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Jang, “High output power GaN-based light-emitting diodes using an electrically reverse-connected p-Schottky diode and p-InGaN–GaN superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, T. Y. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “On a GaN-based light-emitting diode with a p-GaN/i-InGaN superlattice structure,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(11), 1149–1151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, K. H. Yu, P. L. Lin, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, T. Y. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “Characteristics of an AlGaInP-based light emitting diode with an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) direct Ohmic contact structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 246–252 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. M. Chang, J. Y. Chu, and C. C. Cheng, “Highly reliable GaN-based light-emitting diodes formed by p–In0.1Ga0.9N–ITO structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1807 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. H. Kuo, W. C. Lai, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, J. M. Tsai, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “High brightness InGaN green LEDs with an ITO on n ++ -SPS upper contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(11), 2208–2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, “Current crowding in GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes on insulating substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

Y. Koide, T. Maeda, T. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Uemura, N. Shibata, and M. Murakami, “Effects of annealing in an oxygen ambient on electrical properties of ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(3), 341–346 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Less-Common Met. (1)

M. Puselj and J. Schubert, “Kristallstruktur von Au2Ga,” J. Less-Common Met. 38(1), 83–90 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev. (1)

Y. J. Liu, C. H. Yen, C. H. Hsu, K. H. Yu, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “Impact of An indium oxide/indium–tin oxide mixed structure for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Rev. 16(6), 575–577 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

S. K. Julita, G. Szymon, L. S. Elzbieta, P. Ryszard, N. Grzegorz, L. Michał, P. Piotr, T. Ewa, K. Jan, and K. Stanisław, “Ni–Au contacts to p-type GaN – Structure and properties,” Solid-State Electron. 54(7), 701–709 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

S. Nakahara and E. Kinsbron, “Room temperature interdiffusion study of Au/Ga thin film couples,” Thin Solid Films 113(1), 15–26 (1984).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Various metal films (Ni, Cr, and Au) treated by various annealing temperatures (200, 300, 400, and 470°C) and times (10, 20, 30, and 40 min.) for choosing a better specific contact resistance at p-GaN/ITO interface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Au4f and Ga3d SIMS profiles of the studied device B w/i (after) and w/o (before) Au 400°C thermal annealing and removed process.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PL analyses of studied devices A and B.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

p-GaN/ITO contact resistances for studied devices A and B. In inset, the corresponding schematic diagrams during contact measurements are also shown.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

p-GaN/ITO I-V characteristics for studied devices A and B.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Forward-biased I-V curves and detailed I-V relations (in inset) of the studied devices A and B.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dynamic resistance as a function of current for studied devices A and B.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Light output power as a function of current for studied devices A and B.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dominant wavelength as a function of current for studied devices A and B.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Brightness variation as a function of aging time for studied devices A and B.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Light output images of the studied devices A and B.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Hall measurement results of studied devices A and B.

Metrics