Abstract

Metal-based plasmonics has a wide range of important applications but is subject to several drawbacks. In this paper, we propose and investigate an all-semiconductor-based approach to plasmonics in mid-infrared (MIR) wavelength range using InAs heterostructures. Our results show that InAs heterostructures are ideal for plasmonics with the shortest plasmon wavelength among common semiconductors. More importantly, as we will show, InAs heterostructures are superior to metal-based plasmonics for MIR applications due to much reduced loss, improved confinement, and ease of tunability of resonant wavelengths through carrier density. Finally, we propose and investigate a monolithic all-semiconductor integrated active plasmonic system with active source, waveguide, and detector all integrated on a chip, realizable in a single epitaxial growth process. Such an all semiconductor based system can be advantageous not only in plasmonics, but also in active metamaterials.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. A. Atwater, “The promise of plasmonics,” Sci. Am. 296(4), 56–62 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).
  3. N. I. Zheludev, “Applied physics. The road ahead for metamaterials,” Science 328(5978), 582–583 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Okamoto, I. Yamaguchi, and T. Kobayashi, “Local plasmon sensor with gold colloid monolayers deposited upon glass substrates,” Opt. Lett. 25(6), 372–374 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. V. Maslov and C. Z. Ning, “Size reduction of a semiconductor nanowire laser by using metal coating,” Proc. SPIE 6468, 646801 (2007).
  8. M. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Z. Ning, “Semiconductor nanolasers,” Phys. Status Solidi 247, 774–788 (2010) (b).
  11. M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing visible light waves into a 3-nm-thick and 55-nm-long plasmon cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(9), 097401 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. B. Li and C. Z. Ning, “Giant modal gain, amplified surface plasmon-polariton propagation, and slowing down of energy velocity in a metal-semiconductor-metal structure,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153304 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. B. Li and C. Z. Ning, “Peculiar features of confinement factors in a metal-semiconductor waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(18), 181109 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 946–950 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. P. Burgos, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 407–412 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. I. Stockman, “Spasers explained,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 327–329 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Soref, R. E. Peale, and W. Buchwald, “Longwave plasmonics on doped silicon and silicides,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6507–6514 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. Adachi, “Model dielectric constants of GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 35(14), 7454–7463 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. E. Burstein, “Anomalous optical absorption limit in InSb,” Phys. Rev. 93(3), 632–633 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Kroemer, “The 6.1 Å family (InAs, GaSb, AlSb) and its heterostructures: a selective review,” Physica E 20(3-4), 196–203 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, J. Kono, K. Ueda, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, K. I. Kolokolov, J. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Temperature dependence of intersubband transitions in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3936–3938 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Li, K. I. Kolokolov, C. Z. Ning, D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, J. Kono, K. Ueda, Y. Nakajima, S. Sasa, and M. Inoue, “Intersubband transitions in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” in Progress in Semiconductors II: Electronic and Optoelectronic Applications, MRS Proceedings (2003), Vol. 744, p. 571.
  27. K. Kolokolov and C. Z. Ning, “Doping induced type-II to type-I transition and interband optical gain in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1581–1583 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  28. www.silvaco.com .
  29. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 1999).
  30. G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113(4), 195–287 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  31. www.comsol.com .

2010 (6)

N. I. Zheludev, “Applied physics. The road ahead for metamaterials,” Science 328(5978), 582–583 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Z. Ning, “Semiconductor nanolasers,” Phys. Status Solidi 247, 774–788 (2010) (b).

D. B. Li and C. Z. Ning, “Peculiar features of confinement factors in a metal-semiconductor waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(18), 181109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Burgos, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 407–412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

D. B. Li and C. Z. Ning, “Giant modal gain, amplified surface plasmon-polariton propagation, and slowing down of energy velocity in a metal-semiconductor-metal structure,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

R. Soref, R. E. Peale, and W. Buchwald, “Longwave plasmonics on doped silicon and silicides,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6507–6514 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, “Spasers explained,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 327–329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

H. A. Atwater, “The promise of plasmonics,” Sci. Am. 296(4), 56–62 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Maslov and C. Z. Ning, “Size reduction of a semiconductor nanowire laser by using metal coating,” Proc. SPIE 6468, 646801 (2007).

M. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing visible light waves into a 3-nm-thick and 55-nm-long plasmon cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(9), 097401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kroemer, “The 6.1 Å family (InAs, GaSb, AlSb) and its heterostructures: a selective review,” Physica E 20(3-4), 196–203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, J. Kono, K. Ueda, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, K. I. Kolokolov, J. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Temperature dependence of intersubband transitions in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3936–3938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Kolokolov and C. Z. Ning, “Doping induced type-II to type-I transition and interband optical gain in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1581–1583 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1987 (1)

S. Adachi, “Model dielectric constants of GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 35(14), 7454–7463 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113(4), 195–287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

E. Burstein, “Anomalous optical absorption limit in InSb,” Phys. Rev. 93(3), 632–633 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, S.

S. Adachi, “Model dielectric constants of GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 35(14), 7454–7463 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alekseyev, L.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

S. P. Burgos, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 407–412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater, “The promise of plasmonics,” Sci. Am. 296(4), 56–62 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakker, R.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belgrave, A. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenner, P.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brolo, A. G.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchwald, W.

Burgos, S. P.

S. P. Burgos, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 407–412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burstein, E.

E. Burstein, “Anomalous optical absorption limit in InSb,” Phys. Rev. 93(3), 632–633 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Vries, T.

M. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

M. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Waele, R.

S. P. Burgos, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 407–412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eijkemans, T. J.

M. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ergin, T.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ford, G. W.

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113(4), 195–287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Franz, K. J.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geluk, E. J.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gmachl, C.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, R.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herz, E.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, M.

M. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hill, M. T.

Hoffman, A. J.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howard, S. S.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, M.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, J. Kono, K. Ueda, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, K. I. Kolokolov, J. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Temperature dependence of intersubband transitions in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3936–3938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Karouta, F.

Kavanagh, K. L.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khodaparast, G. A.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, J. Kono, K. Ueda, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, K. I. Kolokolov, J. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Temperature dependence of intersubband transitions in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3936–3938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

Kolokolov, K.

K. Kolokolov and C. Z. Ning, “Doping induced type-II to type-I transition and interband optical gain in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1581–1583 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kolokolov, K. I.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, J. Kono, K. Ueda, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, K. I. Kolokolov, J. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Temperature dependence of intersubband transitions in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3936–3938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kono, J.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, J. Kono, K. Ueda, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, K. I. Kolokolov, J. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Temperature dependence of intersubband transitions in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3936–3938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kroemer, H.

H. Kroemer, “The 6.1 Å family (InAs, GaSb, AlSb) and its heterostructures: a selective review,” Physica E 20(3-4), 196–203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, Y.

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing visible light waves into a 3-nm-thick and 55-nm-long plasmon cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(9), 097401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, S.-H.

M. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Larrabee, D. C.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, J. Kono, K. Ueda, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, K. I. Kolokolov, J. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Temperature dependence of intersubband transitions in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3936–3938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leathem, B.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-H.

M. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leong, E. S. P.

Li, D. B.

D. B. Li and C. Z. Ning, “Peculiar features of confinement factors in a metal-semiconductor waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(18), 181109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Li and C. Z. Ning, “Giant modal gain, amplified surface plasmon-polariton propagation, and slowing down of energy velocity in a metal-semiconductor-metal structure,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, J. Kono, K. Ueda, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, K. I. Kolokolov, J. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Temperature dependence of intersubband transitions in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3936–3938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R.-M.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marell, M.

Maslov, A. V.

A. V. Maslov and C. Z. Ning, “Size reduction of a semiconductor nanowire laser by using metal coating,” Proc. SPIE 6468, 646801 (2007).

Miyazaki, H. T.

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing visible light waves into a 3-nm-thick and 55-nm-long plasmon cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(9), 097401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakai, M.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, J. Kono, K. Ueda, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, K. I. Kolokolov, J. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Temperature dependence of intersubband transitions in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3936–3938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, Y.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, J. Kono, K. Ueda, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, K. I. Kolokolov, J. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Temperature dependence of intersubband transitions in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3936–3938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Narimanov, E. E.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ning, C. Z.

C. Z. Ning, “Semiconductor nanolasers,” Phys. Status Solidi 247, 774–788 (2010) (b).

D. B. Li and C. Z. Ning, “Peculiar features of confinement factors in a metal-semiconductor waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(18), 181109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Li and C. Z. Ning, “Giant modal gain, amplified surface plasmon-polariton propagation, and slowing down of energy velocity in a metal-semiconductor-metal structure,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Maslov and C. Z. Ning, “Size reduction of a semiconductor nanowire laser by using metal coating,” Proc. SPIE 6468, 646801 (2007).

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, J. Kono, K. Ueda, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, K. I. Kolokolov, J. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Temperature dependence of intersubband transitions in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3936–3938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Kolokolov and C. Z. Ning, “Doping induced type-II to type-I transition and interband optical gain in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1581–1583 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Noginov, M. A.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nötzel, R.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oei, Y.-S.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, T.

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peale, R. E.

Pendry, J. B.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podolskiy, V. A.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

S. P. Burgos, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 407–412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasa, S.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, J. Kono, K. Ueda, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, K. I. Kolokolov, J. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Temperature dependence of intersubband transitions in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3936–3938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smalbrugge, B.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stenger, N.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, “Spasers explained,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 327–329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stout, S.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, M.

Suteewong, T.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turkiewicz, J. P.

M. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, J. Kono, K. Ueda, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, K. I. Kolokolov, J. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Temperature dependence of intersubband transitions in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3936–3938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Otten, F. W. M.

M. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Veldhoven, P. J.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wasserman, D.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, W. H.

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113(4), 195–287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiesner, U.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, I.

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

N. I. Zheludev, “Applied physics. The road ahead for metamaterials,” Science 328(5978), 582–583 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, G.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. B. Li and C. Z. Ning, “Peculiar features of confinement factors in a metal-semiconductor waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(18), 181109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, J. Kono, K. Ueda, Y. Nakajima, M. Nakai, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, K. I. Kolokolov, J. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Temperature dependence of intersubband transitions in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3936–3938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Kolokolov and C. Z. Ning, “Doping induced type-II to type-I transition and interband optical gain in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1581–1583 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Burgos, R. de Waele, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 9(5), 407–412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

M. I. Stockman, “Spasers explained,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 327–329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rep. (1)

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113(4), 195–287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. Burstein, “Anomalous optical absorption limit in InSb,” Phys. Rev. 93(3), 632–633 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. B. Li and C. Z. Ning, “Giant modal gain, amplified surface plasmon-polariton propagation, and slowing down of energy velocity in a metal-semiconductor-metal structure,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

S. Adachi, “Model dielectric constants of GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 35(14), 7454–7463 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing visible light waves into a 3-nm-thick and 55-nm-long plasmon cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(9), 097401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

C. Z. Ning, “Semiconductor nanolasers,” Phys. Status Solidi 247, 774–788 (2010) (b).

Physica E (1)

H. Kroemer, “The 6.1 Å family (InAs, GaSb, AlSb) and its heterostructures: a selective review,” Physica E 20(3-4), 196–203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. V. Maslov and C. Z. Ning, “Size reduction of a semiconductor nanowire laser by using metal coating,” Proc. SPIE 6468, 646801 (2007).

Sci. Am. (1)

H. A. Atwater, “The promise of plasmonics,” Sci. Am. 296(4), 56–62 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

N. I. Zheludev, “Applied physics. The road ahead for metamaterials,” Science 328(5978), 582–583 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

S. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

J. Li, K. I. Kolokolov, C. Z. Ning, D. C. Larrabee, G. A. Khodaparast, J. Kono, K. Ueda, Y. Nakajima, S. Sasa, and M. Inoue, “Intersubband transitions in InAs/AlSb quantum wells,” in Progress in Semiconductors II: Electronic and Optoelectronic Applications, MRS Proceedings (2003), Vol. 744, p. 571.

www.comsol.com .

www.silvaco.com .

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 1999).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Plasmonic features of InAs. (a) Plasmon wavelength vs. electron density for several common semiconductors. (b) Real and (c) imaginary part of InAs dielectric constant vs. wavelength for 6 different electron concentrations. (d) Band lineup of a GaSb/InAs (top) and a AlSb/InAs/AlSb (bottom) heterostructure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electron density as a function of bias in a GaSb/InAs/GaSb structure (inset). The black and red curves show respectively the electron density at the edge and in the middle of InAs layer. The thickness of each layer in the GaSb/InAs/GaSb structure is shown in the inset.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Quality factors vs. wavelength of a SPP mode in an InAs/GaSb structure with different electron concentrations (cm−3), in an Ag/GaSb structure, and in an Au/GaSb structure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Normalized energy density and (b) power flux (absolute value) profile across the interface of an InAs/GaSb structure at 3 μm. The effective widths in InAs layer, Wm , and in GaSb layer, Ws , are schematically shown as well. (c) Normalized energy density and (d) power flux (absolute value) profile at 5 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

All-semiconductor active plasmonic system. (a) Schematic of the proposed plasmonic system consisting of a SPP source, a waveguide with amplifiers and a detector. (b) The layer structures of all three components of this system. The material composition, doping type, thickness and polarity of electrodes of each layer are also shown. (c) Illustration of the working principle of the system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Electron and hole density profiles along x axis at V1 = 0.8 V and V2 = 5 V in the plasmonic system.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Modal pattern of a SPP mode in the plasmonic system. (a) Power flux pattern of a SPP mode at 3.3 μm in the plasmonic waveguide with a length 500 nm in z direction. (b) Normalized power flux (absolute value) profile taken from the dashed line in Fig. 7(a).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Effective Widths in InAs/GaSb Structure at 3 μm

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

D = ε 0 E + P b + P e
χ e ( ω ) = N e 2 ε 0 m ( ω 2 + i ω / τ ) = ε ω p 2 ω 2 + i ω / τ
ω p = N e 2 ε ε 0 m
α = α 0 [ ( 1 f e ) ( 1 f h ) f e f h ] = α 0 ( 1 f e f h )
Q = ω W s t o r e d P d i s s i p a t e d = ω 2 k z v ¯ E , z

Metrics