Abstract

We designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized thin absorbers utilizing both electrical and magnetic impedance matching at the near-infrared regime. The absorbers consist of four main layers: a metal back plate, dielectric spacer, and two artificial layers. One of the artificial layers provides electrical resonance and the other one provides magnetic resonance yielding a polarization independent broadband perfect absorption. The structure response remains similar for the wide angle of incidence due to the sub-wavelength unit cell size of the constituting artificial layers. The design is useful for applications such as thermal photovoltaics, sensors, and camouflage.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Aydin, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Focusing of electromagnetic waves by a left-handed metamaterial flat lens,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8753–8759 (2005).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. K. Aydin and E. Ozbay, “Capacitor-loaded split ring resonators as tunable metamaterial components,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 024911 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2011

Y. Chenga, H. Yanga, Z. Chengb, and B. Xiaoc, “A planar polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber,” Photon. Nanostructures 9(1), 8–14 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Alici, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, “Photonic magnetic metamaterial basics,” Photon. Nanostructures 9(1), 15–21 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lin, R. L. Chern, and H. Y. Lin, “Polarization-independent broad-band nearly perfect absorbers in the visible regime,” Opt. Express 19(2), 415–424 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

D. Yu. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, and E. I. Simakov, “Perfect subwavelength fishnet like metamaterial-based film terahertz absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Alici, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Experimental verification of metamaterial based subwavelength microwave absorbers,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(8), 083113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Alici and E. Ozbay, “Photonic metamaterial absorber designs for infrared solar-cell applications,” Proc. SPIE 7772, 77721B, 77721B-3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

B. Wang, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle and polarization-independent chiral metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 033108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. K. M. Diem and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle perfect absorber/thermal emitter in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic and electric excitations in split ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17881–17890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Aydin and E. Ozbay, “Capacitor-loaded split ring resonators as tunable metamaterial components,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 024911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Left- and right-handed transmission peaks near the magnetic resonance frequency in composite metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 70(20), 201101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282(5394), 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alici, K. B.

K. B. Alici, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, “Photonic magnetic metamaterial basics,” Photon. Nanostructures 9(1), 15–21 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Alici and E. Ozbay, “Photonic metamaterial absorber designs for infrared solar-cell applications,” Proc. SPIE 7772, 77721B, 77721B-3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Alici, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Experimental verification of metamaterial based subwavelength microwave absorbers,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(8), 083113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Avitzour, Y.

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aydin, K.

K. Aydin and E. Ozbay, “Capacitor-loaded split ring resonators as tunable metamaterial components,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 024911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Focusing of electromagnetic waves by a left-handed metamaterial flat lens,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8753–8759 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

D. Yu. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, and E. I. Simakov, “Perfect subwavelength fishnet like metamaterial-based film terahertz absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bilotti, F.

K. B. Alici, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Experimental verification of metamaterial based subwavelength microwave absorbers,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(8), 083113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bulu, I.

Chen, C.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282(5394), 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chenga, Y.

Y. Chenga, H. Yanga, Z. Chengb, and B. Xiaoc, “A planar polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber,” Photon. Nanostructures 9(1), 8–14 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chengb, Z.

Y. Chenga, H. Yanga, Z. Chengb, and B. Xiaoc, “A planar polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber,” Photon. Nanostructures 9(1), 8–14 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chern, R. L.

Diem, T. K. M.

T. K. M. Diem and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle perfect absorber/thermal emitter in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Economou, E. N.

N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Left- and right-handed transmission peaks near the magnetic resonance frequency in composite metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 70(20), 201101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282(5394), 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fink, Y.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282(5394), 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, J.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282(5394), 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kafesaki, M.

N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Left- and right-handed transmission peaks near the magnetic resonance frequency in composite metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 70(20), 201101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Katsarakis, N.

N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Left- and right-handed transmission peaks near the magnetic resonance frequency in composite metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 70(20), 201101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, Th.

B. Wang, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle and polarization-independent chiral metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 033108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic and electric excitations in split ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17881–17890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Left- and right-handed transmission peaks near the magnetic resonance frequency in composite metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 70(20), 201101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Landy, N. I.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. H.

Lin, H. Y.

Liu, N.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mesch, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michel, J.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282(5394), 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Hara, J. F.

D. Yu. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, and E. I. Simakov, “Perfect subwavelength fishnet like metamaterial-based film terahertz absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

K. B. Alici, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, “Photonic magnetic metamaterial basics,” Photon. Nanostructures 9(1), 15–21 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Alici and E. Ozbay, “Photonic metamaterial absorber designs for infrared solar-cell applications,” Proc. SPIE 7772, 77721B, 77721B-3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Alici, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Experimental verification of metamaterial based subwavelength microwave absorbers,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(8), 083113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin and E. Ozbay, “Capacitor-loaded split ring resonators as tunable metamaterial components,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 024911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Focusing of electromagnetic waves by a left-handed metamaterial flat lens,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8753–8759 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Left- and right-handed transmission peaks near the magnetic resonance frequency in composite metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 70(20), 201101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, M.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serebryannikov, A. E.

K. B. Alici, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, “Photonic magnetic metamaterial basics,” Photon. Nanostructures 9(1), 15–21 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shchegolkov, D. Yu.

D. Yu. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, and E. I. Simakov, “Perfect subwavelength fishnet like metamaterial-based film terahertz absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shvets, G.

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simakov, E. I.

D. Yu. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, and E. I. Simakov, “Perfect subwavelength fishnet like metamaterial-based film terahertz absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

B. Wang, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle and polarization-independent chiral metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 033108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. K. M. Diem and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle perfect absorber/thermal emitter in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic and electric excitations in split ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17881–17890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Left- and right-handed transmission peaks near the magnetic resonance frequency in composite metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 70(20), 201101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, E. L.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282(5394), 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urzhumov, Y. A.

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vegni, L.

K. B. Alici, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Experimental verification of metamaterial based subwavelength microwave absorbers,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(8), 083113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle and polarization-independent chiral metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 033108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winn, J. N.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282(5394), 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiaoc, B.

Y. Chenga, H. Yanga, Z. Chengb, and B. Xiaoc, “A planar polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber,” Photon. Nanostructures 9(1), 8–14 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yanga, H.

Y. Chenga, H. Yanga, Z. Chengb, and B. Xiaoc, “A planar polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber,” Photon. Nanostructures 9(1), 8–14 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

Zhou, L.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

K. B. Alici, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Experimental verification of metamaterial based subwavelength microwave absorbers,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(8), 083113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin and E. Ozbay, “Capacitor-loaded split ring resonators as tunable metamaterial components,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 024911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Photon. Nanostructures

K. B. Alici, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, “Photonic magnetic metamaterial basics,” Photon. Nanostructures 9(1), 15–21 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chenga, H. Yanga, Z. Chengb, and B. Xiaoc, “A planar polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber,” Photon. Nanostructures 9(1), 8–14 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

D. Yu. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, and E. I. Simakov, “Perfect subwavelength fishnet like metamaterial-based film terahertz absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. K. M. Diem and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle perfect absorber/thermal emitter in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle and polarization-independent chiral metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 033108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Left- and right-handed transmission peaks near the magnetic resonance frequency in composite metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 70(20), 201101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

K. B. Alici and E. Ozbay, “Photonic metamaterial absorber designs for infrared solar-cell applications,” Proc. SPIE 7772, 77721B, 77721B-3 (2010).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry and schematic of the absorber design. The absorber consists of an array of magnetic resonators placed on top of a thin dielectric. The wave vector (k) of the incident field is in the ̶ z-direction and the electric field (E) is in the y-direction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Numerical and experimental data of absorbance derived from scattering parameters. The blue dotted line corresponds to gold-only SRR layer performance. The SEM image of a section of the printed area and an example SRR are shown on the right.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarization independent response and corresponding unit cell.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spatial field distributions in the vicinity of split ring resonators at 225 THz frequency. (a)-(b) Electric field amplitude: (a) Top view (four unit cells were shown) (b) Side view (two unit cells were shown). (c)-(d) Spatial distribution of power flow. The color of the arrows shows the magnitude and direction of the arrows show the direction of the power flow. (c) Top view (four unit cells were shown), (d) Side view (two units cells were shown).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated absorption response of the SRR based metamaterial absorber for several incidence angles.

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