Abstract

In P3HT:PCBM based organic solar cells we propose and demonstrate numerically plasmonic backcontact grating architectures for strong optical absorption enhanced in both transverse-magnetic and transverse-electric polarizations. Even when the active material is partially replaced by the metallic grating (without increasing the active layer film thickness), we show computationally that the light absorption in thin-film P3HT:PCBM is increased by a maximum factor of ~21% considering both polarizations under AM1.5G solar radiation and over a half-maximum incidence angle of 45° (where the enhancement drops to its half) compared to the same cell without a grating. This backcontact grating outperforms the typical plasmonic grating placed in PEDOT:PSS layer.

© 2011 OSA

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  3. D. Duché, E. Drouard, J. J. Simon, L. Escoubas, P. Torchio, J. Le Rouzo, and S. Vedraine, “Light harvesting in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 18–25 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  11. V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. X. Chen, C. Zhao, L. Rothberg, and M. Ng, “Plasmon enhancement of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices by electrode modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 123302 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. W. Zhao, P. Liu, X. W. Sun, S. T. Tan, L. Ke, and A. K. K. Kyaw, “An inverted organic solar cell with an ultrathin Ca electron-transporting layer and MoO3 hole-transporting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 153304 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. Kitami, T. Sakai, T. Hishinuma, A. Sanda, H. Kusano, and M. Kitagawa, “Widening of harvesting layer and are of P3HT/PCBM bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 357–360 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
  29. K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011

D. Duché, E. Drouard, J. J. Simon, L. Escoubas, P. Torchio, J. Le Rouzo, and S. Vedraine, “Light harvesting in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 18–25 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Diukman, L. Tzabari, N. Berkovitch, N. Tessler, and M. Orenstein, “Controlling absorption enhancement in organic photovoltaic cells by patterning Au nano disks within the active layer,” Opt. Express 19(S1Suppl 1), A64–A71 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Sefunc, A. K. Okyay, and H. V. Demir, “Volumetric plasmonic resonator architecture for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 093117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Kitami, T. Sakai, T. Hishinuma, A. Sanda, H. Kusano, and M. Kitagawa, “Widening of harvesting layer and are of P3HT/PCBM bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 357–360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Tsai, M. Ballarotto, D. B. Romero, W. N. Herman, H. C. Kan, and R. J. Phaneuf, “Effect of gold nanopillar arrays on the absorption spectrum of a bulk heterojunction organic solar cell,” Opt. Express 18(S4Suppl 4), A528–A535 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Kulkarni, K. M. Noone, K. Munechika, S. R. Guyer, and D. S. Ginger, “Plasmon-enhanced charge carrier generation in organic photovoltaic films using silver nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1501–1505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, and M. Kondo, “Back surface reflectors with periodic textures fabricated by self-ordering process for light trapping in thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6–7), 1087–1090 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Troshin, H. Hoppe, J. Renz, M. Egginger, J. Y. Mayorova, A. E. Goryachev, A. S. Peregudov, R. N. Lyubovskaya, G. Gobsch, N. S. Sariciftci, and V. F. Razumov, “Material solubility-photovoltaic performance relationship in the design of novel fullerene derivatives for bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(5), 779–788 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, P. Bienstman, and B. Maes, “Plasmonic absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with thin active layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Bai, Q. Gan, F. Bartoli, J. Zhang, L. Cai, Y. Huang, and G. Song, “Design of plasmonic back structures for efficiency enhancement of thin-film amorphous Si solar cells,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3725–3727 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mokkapati, F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Designing periodic arrays of metal nanoparticles for light-trapping applications in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Zhao, P. Liu, X. W. Sun, S. T. Tan, L. Ke, and A. K. K. Kyaw, “An inverted organic solar cell with an ultrathin Ca electron-transporting layer and MoO3 hole-transporting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 153304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, C. Zhao, L. Rothberg, and M. Ng, “Plasmon enhancement of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices by electrode modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 123302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

N. C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood., “Enhanced optical absorption for photovoltaics via excitation of waveguide and plasmon-polariton modes,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2825–2827 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Peumans, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells using small-molecular-weight organic thin films,” Nature 425(6954), 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

H. Hoppe, N. S. Sariciftci, and D. Meissner, “Oprical constants of conjugated polymer/fullerene based bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 385(1), 113–119 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ameri, T.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, W.

Bailly, S.

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ballarotto, M.

Barnard, E.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartoli, F.

Beck, F. J.

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Mokkapati, F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Designing periodic arrays of metal nanoparticles for light-trapping applications in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berkovitch, N.

Bienstman, P.

H. Shen, P. Bienstman, and B. Maes, “Plasmonic absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with thin active layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, C. J.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cai, L.

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catchpole, K. R.

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Mokkapati, F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Designing periodic arrays of metal nanoparticles for light-trapping applications in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, C. Zhao, L. Rothberg, and M. Ng, “Plasmon enhancement of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices by electrode modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 123302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Bettignies, R.

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Defranoux, C.

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Demir, H. V.

M. A. Sefunc, A. K. Okyay, and H. V. Demir, “Volumetric plasmonic resonator architecture for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 093117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dennler, G.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diukman, I.

Drouard, E.

D. Duché, E. Drouard, J. J. Simon, L. Escoubas, P. Torchio, J. Le Rouzo, and S. Vedraine, “Light harvesting in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 18–25 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Duché, D.

D. Duché, E. Drouard, J. J. Simon, L. Escoubas, P. Torchio, J. Le Rouzo, and S. Vedraine, “Light harvesting in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 18–25 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Egginger, M.

P. A. Troshin, H. Hoppe, J. Renz, M. Egginger, J. Y. Mayorova, A. E. Goryachev, A. S. Peregudov, R. N. Lyubovskaya, G. Gobsch, N. S. Sariciftci, and V. F. Razumov, “Material solubility-photovoltaic performance relationship in the design of novel fullerene derivatives for bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(5), 779–788 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Escoubas, L.

D. Duché, E. Drouard, J. J. Simon, L. Escoubas, P. Torchio, J. Le Rouzo, and S. Vedraine, “Light harvesting in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 18–25 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, V. E.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flory, F.

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

P. Peumans, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells using small-molecular-weight organic thin films,” Nature 425(6954), 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujiwara, H.

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, and M. Kondo, “Back surface reflectors with periodic textures fabricated by self-ordering process for light trapping in thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6–7), 1087–1090 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gan, Q.

Ginger, D. S.

A. P. Kulkarni, K. M. Noone, K. Munechika, S. R. Guyer, and D. S. Ginger, “Plasmon-enhanced charge carrier generation in organic photovoltaic films using silver nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1501–1505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gobsch, G.

P. A. Troshin, H. Hoppe, J. Renz, M. Egginger, J. Y. Mayorova, A. E. Goryachev, A. S. Peregudov, R. N. Lyubovskaya, G. Gobsch, N. S. Sariciftci, and V. F. Razumov, “Material solubility-photovoltaic performance relationship in the design of novel fullerene derivatives for bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(5), 779–788 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goryachev, A. E.

P. A. Troshin, H. Hoppe, J. Renz, M. Egginger, J. Y. Mayorova, A. E. Goryachev, A. S. Peregudov, R. N. Lyubovskaya, G. Gobsch, N. S. Sariciftci, and V. F. Razumov, “Material solubility-photovoltaic performance relationship in the design of novel fullerene derivatives for bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(5), 779–788 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guillerez, S.

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guyer, S. R.

A. P. Kulkarni, K. M. Noone, K. Munechika, S. R. Guyer, and D. S. Ginger, “Plasmon-enhanced charge carrier generation in organic photovoltaic films using silver nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1501–1505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herman, W. N.

Hishinuma, T.

H. Kitami, T. Sakai, T. Hishinuma, A. Sanda, H. Kusano, and M. Kitagawa, “Widening of harvesting layer and are of P3HT/PCBM bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 357–360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hoppe, H.

P. A. Troshin, H. Hoppe, J. Renz, M. Egginger, J. Y. Mayorova, A. E. Goryachev, A. S. Peregudov, R. N. Lyubovskaya, G. Gobsch, N. S. Sariciftci, and V. F. Razumov, “Material solubility-photovoltaic performance relationship in the design of novel fullerene derivatives for bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(5), 779–788 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Hoppe, N. S. Sariciftci, and D. Meissner, “Oprical constants of conjugated polymer/fullerene based bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 385(1), 113–119 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Jun, Y. C.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kan, H. C.

Ke, L.

D. W. Zhao, P. Liu, X. W. Sun, S. T. Tan, L. Ke, and A. K. K. Kyaw, “An inverted organic solar cell with an ultrathin Ca electron-transporting layer and MoO3 hole-transporting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 153304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kitagawa, M.

H. Kitami, T. Sakai, T. Hishinuma, A. Sanda, H. Kusano, and M. Kitagawa, “Widening of harvesting layer and are of P3HT/PCBM bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 357–360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kitami, H.

H. Kitami, T. Sakai, T. Hishinuma, A. Sanda, H. Kusano, and M. Kitagawa, “Widening of harvesting layer and are of P3HT/PCBM bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 357–360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, M.

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, and M. Kondo, “Back surface reflectors with periodic textures fabricated by self-ordering process for light trapping in thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6–7), 1087–1090 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, A. P.

A. P. Kulkarni, K. M. Noone, K. Munechika, S. R. Guyer, and D. S. Ginger, “Plasmon-enhanced charge carrier generation in organic photovoltaic films using silver nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1501–1505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kusano, H.

H. Kitami, T. Sakai, T. Hishinuma, A. Sanda, H. Kusano, and M. Kitagawa, “Widening of harvesting layer and are of P3HT/PCBM bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 357–360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kyaw, A. K. K.

D. W. Zhao, P. Liu, X. W. Sun, S. T. Tan, L. Ke, and A. K. K. Kyaw, “An inverted organic solar cell with an ultrathin Ca electron-transporting layer and MoO3 hole-transporting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 153304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Le Rouzo, J.

D. Duché, E. Drouard, J. J. Simon, L. Escoubas, P. Torchio, J. Le Rouzo, and S. Vedraine, “Light harvesting in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 18–25 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. B. T.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, P.

D. W. Zhao, P. Liu, X. W. Sun, S. T. Tan, L. Ke, and A. K. K. Kyaw, “An inverted organic solar cell with an ultrathin Ca electron-transporting layer and MoO3 hole-transporting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 153304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lungenschmied, C.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lyubovskaya, R. N.

P. A. Troshin, H. Hoppe, J. Renz, M. Egginger, J. Y. Mayorova, A. E. Goryachev, A. S. Peregudov, R. N. Lyubovskaya, G. Gobsch, N. S. Sariciftci, and V. F. Razumov, “Material solubility-photovoltaic performance relationship in the design of novel fullerene derivatives for bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(5), 779–788 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maes, B.

H. Shen, P. Bienstman, and B. Maes, “Plasmonic absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with thin active layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mayorova, J. Y.

P. A. Troshin, H. Hoppe, J. Renz, M. Egginger, J. Y. Mayorova, A. E. Goryachev, A. S. Peregudov, R. N. Lyubovskaya, G. Gobsch, N. S. Sariciftci, and V. F. Razumov, “Material solubility-photovoltaic performance relationship in the design of novel fullerene derivatives for bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(5), 779–788 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meissner, D.

H. Hoppe, N. S. Sariciftci, and D. Meissner, “Oprical constants of conjugated polymer/fullerene based bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 385(1), 113–119 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Min, C.

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mokkapati, S.

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Mokkapati, F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Designing periodic arrays of metal nanoparticles for light-trapping applications in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Monestier, F.

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Munechika, K.

A. P. Kulkarni, K. M. Noone, K. Munechika, S. R. Guyer, and D. S. Ginger, “Plasmon-enhanced charge carrier generation in organic photovoltaic films using silver nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1501–1505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, M.

X. Chen, C. Zhao, L. Rothberg, and M. Ng, “Plasmon enhancement of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices by electrode modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 123302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noone, K. M.

A. P. Kulkarni, K. M. Noone, K. Munechika, S. R. Guyer, and D. S. Ginger, “Plasmon-enhanced charge carrier generation in organic photovoltaic films using silver nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1501–1505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okyay, A. K.

M. A. Sefunc, A. K. Okyay, and H. V. Demir, “Volumetric plasmonic resonator architecture for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 093117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Orenstein, M.

Osgood, R. M.

Pacifici, D.

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pala, R. A.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Panoiu, N. C.

Peregudov, A. S.

P. A. Troshin, H. Hoppe, J. Renz, M. Egginger, J. Y. Mayorova, A. E. Goryachev, A. S. Peregudov, R. N. Lyubovskaya, G. Gobsch, N. S. Sariciftci, and V. F. Razumov, “Material solubility-photovoltaic performance relationship in the design of novel fullerene derivatives for bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(5), 779–788 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peumans, P.

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Peumans, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells using small-molecular-weight organic thin films,” Nature 425(6954), 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phaneuf, R. J.

Polman, A.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Mokkapati, F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Designing periodic arrays of metal nanoparticles for light-trapping applications in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Razumov, V. F.

P. A. Troshin, H. Hoppe, J. Renz, M. Egginger, J. Y. Mayorova, A. E. Goryachev, A. S. Peregudov, R. N. Lyubovskaya, G. Gobsch, N. S. Sariciftci, and V. F. Razumov, “Material solubility-photovoltaic performance relationship in the design of novel fullerene derivatives for bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(5), 779–788 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Renz, J.

P. A. Troshin, H. Hoppe, J. Renz, M. Egginger, J. Y. Mayorova, A. E. Goryachev, A. S. Peregudov, R. N. Lyubovskaya, G. Gobsch, N. S. Sariciftci, and V. F. Razumov, “Material solubility-photovoltaic performance relationship in the design of novel fullerene derivatives for bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(5), 779–788 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Romero, D. B.

Rothberg, L.

X. Chen, C. Zhao, L. Rothberg, and M. Ng, “Plasmon enhancement of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices by electrode modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 123302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sai, H.

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, and M. Kondo, “Back surface reflectors with periodic textures fabricated by self-ordering process for light trapping in thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6–7), 1087–1090 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, T.

H. Kitami, T. Sakai, T. Hishinuma, A. Sanda, H. Kusano, and M. Kitagawa, “Widening of harvesting layer and are of P3HT/PCBM bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 357–360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sanda, A.

H. Kitami, T. Sakai, T. Hishinuma, A. Sanda, H. Kusano, and M. Kitagawa, “Widening of harvesting layer and are of P3HT/PCBM bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 357–360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sariciftci, N. S.

P. A. Troshin, H. Hoppe, J. Renz, M. Egginger, J. Y. Mayorova, A. E. Goryachev, A. S. Peregudov, R. N. Lyubovskaya, G. Gobsch, N. S. Sariciftci, and V. F. Razumov, “Material solubility-photovoltaic performance relationship in the design of novel fullerene derivatives for bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(5), 779–788 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Hoppe, N. S. Sariciftci, and D. Meissner, “Oprical constants of conjugated polymer/fullerene based bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 385(1), 113–119 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schropp, R. E. I.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sefunc, M. A.

M. A. Sefunc, A. K. Okyay, and H. V. Demir, “Volumetric plasmonic resonator architecture for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 093117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

H. Shen, P. Bienstman, and B. Maes, “Plasmonic absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with thin active layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J. J.

D. Duché, E. Drouard, J. J. Simon, L. Escoubas, P. Torchio, J. Le Rouzo, and S. Vedraine, “Light harvesting in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 18–25 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J.-J.

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, G.

Sun, X. W.

D. W. Zhao, P. Liu, X. W. Sun, S. T. Tan, L. Ke, and A. K. K. Kyaw, “An inverted organic solar cell with an ultrathin Ca electron-transporting layer and MoO3 hole-transporting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 153304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sweatlock, L. A.

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, S. T.

D. W. Zhao, P. Liu, X. W. Sun, S. T. Tan, L. Ke, and A. K. K. Kyaw, “An inverted organic solar cell with an ultrathin Ca electron-transporting layer and MoO3 hole-transporting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 153304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tessler, N.

Torchio, P.

D. Duché, E. Drouard, J. J. Simon, L. Escoubas, P. Torchio, J. Le Rouzo, and S. Vedraine, “Light harvesting in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 18–25 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Troshin, P. A.

P. A. Troshin, H. Hoppe, J. Renz, M. Egginger, J. Y. Mayorova, A. E. Goryachev, A. S. Peregudov, R. N. Lyubovskaya, G. Gobsch, N. S. Sariciftci, and V. F. Razumov, “Material solubility-photovoltaic performance relationship in the design of novel fullerene derivatives for bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(5), 779–788 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, S. J.

Tzabari, L.

Uchida, S.

P. Peumans, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells using small-molecular-weight organic thin films,” Nature 425(6954), 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vedraine, S.

D. Duché, E. Drouard, J. J. Simon, L. Escoubas, P. Torchio, J. Le Rouzo, and S. Vedraine, “Light harvesting in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 18–25 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

Veronis, G.

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Verschuuren, M. A.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walters, R. J.

White, J.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Zhao, C.

X. Chen, C. Zhao, L. Rothberg, and M. Ng, “Plasmon enhancement of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices by electrode modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 123302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D. W.

D. W. Zhao, P. Liu, X. W. Sun, S. T. Tan, L. Ke, and A. K. K. Kyaw, “An inverted organic solar cell with an ultrathin Ca electron-transporting layer and MoO3 hole-transporting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 153304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

P. A. Troshin, H. Hoppe, J. Renz, M. Egginger, J. Y. Mayorova, A. E. Goryachev, A. S. Peregudov, R. N. Lyubovskaya, G. Gobsch, N. S. Sariciftci, and V. F. Razumov, “Material solubility-photovoltaic performance relationship in the design of novel fullerene derivatives for bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(5), 779–788 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Mokkapati, F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Designing periodic arrays of metal nanoparticles for light-trapping applications in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Sefunc, A. K. Okyay, and H. V. Demir, “Volumetric plasmonic resonator architecture for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 093117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, C. Zhao, L. Rothberg, and M. Ng, “Plasmon enhancement of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices by electrode modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 123302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Zhao, P. Liu, X. W. Sun, S. T. Tan, L. Ke, and A. K. K. Kyaw, “An inverted organic solar cell with an ultrathin Ca electron-transporting layer and MoO3 hole-transporting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(15), 153304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Energy Environ. Sci.

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Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MPG (4260 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (4258 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional view of the thin-film organic solar cell (OSC) architecture made of glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Ag: (a) the bare (non-metallic architecture) thin-film OSC as a reference sample (Here LT stands for the corresponding layer thickness.), (b) OSC with the bottom grating, (P indicates the period, w1 denotes the width, and h represents the height of the bottom grating.), and (c) OSC with the top grating (w2 indicates the width of the top grating.). In our simulations, the illumination is set to be normal to the device structure and the architecture is assumed to be infinite along x- and z-axes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electric field (|E|2) maps at λ = 600 nm under TM illumination for (a) the bare (reference) structure consisting of glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Ag, (b) the top grating structure – partially substituting the PEDOT:PSS layer with Ag periodic gratings, and (c) the Ag bottom grating case – adding periodic grating on top of backcontact – and under TE illumination for (d) the bare, (e) the top grating, and (f) the bottom grating structure for parameters of P = 130 nm, LT1 = 150 nm, LT2 = 50 nm, LT3 = 100 nm, w1 = 50 nm, w2 = 50 nm and h = 50 nm. Here one unit cell of the repeating grating structure is used to visualize the electric field maps.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated absorption spectra of the organic active material in the bare, bottom grating, and top grating structures computed for the device parameter of P = 130 nm, LT1 = 150 nm, LT2 = 50 nm, LT3 = 100 nm, w1 = 50 nm, w2 = 50 nm, and h = 50 nm under (a) TM-polarized (Media 1) and (b) TE-polarized light illumination (Media 2). Electric field intensity enhancement within the volume of the organic active material using the bottom grating (given in Fig. 1(b)) and the top grating (given in Fig. 1(c)) structures compared to that generated in the bare structure, with this field enhancement shown for (c) TM-polarized and (d) TE-polarized light illumination. (e) Air mass (AM) 1.5G solar radiation. (f) Multiplication of AM1.5G solar radiation and overall absorptivity in the volume of the organic active material in the bare, bottom grating, and top grating structures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Map of absorptivity in the active layer of (a) the bottom grating structure under TM, (b) the bottom grating structure under TE, (c) the top grating structure under TM and (d) the top grating structure under TE. The absorption spectra are shown for parameters of w1 = 50 nm, h1 = 50 nm, LT1 = 150 nm, LT2 = 50 nm and LT3 = 100 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated absorption enhancement of plasmonic backside grating in comparison to the bare device computed for the following parameters: LT1 = 150 nm, LT2 = 50 nm, LT3 = 100 nm, w1 = 50 nm, and h = 50 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of the incidence angle on calculated overall total absorption enhancement in the plasmonic backcontact grating architecture. All device parameters are the same as those in Fig. 2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Effect of the incidence angle on field distribution (|E|2) in backcontact grating architecture at λ = 400 nm under TM-polarized illumination. Field distributions are given at illumination angles (a) 70° (b) 75°, and (c) 80°. All device parameters are the same as those in Fig. 2.

Equations (3)

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V | E t o p , b o t t o m | 2 d V V | E b a r e | 2 d V
A = ω * Im ( ε ) V | E | 2 d V
400 n m 800 n m ( A T M ( λ ) + A T E ( λ ) 2 ) × A M 1.5 G ( λ ) d λ 400 n m 800 n m A b a r e ( λ ) × A M 1.5 G ( λ ) d λ 400 n m 800 n m A b a r e ( λ ) × A M 1.5 G ( λ ) d λ × 100

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