Abstract

We present a novel method and instrument for in vivo imaging and measurement of the human corneal dynamics during an air puff. The instrument is based on high-speed swept source optical coherence tomography (ssOCT) combined with a custom adapted air puff chamber from a non-contact tonometer, which uses an air stream to deform the cornea in a non-invasive manner. During the short period of time that the deformation takes place, the ssOCT acquires multiple A-scans in time (M-scan) at the center of the air puff, allowing observation of the dynamics of the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces as well as the anterior lens surface. The dynamics of the measurement are driven by the biomechanical properties of the human eye as well as its intraocular pressure. Thus, the analysis of the M-scan may provide useful information about the biomechanical behavior of the anterior segment during the applanation caused by the air puff. An initial set of controlled clinical experiments are shown to comprehend the performance of the instrument and its potential applicability to further understand the eye biomechanics and intraocular pressure measurements. Limitations and possibilities of the new apparatus are discussed.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. F. Damji, R. H. Muni, and R. M. Munger, “Influence of corneal variables on accuracy of intraocular pressure measurement,” J. Glaucoma 12(1), 69–80 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. J. Orssengo and D. C. Pye, “Determination of the true intraocular pressure and modulus of elasticity of the human cornea in vivo,” Bull. Math. Biol. 61(3), 551–572 (1999).
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  6. J. Liu and C. J. Roberts, “Influence of corneal biomechanical properties on intraocular pressure measurement: quantitative analysis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31(1), 146–155 (2005).
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  7. F. A. La Rosa, R. L. Gross, and S. Orengo-Nania, “Central corneal thickness of Caucasians and African Americans in glaucomatous and nonglaucomatous populations,” Arch,” Ophthalmol-chic 119, 23–27 (2001).
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  10. M. R. Ford, W. J. Dupps, A. M. Rollins, A. S. Roy, and Z. Hu, “Method for optical coherence elastography of the cornea,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016005–016007 (2011).
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  24. S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 119, 1179–1185 (2001).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. R. C. Lin, M. A. Shure, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Group index of the human cornea at 1.3-microm wavelength obtained in vitro by optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 83–85 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. J. Ø. Hjortdal, “Regional elastic performance of the human cornea,” J. Biomech. 29(7), 931–942 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. J. Liu and X. He, “Corneal stiffness affects IOP elevation during rapid volume change in the eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(5), 2224–2229 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. A. Faucher, J. Grégoire, and P. Blondeau, “Accuracy of Goldmann tonometry after refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 23(6), 832–838 (1997).
    [PubMed]
  34. R. Montés-Micó and W. N. Charman, “Intraocular pressure after excimer laser myopic refractive surgery,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21(3), 228–235 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. J. B. Randleman, “Post-laser in-situ keratomileusis ectasia: current understanding and future directions,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 17(4), 406–412 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. C. Schweitzer, C. J. Roberts, A. M. Mahmoud, J. Colin, S. Maurice-Tison, and J. Kerautret, “Screening of forme fruste keratoconus with the ocular response analyzer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2403–2410 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

R. L. Stamper, “A history of intraocular pressure and its measurement,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 88(1), E16–E28 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Ford, W. J. Dupps, A. M. Rollins, A. S. Roy, and Z. Hu, “Method for optical coherence elastography of the cornea,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016005–016007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ambrósio, L. P. Nogueira, D. L. Caldas, B. M. Fontes, A. Luz, J. O. Cazal, M. R. Alves, and M. W. Belin, “Evaluation of corneal shape and biomechanics before LASIK,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 51(2), 11–38 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

J. M. Gonzalez-Meijome, A. Cerviño, G. Carracedo, A. Queiros, S. Garcia-Lázaro, and T. Ferrer-Blasco, “High-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography technology for the visualization of contact lens to cornea relationships,” Cornea 29(12), 1359–1367 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Schweitzer, C. J. Roberts, A. M. Mahmoud, J. Colin, S. Maurice-Tison, and J. Kerautret, “Screening of forme fruste keratoconus with the ocular response analyzer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2403–2410 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, I. Grulkowski, L. Remon, D. Pascual, M. Wojtkowski, and S. Marcos, “Optical distortion correction in optical coherence tomography for quantitative ocular anterior segment by three-dimensional imaging,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2782–2796 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. de Castro, S. Ortiz, E. Gambra, D. Siedlecki, and S. Marcos, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of the crystalline lens gradient index distribution from OCT imaging,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21905–21917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2007

D. Ortiz, D. Pinero, M. H. Shabayek, F. Arnalich-Montiel, and J. L. Alió, “Corneal biomechanical properties in normal, post-laser in situ keratomileusis, and keratoconic eyes,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(8), 1371–1375 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

F. A. Medeiros and R. N. Weinreb, “Evaluation of the influence of corneal biomechanical properties on intraocular pressure measurements using the ocular response analyzer,” J. Glaucoma 15(5), 364–370 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Spectral optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technique in contact lens practice,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26(2), 127–132 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Randleman, “Post-laser in-situ keratomileusis ectasia: current understanding and future directions,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 17(4), 406–412 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2975–2977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10652–10664 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Luce, “Determining in vivo biomechanical properties of the cornea with an ocular response analyzer,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31(1), 156–162 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu and C. J. Roberts, “Influence of corneal biomechanical properties on intraocular pressure measurement: quantitative analysis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31(1), 146–155 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

P. Targowski, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, and I. Gorczynska, “Complex spectral OCT in human eye imaging in vivo,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 79–84 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Lin, M. A. Shure, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Group index of the human cornea at 1.3-microm wavelength obtained in vitro by optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 83–85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, Y. Li, and S. Radhakrishnan, “Optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment of the eye,” Ophthalmol. Clin. North Am. 17(1), 1–6 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

K. F. Damji, R. H. Muni, and R. M. Munger, “Influence of corneal variables on accuracy of intraocular pressure measurement,” J. Glaucoma 12(1), 69–80 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

K. W. Hollman, S. Y. Emelianov, J. H. Neiss, G. Jotyan, G. J. R. Spooner, T. Juhasz, R. M. Kurtz, and M. O’Donnell, “Strain imaging of corneal tissue with an ultrasound elasticity microscope,” Cornea 21(1), 68–73 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 119, 1179–1185 (2001).

F. A. La Rosa, R. L. Gross, and S. Orengo-Nania, “Central corneal thickness of Caucasians and African Americans in glaucomatous and nonglaucomatous populations,” Arch,” Ophthalmol-chic 119, 23–27 (2001).

R. Montés-Micó and W. N. Charman, “Intraocular pressure after excimer laser myopic refractive surgery,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21(3), 228–235 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

G. J. Orssengo and D. C. Pye, “Determination of the true intraocular pressure and modulus of elasticity of the human cornea in vivo,” Bull. Math. Biol. 61(3), 551–572 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

A. Faucher, J. Grégoire, and P. Blondeau, “Accuracy of Goldmann tonometry after refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 23(6), 832–838 (1997).
[PubMed]

1996

J. Ø. Hjortdal, “Regional elastic performance of the human cornea,” J. Biomech. 29(7), 931–942 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. M. Whitacre, R. A. Stein, and K. Hassanein, “The effect of corneal thickness on applanation tonometry,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 115(5), 592–596 (1993).
[PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

Akiba, M.

Alió, J. L.

D. Ortiz, D. Pinero, M. H. Shabayek, F. Arnalich-Montiel, and J. L. Alió, “Corneal biomechanical properties in normal, post-laser in situ keratomileusis, and keratoconic eyes,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(8), 1371–1375 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alves, M. R.

R. Ambrósio, L. P. Nogueira, D. L. Caldas, B. M. Fontes, A. Luz, J. O. Cazal, M. R. Alves, and M. W. Belin, “Evaluation of corneal shape and biomechanics before LASIK,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 51(2), 11–38 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ambrósio, R.

R. Ambrósio, L. P. Nogueira, D. L. Caldas, B. M. Fontes, A. Luz, J. O. Cazal, M. R. Alves, and M. W. Belin, “Evaluation of corneal shape and biomechanics before LASIK,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 51(2), 11–38 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnalich-Montiel, F.

D. Ortiz, D. Pinero, M. H. Shabayek, F. Arnalich-Montiel, and J. L. Alió, “Corneal biomechanical properties in normal, post-laser in situ keratomileusis, and keratoconic eyes,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(8), 1371–1375 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Spectral optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technique in contact lens practice,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26(2), 127–132 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Targowski, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, and I. Gorczynska, “Complex spectral OCT in human eye imaging in vivo,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 79–84 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bardenstein, D. S.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 119, 1179–1185 (2001).

Belin, M. W.

R. Ambrósio, L. P. Nogueira, D. L. Caldas, B. M. Fontes, A. Luz, J. O. Cazal, M. R. Alves, and M. W. Belin, “Evaluation of corneal shape and biomechanics before LASIK,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 51(2), 11–38 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biedermann, B. R.

Blondeau, P.

A. Faucher, J. Grégoire, and P. Blondeau, “Accuracy of Goldmann tonometry after refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 23(6), 832–838 (1997).
[PubMed]

Caldas, D. L.

R. Ambrósio, L. P. Nogueira, D. L. Caldas, B. M. Fontes, A. Luz, J. O. Cazal, M. R. Alves, and M. W. Belin, “Evaluation of corneal shape and biomechanics before LASIK,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 51(2), 11–38 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carracedo, G.

J. M. Gonzalez-Meijome, A. Cerviño, G. Carracedo, A. Queiros, S. Garcia-Lázaro, and T. Ferrer-Blasco, “High-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography technology for the visualization of contact lens to cornea relationships,” Cornea 29(12), 1359–1367 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cazal, J. O.

R. Ambrósio, L. P. Nogueira, D. L. Caldas, B. M. Fontes, A. Luz, J. O. Cazal, M. R. Alves, and M. W. Belin, “Evaluation of corneal shape and biomechanics before LASIK,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 51(2), 11–38 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerviño, A.

J. M. Gonzalez-Meijome, A. Cerviño, G. Carracedo, A. Queiros, S. Garcia-Lázaro, and T. Ferrer-Blasco, “High-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography technology for the visualization of contact lens to cornea relationships,” Cornea 29(12), 1359–1367 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, K. P.

Charman, W. N.

R. Montés-Micó and W. N. Charman, “Intraocular pressure after excimer laser myopic refractive surgery,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21(3), 228–235 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, C.

Colin, J.

C. Schweitzer, C. J. Roberts, A. M. Mahmoud, J. Colin, S. Maurice-Tison, and J. Kerautret, “Screening of forme fruste keratoconus with the ocular response analyzer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2403–2410 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Damji, K. F.

K. F. Damji, R. H. Muni, and R. M. Munger, “Influence of corneal variables on accuracy of intraocular pressure measurement,” J. Glaucoma 12(1), 69–80 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Castro, A.

Dupps, W. J.

M. R. Ford, W. J. Dupps, A. M. Rollins, A. S. Roy, and Z. Hu, “Method for optical coherence elastography of the cornea,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016005–016007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Emelianov, S. Y.

K. W. Hollman, S. Y. Emelianov, J. H. Neiss, G. Jotyan, G. J. R. Spooner, T. Juhasz, R. M. Kurtz, and M. O’Donnell, “Strain imaging of corneal tissue with an ultrasound elasticity microscope,” Cornea 21(1), 68–73 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faucher, A.

A. Faucher, J. Grégoire, and P. Blondeau, “Accuracy of Goldmann tonometry after refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 23(6), 832–838 (1997).
[PubMed]

Ferrer-Blasco, T.

J. M. Gonzalez-Meijome, A. Cerviño, G. Carracedo, A. Queiros, S. Garcia-Lázaro, and T. Ferrer-Blasco, “High-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography technology for the visualization of contact lens to cornea relationships,” Cornea 29(12), 1359–1367 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fontes, B. M.

R. Ambrósio, L. P. Nogueira, D. L. Caldas, B. M. Fontes, A. Luz, J. O. Cazal, M. R. Alves, and M. W. Belin, “Evaluation of corneal shape and biomechanics before LASIK,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 51(2), 11–38 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ford, M. R.

M. R. Ford, W. J. Dupps, A. M. Rollins, A. S. Roy, and Z. Hu, “Method for optical coherence elastography of the cornea,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016005–016007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2975–2977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gambra, E.

Garcia-Lázaro, S.

J. M. Gonzalez-Meijome, A. Cerviño, G. Carracedo, A. Queiros, S. Garcia-Lázaro, and T. Ferrer-Blasco, “High-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography technology for the visualization of contact lens to cornea relationships,” Cornea 29(12), 1359–1367 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzalez-Meijome, J. M.

J. M. Gonzalez-Meijome, A. Cerviño, G. Carracedo, A. Queiros, S. Garcia-Lázaro, and T. Ferrer-Blasco, “High-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography technology for the visualization of contact lens to cornea relationships,” Cornea 29(12), 1359–1367 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gora, M.

Gorczynska, I.

I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Spectral optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technique in contact lens practice,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26(2), 127–132 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Targowski, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, and I. Gorczynska, “Complex spectral OCT in human eye imaging in vivo,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 79–84 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grégoire, J.

A. Faucher, J. Grégoire, and P. Blondeau, “Accuracy of Goldmann tonometry after refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 23(6), 832–838 (1997).
[PubMed]

Gross, R. L.

F. A. La Rosa, R. L. Gross, and S. Orengo-Nania, “Central corneal thickness of Caucasians and African Americans in glaucomatous and nonglaucomatous populations,” Arch,” Ophthalmol-chic 119, 23–27 (2001).

Grulkowski, I.

Hassanein, K.

M. M. Whitacre, R. A. Stein, and K. Hassanein, “The effect of corneal thickness on applanation tonometry,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 115(5), 592–596 (1993).
[PubMed]

He, X.

J. Liu and X. He, “Corneal stiffness affects IOP elevation during rapid volume change in the eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(5), 2224–2229 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. He and J. Liu, “A quantitative ultrasonic spectroscopy method for noninvasive determination of corneal biomechanical properties,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(11), 5148–5154 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
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J. Ø. Hjortdal, “Regional elastic performance of the human cornea,” J. Biomech. 29(7), 931–942 (1996).
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Hollman, K. W.

K. W. Hollman, S. Y. Emelianov, J. H. Neiss, G. Jotyan, G. J. R. Spooner, T. Juhasz, R. M. Kurtz, and M. O’Donnell, “Strain imaging of corneal tissue with an ultrasound elasticity microscope,” Cornea 21(1), 68–73 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, Z.

M. R. Ford, W. J. Dupps, A. M. Rollins, A. S. Roy, and Z. Hu, “Method for optical coherence elastography of the cornea,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016005–016007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, Y. Li, and S. Radhakrishnan, “Optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment of the eye,” Ophthalmol. Clin. North Am. 17(1), 1–6 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Lin, M. A. Shure, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Group index of the human cornea at 1.3-microm wavelength obtained in vitro by optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 83–85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

Itoh, M.

Izatt, J. A.

R. C. Lin, M. A. Shure, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Group index of the human cornea at 1.3-microm wavelength obtained in vitro by optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 83–85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 119, 1179–1185 (2001).

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jotyan, G.

K. W. Hollman, S. Y. Emelianov, J. H. Neiss, G. Jotyan, G. J. R. Spooner, T. Juhasz, R. M. Kurtz, and M. O’Donnell, “Strain imaging of corneal tissue with an ultrasound elasticity microscope,” Cornea 21(1), 68–73 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juhasz, T.

K. W. Hollman, S. Y. Emelianov, J. H. Neiss, G. Jotyan, G. J. R. Spooner, T. Juhasz, R. M. Kurtz, and M. O’Donnell, “Strain imaging of corneal tissue with an ultrasound elasticity microscope,” Cornea 21(1), 68–73 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaluzny, B. J.

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Spectral optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technique in contact lens practice,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26(2), 127–132 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaluzny, J. J.

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Spectral optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technique in contact lens practice,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26(2), 127–132 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karnowski, K.

Kerautret, J.

C. Schweitzer, C. J. Roberts, A. M. Mahmoud, J. Colin, S. Maurice-Tison, and J. Kerautret, “Screening of forme fruste keratoconus with the ocular response analyzer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2403–2410 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Spectral optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technique in contact lens practice,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26(2), 127–132 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Targowski, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, and I. Gorczynska, “Complex spectral OCT in human eye imaging in vivo,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 79–84 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, R. M.

K. W. Hollman, S. Y. Emelianov, J. H. Neiss, G. Jotyan, G. J. R. Spooner, T. Juhasz, R. M. Kurtz, and M. O’Donnell, “Strain imaging of corneal tissue with an ultrasound elasticity microscope,” Cornea 21(1), 68–73 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

La Rosa, F. A.

F. A. La Rosa, R. L. Gross, and S. Orengo-Nania, “Central corneal thickness of Caucasians and African Americans in glaucomatous and nonglaucomatous populations,” Arch,” Ophthalmol-chic 119, 23–27 (2001).

Li, Y.

D. Huang, Y. Li, and S. Radhakrishnan, “Optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment of the eye,” Ophthalmol. Clin. North Am. 17(1), 1–6 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lin, R. C.

Liu, J.

X. He and J. Liu, “A quantitative ultrasonic spectroscopy method for noninvasive determination of corneal biomechanical properties,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(11), 5148–5154 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu and X. He, “Corneal stiffness affects IOP elevation during rapid volume change in the eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(5), 2224–2229 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu and C. J. Roberts, “Influence of corneal biomechanical properties on intraocular pressure measurement: quantitative analysis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31(1), 146–155 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luce, D. A.

D. A. Luce, “Determining in vivo biomechanical properties of the cornea with an ocular response analyzer,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31(1), 156–162 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luz, A.

R. Ambrósio, L. P. Nogueira, D. L. Caldas, B. M. Fontes, A. Luz, J. O. Cazal, M. R. Alves, and M. W. Belin, “Evaluation of corneal shape and biomechanics before LASIK,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 51(2), 11–38 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madjarova, V. D.

Mahmoud, A. M.

C. Schweitzer, C. J. Roberts, A. M. Mahmoud, J. Colin, S. Maurice-Tison, and J. Kerautret, “Screening of forme fruste keratoconus with the ocular response analyzer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2403–2410 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

Marcos, S.

Maurice-Tison, S.

C. Schweitzer, C. J. Roberts, A. M. Mahmoud, J. Colin, S. Maurice-Tison, and J. Kerautret, “Screening of forme fruste keratoconus with the ocular response analyzer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2403–2410 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Medeiros, F. A.

F. A. Medeiros and R. N. Weinreb, “Evaluation of the influence of corneal biomechanical properties on intraocular pressure measurements using the ocular response analyzer,” J. Glaucoma 15(5), 364–370 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montés-Micó, R.

R. Montés-Micó and W. N. Charman, “Intraocular pressure after excimer laser myopic refractive surgery,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 21(3), 228–235 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morosawa, A.

Munger, R. M.

K. F. Damji, R. H. Muni, and R. M. Munger, “Influence of corneal variables on accuracy of intraocular pressure measurement,” J. Glaucoma 12(1), 69–80 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muni, R. H.

K. F. Damji, R. H. Muni, and R. M. Munger, “Influence of corneal variables on accuracy of intraocular pressure measurement,” J. Glaucoma 12(1), 69–80 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neiss, J. H.

K. W. Hollman, S. Y. Emelianov, J. H. Neiss, G. Jotyan, G. J. R. Spooner, T. Juhasz, R. M. Kurtz, and M. O’Donnell, “Strain imaging of corneal tissue with an ultrasound elasticity microscope,” Cornea 21(1), 68–73 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nogueira, L. P.

R. Ambrósio, L. P. Nogueira, D. L. Caldas, B. M. Fontes, A. Luz, J. O. Cazal, M. R. Alves, and M. W. Belin, “Evaluation of corneal shape and biomechanics before LASIK,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 51(2), 11–38 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Donnell, M.

K. W. Hollman, S. Y. Emelianov, J. H. Neiss, G. Jotyan, G. J. R. Spooner, T. Juhasz, R. M. Kurtz, and M. O’Donnell, “Strain imaging of corneal tissue with an ultrasound elasticity microscope,” Cornea 21(1), 68–73 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orengo-Nania, S.

F. A. La Rosa, R. L. Gross, and S. Orengo-Nania, “Central corneal thickness of Caucasians and African Americans in glaucomatous and nonglaucomatous populations,” Arch,” Ophthalmol-chic 119, 23–27 (2001).

Orssengo, G. J.

G. J. Orssengo and D. C. Pye, “Determination of the true intraocular pressure and modulus of elasticity of the human cornea in vivo,” Bull. Math. Biol. 61(3), 551–572 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortiz, D.

D. Ortiz, D. Pinero, M. H. Shabayek, F. Arnalich-Montiel, and J. L. Alió, “Corneal biomechanical properties in normal, post-laser in situ keratomileusis, and keratoconic eyes,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(8), 1371–1375 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortiz, S.

Pascual, D.

Pinero, D.

D. Ortiz, D. Pinero, M. H. Shabayek, F. Arnalich-Montiel, and J. L. Alió, “Corneal biomechanical properties in normal, post-laser in situ keratomileusis, and keratoconic eyes,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(8), 1371–1375 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pye, D. C.

G. J. Orssengo and D. C. Pye, “Determination of the true intraocular pressure and modulus of elasticity of the human cornea in vivo,” Bull. Math. Biol. 61(3), 551–572 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Queiros, A.

J. M. Gonzalez-Meijome, A. Cerviño, G. Carracedo, A. Queiros, S. Garcia-Lázaro, and T. Ferrer-Blasco, “High-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography technology for the visualization of contact lens to cornea relationships,” Cornea 29(12), 1359–1367 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radhakrishnan, S.

D. Huang, Y. Li, and S. Radhakrishnan, “Optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment of the eye,” Ophthalmol. Clin. North Am. 17(1), 1–6 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 119, 1179–1185 (2001).

Randleman, J. B.

J. B. Randleman, “Post-laser in-situ keratomileusis ectasia: current understanding and future directions,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 17(4), 406–412 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Remon, L.

Roberts, C. J.

C. Schweitzer, C. J. Roberts, A. M. Mahmoud, J. Colin, S. Maurice-Tison, and J. Kerautret, “Screening of forme fruste keratoconus with the ocular response analyzer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2403–2410 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu and C. J. Roberts, “Influence of corneal biomechanical properties on intraocular pressure measurement: quantitative analysis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 31(1), 146–155 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

M. R. Ford, W. J. Dupps, A. M. Rollins, A. S. Roy, and Z. Hu, “Method for optical coherence elastography of the cornea,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016005–016007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Lin, M. A. Shure, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Group index of the human cornea at 1.3-microm wavelength obtained in vitro by optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 83–85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 119, 1179–1185 (2001).

Roth, J. E.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 119, 1179–1185 (2001).

Roy, A. S.

M. R. Ford, W. J. Dupps, A. M. Rollins, A. S. Roy, and Z. Hu, “Method for optical coherence elastography of the cornea,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016005–016007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakai, T.

Schuman, J. S.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schweitzer, C.

C. Schweitzer, C. J. Roberts, A. M. Mahmoud, J. Colin, S. Maurice-Tison, and J. Kerautret, “Screening of forme fruste keratoconus with the ocular response analyzer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2403–2410 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shabayek, M. H.

D. Ortiz, D. Pinero, M. H. Shabayek, F. Arnalich-Montiel, and J. L. Alió, “Corneal biomechanical properties in normal, post-laser in situ keratomileusis, and keratoconic eyes,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(8), 1371–1375 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shure, M. A.

Siedlecki, D.

Spooner, G. J. R.

K. W. Hollman, S. Y. Emelianov, J. H. Neiss, G. Jotyan, G. J. R. Spooner, T. Juhasz, R. M. Kurtz, and M. O’Donnell, “Strain imaging of corneal tissue with an ultrasound elasticity microscope,” Cornea 21(1), 68–73 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamper, R. L.

R. L. Stamper, “A history of intraocular pressure and its measurement,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 88(1), E16–E28 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stein, R. A.

M. M. Whitacre, R. A. Stein, and K. Hassanein, “The effect of corneal thickness on applanation tonometry,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 115(5), 592–596 (1993).
[PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 113, 325–332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Szkulmowska, A.

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Spectral optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technique in contact lens practice,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26(2), 127–132 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowski, M.

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Spectral optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technique in contact lens practice,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26(2), 127–132 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Targowski, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, and I. Gorczynska, “Complex spectral OCT in human eye imaging in vivo,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 79–84 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Szlag, D.

Targowski, P.

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Spectral optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technique in contact lens practice,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26(2), 127–132 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Targowski, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, and I. Gorczynska, “Complex spectral OCT in human eye imaging in vivo,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 79–84 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weinreb, R. N.

F. A. Medeiros and R. N. Weinreb, “Evaluation of the influence of corneal biomechanical properties on intraocular pressure measurements using the ocular response analyzer,” J. Glaucoma 15(5), 364–370 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westphal, V.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol-chic 119, 1179–1185 (2001).

Whitacre, M. M.

M. M. Whitacre, R. A. Stein, and K. Hassanein, “The effect of corneal thickness on applanation tonometry,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 115(5), 592–596 (1993).
[PubMed]

Wieser, W.

Wojtkowski, M.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yazdanfar, S.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the swept source OCT instrument combined with the air puff system from a commercial tonometer. (AXSUN – commercial swept source laser at 1300nm, FC – Fiber Coupler, C – Circulator, DBPD – Dual-balanced Photo Diode, NDF – Neutral Density Filter, GP – Glass Plate, GS – XY Galvoscanners.)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Time dependent response of the applied pressure in the air puff system measured with the reference pressure sensor. Data were acquired for six consecutive readings of the applied pressure. Vertical bars indicate value of ± 1 Standard Deviation (SD) of the mean, which is plotted as a continuous line. (b) Comparison of a single A-scan and an A-scan averaged with three pre and three post A-scans, to reduce speckle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

M-scan (1300 A-scans) recording of the eye’s anterior segment, showing the surface motion during the measurement. The scales bars represent 1mm x 2 ms. The M-scan was not corrected from refraction index.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative displacement of the cornea and lens surfaces dynamics during the measurement after correction for refraction.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Influence of the corneal location on the dynamics of the anterior corneal surface for two subjects. Error bars are ±1 SD of the mean.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Influence of the IOP reduction on the dynamics of the anterior corneal layer for 5 different subjects. Error bars are ±1 SD of the mean.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Intraocular pressure (IOP) recorded by the indentation tonometer and corneal thickness based on OCT recordings, before and 1 hour after the instillation of the drug.

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