Abstract

We report on the micro second harmonic (µ-SH) and micro Raman (µ-Raman) images of ion implanted channel and planar waveguides in KTiOPO4 (KTP) crystals. The μ-SH images reveal that the nonlinear properties in the waveguides have not been deteriorated during the implantation process. This is consistent with the μ-Raman images that evidences that lattice distortions are minimal at waveguide’s volume. Both the structural and nonlinear properties of the KTP lattice have been only modified at the end of ions’ trajectory, which is in good agreement with the positions with maximum refractive index changes.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. F. Laurell, “Stable blue second-harmonic generation in a KTP waveguide with a diode laser in an external cavity,” Electron. Lett. 29(18), 1629–1630 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  29. N. N. Dong, Y. Tan, A. Benayas, J. V. de Aldana, D. Jaque, C. Romero, F. Chen, and Q. M. Lu, “Femtosecond laser writing of multifunctional optical waveguides in a Nd:YVO4 + KTP hybrid system,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 975–977 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. N. N. Dong, J. M. Mendivil, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, J. V. Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, and D. Jaque, “Self-frequency-doubling of ultrafast laser inscribed neodymium doped yttrium aluminum borate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(18), 181103 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011

T. Liu, S.-S. Guo, J.-H. Zhao, J. Guan, and X.-L. Wang, “Planar optical waveguides in Nd:BSO crystals fabricated by He and C ion implantation,” Opt. Mater. 33(3), 385–388 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Dong, J. M. Mendivil, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, J. V. Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, and D. Jaque, “Self-frequency-doubling of ultrafast laser inscribed neodymium doped yttrium aluminum borate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(18), 181103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Dong, Y. Tan, A. Benayas, J. V. de Aldana, D. Jaque, C. Romero, F. Chen, and Q. M. Lu, “Femtosecond laser writing of multifunctional optical waveguides in a Nd:YVO4 + KTP hybrid system,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 975–977 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

J. H. Zhao, T. Liu, S. S. Guo, J. Guan, and X. L. Wang, “Optical properties of planar waveguides on ZnWO₄ formed by carbon and helium ion implantation and effects of annealing,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18989–18996 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, “Evidence of light guiding in ion-implanted diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(23), 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

L. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and H. J. Ma, “Enhance refractive index well-confined planar and channel waveguides in KTiOPO4 produced by MeV C3+ ion implantation with low dose,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 295–299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, D. C. Hou, and Q. M. Lu, “Optical channel waveguides with trapezoidal-shaped cross sections in KTiOPO4 crystal fabricated by ion implantation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254(6), 1822–1824 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ilan, A. Gumennik, G. Perepelitsa, A. Israel, and A. J. Agranat, “Construction of an optical wire imprinted in potassium lithium tantalate niobate by He+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 191101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, L. Wang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, and Q. M. Lu, “Optical channel waveguides in KTiOPTO4 crystal produced by proton implantation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(10), 1304–1308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Developments of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2004

S. M. Kostritskii and P. Moretti, “Micro-Raman study of defect structure and phonon spectrum of He-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi 11(c), 3126–3129 (2004).

2003

E. A. Werner, J. P. Ruske, B. Zeitner, W. Biehlig, and A. Tünnermann, “Integrated-optical amplitude modulator for high power applications,” Opt. Commun. 221(1-3), 9–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

F. Schrempel, Th. Hoche, J. Ruske, U. Grusemann, and W. Wesch; “Depth dependence of radiation damage in Li+-implanted KTiOPO4,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 191(1-4), 202–207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

K. M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, Y. G. Liu, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, “Refractive index profile and attenuation measurement in KTiOPO4 waveguide by megaelectronvolt He ions,” J. Mater. Res. 16(01), 276–279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Wesch, Th. Opfermann, F. Schrempel, and Th. Hoche, “Track formation in KTiOPO4 by MeV implantation of light ions,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 175–177, 88–92 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Bindner, A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, and P. Moretti, “Formation of planar optical waveguides in potassium titanyl phosphate by double implantation of protons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(16), 2558–2560 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. Fluck and P. Günter, “Second-harmonic generation in potassium niobate waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 122–131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Second harmonic generation capabilities of ion implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(9), 5180 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Savatinova, I. Savova, E. Liarokapis, C. C. Ziling, V. V. Atuchin, M. N. Armenise, and V. M. N. Passaro, “A comparative analysis of Rb:KTP and Cs:KTP optical waveguides,” J. Phys. D 31(14), 1667–1672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Wang, B. R. Shi, N. Cue, Y. Y. Zhu, R. F. Xiao, F. Lu, W. Li, and Y. G. Liu, “Waveguide laser film in erbium-doped KTiOPO4 by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1020–1022 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993

F. Laurell, “Stable blue second-harmonic generation in a KTP waveguide with a diode laser in an external cavity,” Electron. Lett. 29(18), 1629–1630 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(6), 2695–2699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Sundheimer, C. Bosshard, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, and J. D. Bierlein, “Large nonlinear phase modulation in quasi-phase-matched KTP waveguides as a result of cascaded second-order processes,” Opt. Lett. 18(17), 1397–1399 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

P. N. Kean and G. J. Dixon, “Efficient sum-frequency upconversion in a resonantly pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 17(2), 127–129 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Dianov, V. A. Maslov, V. A. Chernykh, and E. A. Scherbakov, “Nonlinear directional coupler based on Rb:KTP-waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B 54(2), 167–169 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Agranat, A. J.

H. Ilan, A. Gumennik, G. Perepelitsa, A. Israel, and A. J. Agranat, “Construction of an optical wire imprinted in potassium lithium tantalate niobate by He+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 191101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aldana, J. V.

N. N. Dong, J. M. Mendivil, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, J. V. Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, and D. Jaque, “Self-frequency-doubling of ultrafast laser inscribed neodymium doped yttrium aluminum borate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(18), 181103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alwahabi, Z. T.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(6), 2695–2699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Armenise, M. N.

I. Savatinova, I. Savova, E. Liarokapis, C. C. Ziling, V. V. Atuchin, M. N. Armenise, and V. M. N. Passaro, “A comparative analysis of Rb:KTP and Cs:KTP optical waveguides,” J. Phys. D 31(14), 1667–1672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Atuchin, V. V.

I. Savatinova, I. Savova, E. Liarokapis, C. C. Ziling, V. V. Atuchin, M. N. Armenise, and V. M. N. Passaro, “A comparative analysis of Rb:KTP and Cs:KTP optical waveguides,” J. Phys. D 31(14), 1667–1672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Benayas, A.

Biehlig, W.

E. A. Werner, J. P. Ruske, B. Zeitner, W. Biehlig, and A. Tünnermann, “Integrated-optical amplitude modulator for high power applications,” Opt. Commun. 221(1-3), 9–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bierlein, J. D.

Bindner, P.

P. Bindner, A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, and P. Moretti, “Formation of planar optical waveguides in potassium titanyl phosphate by double implantation of protons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(16), 2558–2560 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Borca, C. N.

Bosia, F.

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, “Evidence of light guiding in ion-implanted diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(23), 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosshard, C.

Boudrioua, A.

P. Bindner, A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, and P. Moretti, “Formation of planar optical waveguides in potassium titanyl phosphate by double implantation of protons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(16), 2558–2560 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Buritskii, K. S.

K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Dianov, V. A. Maslov, V. A. Chernykh, and E. A. Scherbakov, “Nonlinear directional coupler based on Rb:KTP-waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B 54(2), 167–169 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Calusi, S.

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, “Evidence of light guiding in ion-implanted diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(23), 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cantelar, E.

N. N. Dong, J. M. Mendivil, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, J. V. Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, and D. Jaque, “Self-frequency-doubling of ultrafast laser inscribed neodymium doped yttrium aluminum borate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(18), 181103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chandler, P. J.

J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Second harmonic generation capabilities of ion implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(9), 5180 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(6), 2695–2699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

N. N. Dong, J. M. Mendivil, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, J. V. Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, and D. Jaque, “Self-frequency-doubling of ultrafast laser inscribed neodymium doped yttrium aluminum borate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(18), 181103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Dong, Y. Tan, A. Benayas, J. V. de Aldana, D. Jaque, C. Romero, F. Chen, and Q. M. Lu, “Femtosecond laser writing of multifunctional optical waveguides in a Nd:YVO4 + KTP hybrid system,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 975–977 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, L. Wang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, and Q. M. Lu, “Optical channel waveguides in KTiOPTO4 crystal produced by proton implantation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(10), 1304–1308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, D. C. Hou, and Q. M. Lu, “Optical channel waveguides with trapezoidal-shaped cross sections in KTiOPO4 crystal fabricated by ion implantation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254(6), 1822–1824 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Developments of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, Y. G. Liu, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, “Refractive index profile and attenuation measurement in KTiOPO4 waveguide by megaelectronvolt He ions,” J. Mater. Res. 16(01), 276–279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chernykh, V. A.

K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Dianov, V. A. Maslov, V. A. Chernykh, and E. A. Scherbakov, “Nonlinear directional coupler based on Rb:KTP-waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B 54(2), 167–169 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cue, N.

K. M. Wang, B. R. Shi, N. Cue, Y. Y. Zhu, R. F. Xiao, F. Lu, W. Li, and Y. G. Liu, “Waveguide laser film in erbium-doped KTiOPO4 by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1020–1022 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Aldana, J. V.

Dianov, E. M.

K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Dianov, V. A. Maslov, V. A. Chernykh, and E. A. Scherbakov, “Nonlinear directional coupler based on Rb:KTP-waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B 54(2), 167–169 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, G. J.

Dong, N. N.

N. N. Dong, Y. Tan, A. Benayas, J. V. de Aldana, D. Jaque, C. Romero, F. Chen, and Q. M. Lu, “Femtosecond laser writing of multifunctional optical waveguides in a Nd:YVO4 + KTP hybrid system,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 975–977 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Dong, J. M. Mendivil, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, J. V. Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, and D. Jaque, “Self-frequency-doubling of ultrafast laser inscribed neodymium doped yttrium aluminum borate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(18), 181103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eason, R. W.

Fluck, D.

D. Fluck and P. Günter, “Second-harmonic generation in potassium niobate waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 122–131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Giuntini, L.

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, “Evidence of light guiding in ion-implanted diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(23), 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grivas, C.

Grusemann, U.

F. Schrempel, Th. Hoche, J. Ruske, U. Grusemann, and W. Wesch; “Depth dependence of radiation damage in Li+-implanted KTiOPO4,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 191(1-4), 202–207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guan, J.

T. Liu, S.-S. Guo, J.-H. Zhao, J. Guan, and X.-L. Wang, “Planar optical waveguides in Nd:BSO crystals fabricated by He and C ion implantation,” Opt. Mater. 33(3), 385–388 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Zhao, T. Liu, S. S. Guo, J. Guan, and X. L. Wang, “Optical properties of planar waveguides on ZnWO₄ formed by carbon and helium ion implantation and effects of annealing,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18989–18996 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gumennik, A.

H. Ilan, A. Gumennik, G. Perepelitsa, A. Israel, and A. J. Agranat, “Construction of an optical wire imprinted in potassium lithium tantalate niobate by He+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 191101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

D. Fluck and P. Günter, “Second-harmonic generation in potassium niobate waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 122–131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guo, S. S.

Guo, S.-S.

T. Liu, S.-S. Guo, J.-H. Zhao, J. Guan, and X.-L. Wang, “Planar optical waveguides in Nd:BSO crystals fabricated by He and C ion implantation,” Opt. Mater. 33(3), 385–388 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hoche, Th.

F. Schrempel, Th. Hoche, J. Ruske, U. Grusemann, and W. Wesch; “Depth dependence of radiation damage in Li+-implanted KTiOPO4,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 191(1-4), 202–207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Wesch, Th. Opfermann, F. Schrempel, and Th. Hoche, “Track formation in KTiOPO4 by MeV implantation of light ions,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 175–177, 88–92 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hou, D. C.

F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, D. C. Hou, and Q. M. Lu, “Optical channel waveguides with trapezoidal-shaped cross sections in KTiOPO4 crystal fabricated by ion implantation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254(6), 1822–1824 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

K. M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, Y. G. Liu, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, “Refractive index profile and attenuation measurement in KTiOPO4 waveguide by megaelectronvolt He ions,” J. Mater. Res. 16(01), 276–279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ilan, H.

H. Ilan, A. Gumennik, G. Perepelitsa, A. Israel, and A. J. Agranat, “Construction of an optical wire imprinted in potassium lithium tantalate niobate by He+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 191101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Israel, A.

H. Ilan, A. Gumennik, G. Perepelitsa, A. Israel, and A. J. Agranat, “Construction of an optical wire imprinted in potassium lithium tantalate niobate by He+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 191101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

N. N. Dong, Y. Tan, A. Benayas, J. V. de Aldana, D. Jaque, C. Romero, F. Chen, and Q. M. Lu, “Femtosecond laser writing of multifunctional optical waveguides in a Nd:YVO4 + KTP hybrid system,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 975–977 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Dong, J. M. Mendivil, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, J. V. Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, and D. Jaque, “Self-frequency-doubling of ultrafast laser inscribed neodymium doped yttrium aluminum borate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(18), 181103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kean, P. N.

Kostritskii, S. M.

S. M. Kostritskii and P. Moretti, “Micro-Raman study of defect structure and phonon spectrum of He-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi 11(c), 3126–3129 (2004).

Lagomarsino, S.

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, “Evidence of light guiding in ion-implanted diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(23), 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurell, F.

F. Laurell, “Stable blue second-harmonic generation in a KTP waveguide with a diode laser in an external cavity,” Electron. Lett. 29(18), 1629–1630 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Laversenne, L.

Li, W.

K. M. Wang, B. R. Shi, N. Cue, Y. Y. Zhu, R. F. Xiao, F. Lu, W. Li, and Y. G. Liu, “Waveguide laser film in erbium-doped KTiOPO4 by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1020–1022 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liarokapis, E.

I. Savatinova, I. Savova, E. Liarokapis, C. C. Ziling, V. V. Atuchin, M. N. Armenise, and V. M. N. Passaro, “A comparative analysis of Rb:KTP and Cs:KTP optical waveguides,” J. Phys. D 31(14), 1667–1672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lifante, G.

N. N. Dong, J. M. Mendivil, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, J. V. Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, and D. Jaque, “Self-frequency-doubling of ultrafast laser inscribed neodymium doped yttrium aluminum borate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(18), 181103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T.

T. Liu, S.-S. Guo, J.-H. Zhao, J. Guan, and X.-L. Wang, “Planar optical waveguides in Nd:BSO crystals fabricated by He and C ion implantation,” Opt. Mater. 33(3), 385–388 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Zhao, T. Liu, S. S. Guo, J. Guan, and X. L. Wang, “Optical properties of planar waveguides on ZnWO₄ formed by carbon and helium ion implantation and effects of annealing,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18989–18996 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. G.

K. M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, Y. G. Liu, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, “Refractive index profile and attenuation measurement in KTiOPO4 waveguide by megaelectronvolt He ions,” J. Mater. Res. 16(01), 276–279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Wang, B. R. Shi, N. Cue, Y. Y. Zhu, R. F. Xiao, F. Lu, W. Li, and Y. G. Liu, “Waveguide laser film in erbium-doped KTiOPO4 by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1020–1022 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Loulergue, J. C.

P. Bindner, A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, and P. Moretti, “Formation of planar optical waveguides in potassium titanyl phosphate by double implantation of protons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(16), 2558–2560 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, F.

K. M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, Y. G. Liu, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, “Refractive index profile and attenuation measurement in KTiOPO4 waveguide by megaelectronvolt He ions,” J. Mater. Res. 16(01), 276–279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Wang, B. R. Shi, N. Cue, Y. Y. Zhu, R. F. Xiao, F. Lu, W. Li, and Y. G. Liu, “Waveguide laser film in erbium-doped KTiOPO4 by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1020–1022 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q. M.

N. N. Dong, Y. Tan, A. Benayas, J. V. de Aldana, D. Jaque, C. Romero, F. Chen, and Q. M. Lu, “Femtosecond laser writing of multifunctional optical waveguides in a Nd:YVO4 + KTP hybrid system,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 975–977 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and H. J. Ma, “Enhance refractive index well-confined planar and channel waveguides in KTiOPO4 produced by MeV C3+ ion implantation with low dose,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 295–299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, L. Wang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, and Q. M. Lu, “Optical channel waveguides in KTiOPTO4 crystal produced by proton implantation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(10), 1304–1308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, D. C. Hou, and Q. M. Lu, “Optical channel waveguides with trapezoidal-shaped cross sections in KTiOPO4 crystal fabricated by ion implantation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254(6), 1822–1824 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H. J.

L. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and H. J. Ma, “Enhance refractive index well-confined planar and channel waveguides in KTiOPO4 produced by MeV C3+ ion implantation with low dose,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 295–299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maslov, V. A.

K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Dianov, V. A. Maslov, V. A. Chernykh, and E. A. Scherbakov, “Nonlinear directional coupler based on Rb:KTP-waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B 54(2), 167–169 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Massi, M.

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, “Evidence of light guiding in ion-implanted diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(23), 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCaffery, A. J.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(6), 2695–2699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mendivil, J. M.

N. N. Dong, J. M. Mendivil, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, J. V. Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, and D. Jaque, “Self-frequency-doubling of ultrafast laser inscribed neodymium doped yttrium aluminum borate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(18), 181103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moretti, P.

C. Grivas, D. P. Shepherd, R. W. Eason, L. Laversenne, P. Moretti, C. N. Borca, and M. Pollnau, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of Ti:sapphire buried channel-waveguide lasers fabricated via proton implantation,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3450–3452 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Kostritskii and P. Moretti, “Micro-Raman study of defect structure and phonon spectrum of He-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi 11(c), 3126–3129 (2004).

P. Bindner, A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, and P. Moretti, “Formation of planar optical waveguides in potassium titanyl phosphate by double implantation of protons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(16), 2558–2560 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Olivares, J.

J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Second harmonic generation capabilities of ion implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(9), 5180 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Olivero, P.

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, “Evidence of light guiding in ion-implanted diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(23), 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opfermann, Th.

W. Wesch, Th. Opfermann, F. Schrempel, and Th. Hoche, “Track formation in KTiOPO4 by MeV implantation of light ions,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 175–177, 88–92 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Passaro, V. M. N.

I. Savatinova, I. Savova, E. Liarokapis, C. C. Ziling, V. V. Atuchin, M. N. Armenise, and V. M. N. Passaro, “A comparative analysis of Rb:KTP and Cs:KTP optical waveguides,” J. Phys. D 31(14), 1667–1672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perepelitsa, G.

H. Ilan, A. Gumennik, G. Perepelitsa, A. Israel, and A. J. Agranat, “Construction of an optical wire imprinted in potassium lithium tantalate niobate by He+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 191101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pityana, S. L.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(6), 2695–2699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

Rams, J.

J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Second harmonic generation capabilities of ion implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(9), 5180 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Romero, C.

Ruske, J.

F. Schrempel, Th. Hoche, J. Ruske, U. Grusemann, and W. Wesch; “Depth dependence of radiation damage in Li+-implanted KTiOPO4,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 191(1-4), 202–207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ruske, J. P.

E. A. Werner, J. P. Ruske, B. Zeitner, W. Biehlig, and A. Tünnermann, “Integrated-optical amplitude modulator for high power applications,” Opt. Commun. 221(1-3), 9–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Savatinova, I.

I. Savatinova, I. Savova, E. Liarokapis, C. C. Ziling, V. V. Atuchin, M. N. Armenise, and V. M. N. Passaro, “A comparative analysis of Rb:KTP and Cs:KTP optical waveguides,” J. Phys. D 31(14), 1667–1672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Savova, I.

I. Savatinova, I. Savova, E. Liarokapis, C. C. Ziling, V. V. Atuchin, M. N. Armenise, and V. M. N. Passaro, “A comparative analysis of Rb:KTP and Cs:KTP optical waveguides,” J. Phys. D 31(14), 1667–1672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scherbakov, E. A.

K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Dianov, V. A. Maslov, V. A. Chernykh, and E. A. Scherbakov, “Nonlinear directional coupler based on Rb:KTP-waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B 54(2), 167–169 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schrempel, F.

F. Schrempel, Th. Hoche, J. Ruske, U. Grusemann, and W. Wesch; “Depth dependence of radiation damage in Li+-implanted KTiOPO4,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 191(1-4), 202–207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Wesch, Th. Opfermann, F. Schrempel, and Th. Hoche, “Track formation in KTiOPO4 by MeV implantation of light ions,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 175–177, 88–92 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D. Y.

K. M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, Y. G. Liu, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, “Refractive index profile and attenuation measurement in KTiOPO4 waveguide by megaelectronvolt He ions,” J. Mater. Res. 16(01), 276–279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, D. P.

Shi, B. R.

K. M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, Y. G. Liu, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, “Refractive index profile and attenuation measurement in KTiOPO4 waveguide by megaelectronvolt He ions,” J. Mater. Res. 16(01), 276–279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Wang, B. R. Shi, N. Cue, Y. Y. Zhu, R. F. Xiao, F. Lu, W. Li, and Y. G. Liu, “Waveguide laser film in erbium-doped KTiOPO4 by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1020–1022 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

Sundheimer, M. L.

Tan, Y.

Torchia, G. A.

N. N. Dong, J. M. Mendivil, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, J. V. Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, and D. Jaque, “Self-frequency-doubling of ultrafast laser inscribed neodymium doped yttrium aluminum borate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(18), 181103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Second harmonic generation capabilities of ion implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(9), 5180 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(6), 2695–2699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

E. A. Werner, J. P. Ruske, B. Zeitner, W. Biehlig, and A. Tünnermann, “Integrated-optical amplitude modulator for high power applications,” Opt. Commun. 221(1-3), 9–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

Vannoni, M.

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, “Evidence of light guiding in ion-implanted diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(23), 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K. M.

L. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and H. J. Ma, “Enhance refractive index well-confined planar and channel waveguides in KTiOPO4 produced by MeV C3+ ion implantation with low dose,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 295–299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, L. Wang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, and Q. M. Lu, “Optical channel waveguides in KTiOPTO4 crystal produced by proton implantation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(10), 1304–1308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Developments of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, Y. G. Liu, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, “Refractive index profile and attenuation measurement in KTiOPO4 waveguide by megaelectronvolt He ions,” J. Mater. Res. 16(01), 276–279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Wang, B. R. Shi, N. Cue, Y. Y. Zhu, R. F. Xiao, F. Lu, W. Li, and Y. G. Liu, “Waveguide laser film in erbium-doped KTiOPO4 by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1020–1022 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Y. Tan, F. Chen, L. Wang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, and Q. M. Lu, “Optical channel waveguides in KTiOPTO4 crystal produced by proton implantation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(10), 1304–1308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, D. C. Hou, and Q. M. Lu, “Optical channel waveguides with trapezoidal-shaped cross sections in KTiOPO4 crystal fabricated by ion implantation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254(6), 1822–1824 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. L.

L. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and H. J. Ma, “Enhance refractive index well-confined planar and channel waveguides in KTiOPO4 produced by MeV C3+ ion implantation with low dose,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 295–299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. L.

Wang, X. M.

K. M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, Y. G. Liu, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, “Refractive index profile and attenuation measurement in KTiOPO4 waveguide by megaelectronvolt He ions,” J. Mater. Res. 16(01), 276–279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.-L.

T. Liu, S.-S. Guo, J.-H. Zhao, J. Guan, and X.-L. Wang, “Planar optical waveguides in Nd:BSO crystals fabricated by He and C ion implantation,” Opt. Mater. 33(3), 385–388 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Werner, E. A.

E. A. Werner, J. P. Ruske, B. Zeitner, W. Biehlig, and A. Tünnermann, “Integrated-optical amplitude modulator for high power applications,” Opt. Commun. 221(1-3), 9–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wesch, W.

F. Schrempel, Th. Hoche, J. Ruske, U. Grusemann, and W. Wesch; “Depth dependence of radiation damage in Li+-implanted KTiOPO4,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 191(1-4), 202–207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Wesch, Th. Opfermann, F. Schrempel, and Th. Hoche, “Track formation in KTiOPO4 by MeV implantation of light ions,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 175–177, 88–92 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, R. F.

K. M. Wang, B. R. Shi, N. Cue, Y. Y. Zhu, R. F. Xiao, F. Lu, W. Li, and Y. G. Liu, “Waveguide laser film in erbium-doped KTiOPO4 by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1020–1022 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zeitner, B.

E. A. Werner, J. P. Ruske, B. Zeitner, W. Biehlig, and A. Tünnermann, “Integrated-optical amplitude modulator for high power applications,” Opt. Commun. 221(1-3), 9–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(6), 2695–2699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J. H.

Zhao, J.-H.

T. Liu, S.-S. Guo, J.-H. Zhao, J. Guan, and X.-L. Wang, “Planar optical waveguides in Nd:BSO crystals fabricated by He and C ion implantation,” Opt. Mater. 33(3), 385–388 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y. Y.

K. M. Wang, B. R. Shi, N. Cue, Y. Y. Zhu, R. F. Xiao, F. Lu, W. Li, and Y. G. Liu, “Waveguide laser film in erbium-doped KTiOPO4 by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1020–1022 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ziling, C. C.

I. Savatinova, I. Savova, E. Liarokapis, C. C. Ziling, V. V. Atuchin, M. N. Armenise, and V. M. N. Passaro, “A comparative analysis of Rb:KTP and Cs:KTP optical waveguides,” J. Phys. D 31(14), 1667–1672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Dianov, V. A. Maslov, V. A. Chernykh, and E. A. Scherbakov, “Nonlinear directional coupler based on Rb:KTP-waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B 54(2), 167–169 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and H. J. Ma, “Enhance refractive index well-confined planar and channel waveguides in KTiOPO4 produced by MeV C3+ ion implantation with low dose,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 295–299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. M. Wang, B. R. Shi, N. Cue, Y. Y. Zhu, R. F. Xiao, F. Lu, W. Li, and Y. G. Liu, “Waveguide laser film in erbium-doped KTiOPO4 by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1020–1022 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Bindner, A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, and P. Moretti, “Formation of planar optical waveguides in potassium titanyl phosphate by double implantation of protons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(16), 2558–2560 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Ilan, A. Gumennik, G. Perepelitsa, A. Israel, and A. J. Agranat, “Construction of an optical wire imprinted in potassium lithium tantalate niobate by He+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 191101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Dong, J. M. Mendivil, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, J. V. Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, and D. Jaque, “Self-frequency-doubling of ultrafast laser inscribed neodymium doped yttrium aluminum borate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(18), 181103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, D. C. Hou, and Q. M. Lu, “Optical channel waveguides with trapezoidal-shaped cross sections in KTiOPO4 crystal fabricated by ion implantation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254(6), 1822–1824 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

F. Laurell, “Stable blue second-harmonic generation in a KTP waveguide with a diode laser in an external cavity,” Electron. Lett. 29(18), 1629–1630 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

D. Fluck and P. Günter, “Second-harmonic generation in potassium niobate waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 122–131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Second harmonic generation capabilities of ion implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(9), 5180 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(6), 2695–2699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Mater. Res.

K. M. Wang, H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, Y. G. Liu, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, “Refractive index profile and attenuation measurement in KTiOPO4 waveguide by megaelectronvolt He ions,” J. Mater. Res. 16(01), 276–279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

I. Savatinova, I. Savova, E. Liarokapis, C. C. Ziling, V. V. Atuchin, M. N. Armenise, and V. M. N. Passaro, “A comparative analysis of Rb:KTP and Cs:KTP optical waveguides,” J. Phys. D 31(14), 1667–1672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instr. Meth. B

W. Wesch, Th. Opfermann, F. Schrempel, and Th. Hoche, “Track formation in KTiOPO4 by MeV implantation of light ions,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 175–177, 88–92 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods B

F. Schrempel, Th. Hoche, J. Ruske, U. Grusemann, and W. Wesch; “Depth dependence of radiation damage in Li+-implanted KTiOPO4,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 191(1-4), 202–207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

E. A. Werner, J. P. Ruske, B. Zeitner, W. Biehlig, and A. Tünnermann, “Integrated-optical amplitude modulator for high power applications,” Opt. Commun. 221(1-3), 9–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Developments of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Liu, S.-S. Guo, J.-H. Zhao, J. Guan, and X.-L. Wang, “Planar optical waveguides in Nd:BSO crystals fabricated by He and C ion implantation,” Opt. Mater. 33(3), 385–388 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Lagomarsino, P. Olivero, F. Bosia, M. Vannoni, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, and M. Massi, “Evidence of light guiding in ion-implanted diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(23), 233903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi

S. M. Kostritskii and P. Moretti, “Micro-Raman study of defect structure and phonon spectrum of He-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi 11(c), 3126–3129 (2004).

Other

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK 1994).

H. J. Scheel and T. Fukuda, Crystal Growth Technology (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2004)

W. P. Risk, T. R. Gosnell, and A. V. Nurmikko, Compact Blue-green Lasers (Cambridge University Press, 2003).

G. Lifante, Integrated Photonics: Fundamentals (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, West Sussex, 2003)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical transmission photographs obtained from the cross sections of (a) planar and (b) channel waveguides. (c) and (d) are the corresponding confocal µ-SH cross sectional images of the planar and channel waveguides after annealing 200°C for 30 min in the air, respectively. Scale bars are 10 μm in (a) and (b), and 5 μm in (c) and (d), respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the SH spectra obtained after a femtosecond 800 nm laser excitation in waveguide (blue line), barrier (red line) and bulk (green line) after annealing 200°C for 30 min.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

1D spatial scan of the SHG intensity (blue line) and refractive index profile (red line) of the planar waveguide as a function of the depth below the surface after annealing 200°C for 30 min in the air. Inset shows the relative atom displacement distribution of the planar waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Confocal micro-Raman spectrum obtained from the bulk of the KTP.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spatial dependence of the intensity (a), the induced spectral shift (b), and the induced spectral broadening of the Raman mode at around 690 cm−1 as obtained from the cross-section of the channel waveguides in KTP crystal after annealing 200°C for 30 min in the air.

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