Abstract

A low-loss plasmonic cavity is proposed comprising of channel waveguides of different widths. Numerical simulations show that surface plasmons are strongly confined by a mode-gap mechanism in the cavity that has a mode volume of 0.0040 (λ/n)3 and a room temperature quality (Q) factor of 125. The introduction of low-index material can enhance the room temperature Q factor by 2.5 times to 350, while maintaining the mode confinement of 0.040 (λ/n)3– well below the wavelength-scale in free space. The suppression of losses from radiation and metallic absorption in the cavity would allow room temperature plasmonic laser operation, and constitutes significant progress towards practical coherent light sources for such lasers.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-G. Ju, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Baek, S.-B. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in Metallic-Coated Nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultrafast photonic crystal lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(4), 264–274 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Yu, A. Lakhani, and M. C. Wu, “Subwavelength metal-optic semiconductor nanopatch lasers,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8790–8799 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10(2), 110–113 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. C. Zhu, M. H. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. X. F. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Y. Lu, S. W. Chang, S. L. Chuang, T. D. Germann, and D. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlaser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251101 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M.-K. Seo, S.-H. Kwon, H.-S. Ee, and H.-G. Park, “Full three-dimensional subwavelength high-Q surface-plasmon-polariton cavity,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4078–4082 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. X. Yang, A. Ishikawa, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystal nanocavities,” ACS Nano 5(4), 2831–2838 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Kuttge, F. J. García de Abajo, and A. Polman, “Ultrasmall mode volume plasmonic nanodisk resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1537–1541 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Our SPP cavity can be fabricated using the following processes: first, the cavity structure is defined by electron-beam lithography and dry etching process in InGaAsP/InP wafer. After the encapsulation of a low-index dielectric layer such as SiO2 on the structure, silver is deposited by an electron-beam evaporator. The sample is flip-bonded to a silicon substrate by an epoxy. The InP substrate is removed by wet etching process, resulting in the plasmonic channel-waveguide cavity.
  18. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. F. P. Pile, D. A. Genov, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Yang, A. Ishikawa, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystal nanocavities,” ACS Nano 5(4), 2831–2838 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

M. Kuttge, F. J. García de Abajo, and A. Polman, “Ultrasmall mode volume plasmonic nanodisk resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1537–1541 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Lu, S. W. Chang, S. L. Chuang, T. D. Germann, and D. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlaser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yu, A. Lakhani, and M. C. Wu, “Subwavelength metal-optic semiconductor nanopatch lasers,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8790–8799 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. C. Zhu, M. H. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-K. Seo, S.-H. Kwon, H.-S. Ee, and H.-G. Park, “Full three-dimensional subwavelength high-Q surface-plasmon-polariton cavity,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4078–4082 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultrafast photonic crystal lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(4), 264–274 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. F. P. Pile, D. A. Genov, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in Metallic-Coated Nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-G. Ju, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Baek, S.-B. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

X. F. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, R.

X. F. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altug, H.

D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultrafast photonic crystal lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(4), 264–274 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J.-H.

H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-G. Ju, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Baek, S.-B. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bimberg, D.

C. Y. Lu, S. W. Chang, S. L. Chuang, T. D. Germann, and D. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlaser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bondarenko, O.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. W.

C. Y. Lu, S. W. Chang, S. L. Chuang, T. D. Germann, and D. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlaser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S. L.

C. Y. Lu, S. W. Chang, S. L. Chuang, T. D. Germann, and D. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlaser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dapkus, P. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Vries, T.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in Metallic-Coated Nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in Metallic-Coated Nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X. F.

X. F. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ee, H.-S.

M.-K. Seo, S.-H. Kwon, H.-S. Ee, and H.-G. Park, “Full three-dimensional subwavelength high-Q surface-plasmon-polariton cavity,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4078–4082 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eijkemans, T. J.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in Metallic-Coated Nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, B.

D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultrafast photonic crystal lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(4), 264–274 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Englund, D.

D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultrafast photonic crystal lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(4), 264–274 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feick, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, L.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

García de Abajo, F. J.

M. Kuttge, F. J. García de Abajo, and A. Polman, “Ultrasmall mode volume plasmonic nanodisk resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1537–1541 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geluk, E. J.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. C. Zhu, M. H. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in Metallic-Coated Nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. F. P. Pile, D. A. Genov, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Germann, T. D.

C. Y. Lu, S. W. Chang, S. L. Chuang, T. D. Germann, and D. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlaser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, M. T.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. C. Zhu, M. H. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in Metallic-Coated Nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

X. F. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, A.

X. Yang, A. Ishikawa, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystal nanocavities,” ACS Nano 5(4), 2831–2838 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ju, Y.-G.

H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-G. Ju, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Baek, S.-B. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J.-H.

S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karouta, F.

Kim, I.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-B.

H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-G. Ju, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Baek, S.-B. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-H.

H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-G. Ju, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Baek, S.-B. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-K.

S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kind, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuttge, M.

M. Kuttge, F. J. García de Abajo, and A. Polman, “Ultrasmall mode volume plasmonic nanodisk resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1537–1541 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, S.-H.

S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-K. Seo, S.-H. Kwon, H.-S. Ee, and H.-G. Park, “Full three-dimensional subwavelength high-Q surface-plasmon-polariton cavity,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4078–4082 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in Metallic-Coated Nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-G. Ju, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Baek, S.-B. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lakhani, A.

Lee, R. K.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-H.

S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in Metallic-Coated Nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-G. Ju, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Baek, S.-B. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leong, E. S. P.

Lieber, C. M.

S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. F. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lomakin, V.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. Y.

C. Y. Lu, S. W. Chang, S. L. Chuang, T. D. Germann, and D. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlaser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R.-M.

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mao, S.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marell, M.

Mizrahi, A.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nezhad, M. P.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ning, C. Z.

Nötzel, R.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. C. Zhu, M. H. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in Metallic-Coated Nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, J. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oei, Y. S.

Oei, Y.-S.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in Metallic-Coated Nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oulton, R. F.

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. F. P. Pile, D. A. Genov, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H.-G.

S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-K. Seo, S.-H. Kwon, H.-S. Ee, and H.-G. Park, “Full three-dimensional subwavelength high-Q surface-plasmon-polariton cavity,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4078–4082 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-G. Ju, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Baek, S.-B. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. F. P. Pile, D. A. Genov, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

M. Kuttge, F. J. García de Abajo, and A. Polman, “Ultrasmall mode volume plasmonic nanodisk resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1537–1541 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Regreny, P.

S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russo, R.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, A.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seassal, C.

S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seo, M.-K.

M.-K. Seo, S.-H. Kwon, H.-S. Ee, and H.-G. Park, “Full three-dimensional subwavelength high-Q surface-plasmon-polariton cavity,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4078–4082 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simic, A.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Slutsky, B.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smalbrugge, B.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. C. Zhu, M. H. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in Metallic-Coated Nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. C. Zhu, M. H. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in Metallic-Coated Nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sorger, V. J.

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. F. P. Pile, D. A. Genov, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, M. H.

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Turkiewicz, J. P.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in Metallic-Coated Nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Otten, F. W. M.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in Metallic-Coated Nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Veldhoven, P. J.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. C. Zhu, M. H. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in Metallic-Coated Nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vuckovic, J.

D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultrafast photonic crystal lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(4), 264–274 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weber, E.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, M. C.

Wu, Y. Y.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, H. Q.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J.-K.

H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-G. Ju, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Baek, S.-B. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P. D.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, A. Ishikawa, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystal nanocavities,” ACS Nano 5(4), 2831–2838 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

X. Yang, A. Ishikawa, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystal nanocavities,” ACS Nano 5(4), 2831–2838 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, K.

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

X. Yang, A. Ishikawa, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystal nanocavities,” ACS Nano 5(4), 2831–2838 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. F. P. Pile, D. A. Genov, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in Metallic-Coated Nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y. C.

ACS Nano (1)

X. Yang, A. Ishikawa, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystal nanocavities,” ACS Nano 5(4), 2831–2838 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Y. Lu, S. W. Chang, S. L. Chuang, T. D. Germann, and D. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlaser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultrafast photonic crystal lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(4), 264–274 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (3)

S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-K. Seo, S.-H. Kwon, H.-S. Ee, and H.-G. Park, “Full three-dimensional subwavelength high-Q surface-plasmon-polariton cavity,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4078–4082 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kuttge, F. J. García de Abajo, and A. Polman, “Ultrasmall mode volume plasmonic nanodisk resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1537–1541 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in Metallic-Coated Nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. F. P. Pile, D. A. Genov, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. F. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-G. Ju, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Baek, S.-B. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Our SPP cavity can be fabricated using the following processes: first, the cavity structure is defined by electron-beam lithography and dry etching process in InGaAsP/InP wafer. After the encapsulation of a low-index dielectric layer such as SiO2 on the structure, silver is deposited by an electron-beam evaporator. The sample is flip-bonded to a silicon substrate by an epoxy. The InP substrate is removed by wet etching process, resulting in the plasmonic channel-waveguide cavity.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The proposed SPP cavity structure. SPP modes are confined in the cavity region (width, dc; length, Lc). A high-index slab (red) and low-index layer (cyan) are also introduced in the structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dispersion curves of the fundamental SPP modes for waveguides of different widths, 250 nm (black) and 100 nm (red). The right inset illustrates a channel waveguide consisting of a high-index dielectric slab and an air slot with a rectangular cross-section. The electric field intensity profile of the SPP waveguide mode is shown in the left inset.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Top and (b) cross-sectional views of the electric field intensity profile of the SPP cavity mode. The top view is obtained at the white dotted surface marked in the cross-sectional view. (c) Room-temperature Q factor and resonant wavelength as functions of cavity length, Lc.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Cross-sectional electric field intensity profile of the SPP cavity with a low index layer of thickness tlow. (b) Electric field intensity distribution along the z-axis. (c) Q factor (black) and confinement factor (red) at room temperature calculated as functions of tlow. Dotted lines indicate the Q and confinement factors of the cavity without low-index material.

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