Abstract

A plasmonic splitter based on slot cavity is proposed and numerically investigated using finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) methods. The structure consists of the input waveguide, a slot cavity and output waveguides. By varying positions of output waveguides, frequency splitter and power splitter can be achieved in the proposed structure. Flexible output power ratio is feasible through further adjusting the coupling distance and the refractive index of output waveguides.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (3)

2010 (5)

Q. Li, T. Wang, Y. K. Su, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Coupled mode theory analysis of mode-splitting in coupled cavity system,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8367–8382 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, L. L. Wang, J. Q. Liu, X. Zhai, L. Wang, D. Xiang, Q. Wan, and B. Meng, “Plasmonic surface-wave bidirectional splitter in different angles of incident light,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1777–1779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. D. He, J. Q. Liu, Z. Q. Gong, Y. F. Luo, X. Chen, and W. Lu, “Plasmonic splitter based on the metal-insulator-metal waveguide with periodic grooves,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1784–1787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Randhawa, M. U. González, J. Renger, S. Enoch, and R. Quidant, “Design and properties of dielectric surface plasmon Bragg mirrors,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14496–14510 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lu, X. M. Liu, D. Mao, L. R. Wang, and Y. K. Gong, “Tunable band-pass plasmonic waveguide filters with nanodisk resonators,” Opt. Express 18(17), 17922–17927 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. Noual, A. Akjouj, Y. Pennec, J.-N. Gillet, and B. Djafari-Rouhani, “Modeling of two-dimensional nanoscale Y-bent plasmonic waveguides with cavities for demultiplexing of the telecommunication wavelengths,” N. J. Phys. 11(10), 103020 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Choi, D. J. Park, Y. K. Jeong, Y. C. Yun, M. S. Jeong, C. C. Byeon, J. H. Kang, Q.-H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Directional control of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating through an asymmetric Bragg resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

2007 (3)

S. Maier, “Plasmonics: Clear for launch,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 301–303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Q. Gan, B. S. Guo, G. F. Song, L. H. Chen, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic surface-wave splitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 161130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “Bidirectional subwavelength slit splitter for THz surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18050–18055 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Optical bistability in nonlinear surface-plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 057402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface Plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Enoch, R. Quidant, and G. Badenes, “Optical sensing based on plasmon coupling in nanoparticle arrays,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3422–3427 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Akjouj, A.

A. Noual, A. Akjouj, Y. Pennec, J.-N. Gillet, and B. Djafari-Rouhani, “Modeling of two-dimensional nanoscale Y-bent plasmonic waveguides with cavities for demultiplexing of the telecommunication wavelengths,” N. J. Phys. 11(10), 103020 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Badenes, G.

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartoli, F. J.

Berini, P.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface Plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Byeon, C. C.

S. B. Choi, D. J. Park, Y. K. Jeong, Y. C. Yun, M. S. Jeong, C. C. Byeon, J. H. Kang, Q.-H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Directional control of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating through an asymmetric Bragg resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Caglayan, H.

Charbonneau, R.

Chen, L. H.

Q. Q. Gan, B. S. Guo, G. F. Song, L. H. Chen, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic surface-wave splitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 161130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

M. D. He, J. Q. Liu, Z. Q. Gong, Y. F. Luo, X. Chen, and W. Lu, “Plasmonic splitter based on the metal-insulator-metal waveguide with periodic grooves,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1784–1787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. B.

S. B. Choi, D. J. Park, Y. K. Jeong, Y. C. Yun, M. S. Jeong, C. C. Byeon, J. H. Kang, Q.-H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Directional control of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating through an asymmetric Bragg resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, Y. J.

Q. Q. Gan, B. S. Guo, G. F. Song, L. H. Chen, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic surface-wave splitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 161130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “Bidirectional subwavelength slit splitter for THz surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18050–18055 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Djafari-Rouhani, B.

A. Noual, A. Akjouj, Y. Pennec, J.-N. Gillet, and B. Djafari-Rouhani, “Modeling of two-dimensional nanoscale Y-bent plasmonic waveguides with cavities for demultiplexing of the telecommunication wavelengths,” N. J. Phys. 11(10), 103020 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Du, C. L.

T. Xu, Y. H. Zhao, D. C. Gan, C. T. Wang, C. L. Du, and X. G. Luo, “Directional excitation of surface plasmons with subwavelength slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enoch, S.

Fan, S.

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectirc-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Z.

Gan, D. C.

T. Xu, Y. H. Zhao, D. C. Gan, C. T. Wang, C. L. Du, and X. G. Luo, “Directional excitation of surface plasmons with subwavelength slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gan, Q. Q.

Gao, K. L.

Gillet, J.-N.

A. Noual, A. Akjouj, Y. Pennec, J.-N. Gillet, and B. Djafari-Rouhani, “Modeling of two-dimensional nanoscale Y-bent plasmonic waveguides with cavities for demultiplexing of the telecommunication wavelengths,” N. J. Phys. 11(10), 103020 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Y.

Gong, Y. K.

Gong, Z. Q.

M. D. He, J. Q. Liu, Z. Q. Gong, Y. F. Luo, X. Chen, and W. Lu, “Plasmonic splitter based on the metal-insulator-metal waveguide with periodic grooves,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1784–1787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

González, M. U.

Guo, B. S.

Q. Q. Gan, B. S. Guo, G. F. Song, L. H. Chen, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic surface-wave splitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 161130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

He, M. D.

M. D. He, J. Q. Liu, Z. Q. Gong, Y. F. Luo, X. Chen, and W. Lu, “Plasmonic splitter based on the metal-insulator-metal waveguide with periodic grooves,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1784–1787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, F. F.

Jensen, J. S.

Jeong, M. S.

S. B. Choi, D. J. Park, Y. K. Jeong, Y. C. Yun, M. S. Jeong, C. C. Byeon, J. H. Kang, Q.-H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Directional control of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating through an asymmetric Bragg resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y. K.

S. B. Choi, D. J. Park, Y. K. Jeong, Y. C. Yun, M. S. Jeong, C. C. Byeon, J. H. Kang, Q.-H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Directional control of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating through an asymmetric Bragg resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. H.

S. B. Choi, D. J. Park, Y. K. Jeong, Y. C. Yun, M. S. Jeong, C. C. Byeon, J. H. Kang, Q.-H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Directional control of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating through an asymmetric Bragg resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

S. B. Choi, D. J. Park, Y. K. Jeong, Y. C. Yun, M. S. Jeong, C. C. Byeon, J. H. Kang, Q.-H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Directional control of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating through an asymmetric Bragg resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

Lahoud, N.

Laluet, J. Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B.

Leosson, K.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface Plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

Liu, J. Q.

M. D. He, J. Q. Liu, Z. Q. Gong, Y. F. Luo, X. Chen, and W. Lu, “Plasmonic splitter based on the metal-insulator-metal waveguide with periodic grooves,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1784–1787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, L. L. Wang, J. Q. Liu, X. Zhai, L. Wang, D. Xiang, Q. Wan, and B. Meng, “Plasmonic surface-wave bidirectional splitter in different angles of incident light,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1777–1779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. M.

Lu, H.

Lu, W.

M. D. He, J. Q. Liu, Z. Q. Gong, Y. F. Luo, X. Chen, and W. Lu, “Plasmonic splitter based on the metal-insulator-metal waveguide with periodic grooves,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1784–1787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X. G.

T. Xu, Y. H. Zhao, D. C. Gan, C. T. Wang, C. L. Du, and X. G. Luo, “Directional excitation of surface plasmons with subwavelength slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y. F.

M. D. He, J. Q. Liu, Z. Q. Gong, Y. F. Luo, X. Chen, and W. Lu, “Plasmonic splitter based on the metal-insulator-metal waveguide with periodic grooves,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1784–1787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S.

S. Maier, “Plasmonics: Clear for launch,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 301–303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mao, D.

Mattiussi, G.

Meng, B.

Y. Wang, L. L. Wang, J. Q. Liu, X. Zhai, L. Wang, D. Xiang, Q. Wan, and B. Meng, “Plasmonic surface-wave bidirectional splitter in different angles of incident light,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1777–1779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nikolajsen, T.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface Plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Noual, A.

A. Noual, A. Akjouj, Y. Pennec, J.-N. Gillet, and B. Djafari-Rouhani, “Modeling of two-dimensional nanoscale Y-bent plasmonic waveguides with cavities for demultiplexing of the telecommunication wavelengths,” N. J. Phys. 11(10), 103020 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

Pan, Z. Q.

Park, D. J.

S. B. Choi, D. J. Park, Y. K. Jeong, Y. C. Yun, M. S. Jeong, C. C. Byeon, J. H. Kang, Q.-H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Directional control of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating through an asymmetric Bragg resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

Park, Q.-H.

S. B. Choi, D. J. Park, Y. K. Jeong, Y. C. Yun, M. S. Jeong, C. C. Byeon, J. H. Kang, Q.-H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Directional control of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating through an asymmetric Bragg resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pennec, Y.

A. Noual, A. Akjouj, Y. Pennec, J.-N. Gillet, and B. Djafari-Rouhani, “Modeling of two-dimensional nanoscale Y-bent plasmonic waveguides with cavities for demultiplexing of the telecommunication wavelengths,” N. J. Phys. 11(10), 103020 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pollard, R.

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Optical bistability in nonlinear surface-plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 057402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

Quidant, R.

Randhawa, S.

Renger, J.

Sigmund, O.

Song, G. F.

Q. Q. Gan, B. S. Guo, G. F. Song, L. H. Chen, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic surface-wave splitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 161130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. K.

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Veronis, G.

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectirc-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wan, Q.

Y. Wang, L. L. Wang, J. Q. Liu, X. Zhai, L. Wang, D. Xiang, Q. Wan, and B. Meng, “Plasmonic surface-wave bidirectional splitter in different angles of incident light,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1777–1779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. T.

T. Xu, Y. H. Zhao, D. C. Gan, C. T. Wang, C. L. Du, and X. G. Luo, “Directional excitation of surface plasmons with subwavelength slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

H. Lu, X. M. Liu, L. Wang, Y. Gong, and D. Mao, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in nanoplasmonic waveguide with Kerr nonlinear resonator,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2910–2915 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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Y. Wang, L. L. Wang, J. Q. Liu, X. Zhai, L. Wang, D. Xiang, Q. Wan, and B. Meng, “Plasmonic surface-wave bidirectional splitter in different angles of incident light,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1777–1779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. R.

Wang, T.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, L. L. Wang, J. Q. Liu, X. Zhai, L. Wang, D. Xiang, Q. Wan, and B. Meng, “Plasmonic surface-wave bidirectional splitter in different angles of incident light,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1777–1779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wurtz, G. A.

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Optical bistability in nonlinear surface-plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 057402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiang, D.

Y. Wang, L. L. Wang, J. Q. Liu, X. Zhai, L. Wang, D. Xiang, Q. Wan, and B. Meng, “Plasmonic surface-wave bidirectional splitter in different angles of incident light,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1777–1779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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T. Xu, Y. H. Zhao, D. C. Gan, C. T. Wang, C. L. Du, and X. G. Luo, “Directional excitation of surface plasmons with subwavelength slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101501 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

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G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Optical bistability in nonlinear surface-plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 057402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhai, X.

Y. Wang, L. L. Wang, J. Q. Liu, X. Zhai, L. Wang, D. Xiang, Q. Wan, and B. Meng, “Plasmonic surface-wave bidirectional splitter in different angles of incident light,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1777–1779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. H.

T. Xu, Y. H. Zhao, D. C. Gan, C. T. Wang, C. L. Du, and X. G. Luo, “Directional excitation of surface plasmons with subwavelength slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101501 (2008).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

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[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Optical bistability in nonlinear surface-plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 057402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the typical plasmonic splitter based on slot cavity. L: slot length; w: metal slit width; d, d 1 and d 2: coupling distance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmitted-peak wavelength of the frequency splitter versus length of the slot cavity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectra of the frequency splitter (d 1=d 2=15 nm, L=400 nm, ΔL=0 and L/4 correspond to Port1 and Port2, respectively.)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Scheme of the 1 × 2 plasmonic power splitter. (b) Transmission spectra of two output ports with d 1=d 2=15 nm, L=500 nm, ΔL=L/4. (c) Contour profiles of field |E x| at wavelength 1500 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Transmission spectra of power splitter with different coupling distance (L = 500 nm, ΔL=L/4) (b) Contour profiles of field |E x| at wavelength 1500 nm. (c) The peak-wavelength output power ratio versus the coupling distance d 1 and d 2, respectively. Inset: the peak power (transmission) of two ports versus the coupling distance d 1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Transmission spectra of power splitter with different refractive index material embedded in two ports. (d 1=d 2=15 nm, L=500 nm, ΔL=L/4) (b) Contour profiles of field |E x| at wavelength 1500 nm. (c) The output power ratio versus the refractive index of the material embedded in two ports, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Scheme of the 1 × 3 plasmonic power splitter. (b) Transmission spectra of splitter with equal coupling distance. (d 1=d 2=d 3=15 nm, L=500 nm, ΔL=L/4) (c) Contour profiles of field |E x| at wavelength 1500 nm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Transmission spectra of 1 × 4 power splitter with unequal coupling distances (d 1=15 nm; d 2=20 nm; d 3=25 nm; d 4=30 nm). (b) Contour profiles of field |E x| at wavelength 1500 nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Scheme of the 1 × 4 plasmonic power splitter. (b) Transmission spectra of splitter with equal coupling distances. (d 1=d 2=d 3=d 4=15 nm, L=500 nm, ΔL=L/4) (c) Contour profiles of field |E x| at wavelength 1500 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Transmission spectra of 1×3 power splitter with unequal coupling distances. (d 1=15 nm; d 2=20 nm; d 3=25 nm) (b) Contour profiles of field |E x| at wavelength 1500 nm.

Equations (5)

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k d ε m tan h ( k d w / 2 ) + ε d k m = 0
ε ( ω ) = ε ω p 2 / ( ω 2 + i ω γ )
λ m = 2 n e f f L / ( m ϕ r / 2 π )
T ( w ) = ( 1 / τ w ) 2 / [ ( w w 0 ) 2 + ( 1 / τ i + 1 / τ w ) 2 ]
P S R = max ( T max , 1 , T max , 2 ) / min ( T max , 1 , T max , 2 )

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