Abstract

We report on the observation and experimental characterization of a threshold-like onset of mode instabilities, i.e. an apparently random relative power content change of different transverse modes, occurring in originally single-mode high-power fiber amplifiers. Although the physical origin of this effect is not yet fully understood, we discuss possible explanations. Accordingly, several solutions are proposed in this paper to raise the threshold of this effect.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Mode instability in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10180–10192 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-11-10180 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. F. Röser, T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, O. Schmidt, D. N. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Millijoule pulse energy high repetition rate femtosecond fiber chirped-pulse amplification system,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3495–3497 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-24-3495 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. R. Marciante, “Gain Filtering for Single-Spatial-Mode Operation of Large-Mode-Area Fiber Amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 30–36 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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2011 (5)

2010 (4)

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

J. Limpert, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power ultrafast fiber laser systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 12(2), 233–244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, stress, and thermo-optic effects in high average power double-clad silica fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 207–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

M. J. F. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, and R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly Enhanced Nonlinearity in Doped Fibers for Low-Power All-Optical Switching: A Review,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(1), 44–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Andermahr, N.

Andersen, T. V.

Barty, C. P. J.

Beach, R. J.

Brown, D. C.

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, stress, and thermo-optic effects in high average power double-clad silica fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 207–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carstens, H.

Clarkson, W. A.

Dawson, J. W.

Digonnet, M. J. F.

M. J. F. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, and R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly Enhanced Nonlinearity in Doped Fibers for Low-Power All-Optical Switching: A Review,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(1), 44–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

Eberhardt, R.

O. Schmidt, M. Rekas, C. Wirth, J. Rothhardt, S. Rhein, A. Kliner, M. Strecker, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High power narrow-band fiber-based ASE source,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4421–4427 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-5-4421 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, M. Rekas, I. Tsybin, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power linear-polarized narrow linewidth photonic crystal fiber amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801H, 75801H-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eidam, T.

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-4-3258 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, A. Steinmetz, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High average power large-pitch fiber amplifier with robust single-mode operation,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 689–691 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-36-5-689 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hädrich, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Preferential gain photonic-crystal fiber for mode stabilization at high average powers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8656–8661 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-9-8656 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 94–96 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-35-2-94 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Röser, T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, O. Schmidt, D. N. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Millijoule pulse energy high repetition rate femtosecond fiber chirped-pulse amplification system,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3495–3497 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-24-3495 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fallnich, C.

Fermann, M. E.

Frisken, S. J.

Fu, L.

Gabler, T.

Goldberg, L.

Hädrich, S.

Hanf, S.

Heebner, J. E.

Hoffman, H. J.

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, stress, and thermo-optic effects in high average power double-clad silica fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 207–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, F.

Jauregui, C.

Jiang, Z.

Kliner, A.

Kliner, D. A. V.

Koplow, J. P.

Limpert, J.

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-4-3258 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hädrich, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Preferential gain photonic-crystal fiber for mode stabilization at high average powers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8656–8661 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-9-8656 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, A. Steinmetz, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High average power large-pitch fiber amplifier with robust single-mode operation,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 689–691 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-36-5-689 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Schmidt, M. Rekas, C. Wirth, J. Rothhardt, S. Rhein, A. Kliner, M. Strecker, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High power narrow-band fiber-based ASE source,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4421–4427 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-5-4421 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 94–96 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-35-2-94 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Röser, T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, O. Schmidt, D. N. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Millijoule pulse energy high repetition rate femtosecond fiber chirped-pulse amplification system,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3495–3497 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-24-3495 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power ultrafast fiber laser systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 12(2), 233–244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marciante, J. R.

Marcinkevicius, A.

McKay, H. A.

Messerly, M. J.

Nilsson, J.

Ohta, M.

Pantell, R. H.

M. J. F. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, and R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly Enhanced Nonlinearity in Doped Fibers for Low-Power All-Optical Switching: A Review,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(1), 44–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pax, P. H.

Peschel, T.

C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, M. Rekas, I. Tsybin, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power linear-polarized narrow linewidth photonic crystal fiber amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801H, 75801H-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rekas, M.

O. Schmidt, M. Rekas, C. Wirth, J. Rothhardt, S. Rhein, A. Kliner, M. Strecker, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High power narrow-band fiber-based ASE source,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4421–4427 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-5-4421 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, M. Rekas, I. Tsybin, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power linear-polarized narrow linewidth photonic crystal fiber amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801H, 75801H-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rhein, S.

Richardson, D. J.

Röser, F.

Rothhardt, J.

Russell, P. S. J.

P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sadowski, R. W.

M. J. F. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, and R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly Enhanced Nonlinearity in Doped Fibers for Low-Power All-Optical Switching: A Review,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(1), 44–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schimpf, D. N.

Schmidt, O.

Schreiber, T.

Seise, E.

Shaw, H. J.

M. J. F. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, and R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly Enhanced Nonlinearity in Doped Fibers for Low-Power All-Optical Switching: A Review,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(1), 44–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shverdin, M. Y.

Siders, C. W.

Smith, A. V.

Smith, J. J.

Sridharan, A. K.

Stappaerts, E. A.

Steinmetz, A.

Strecker, M.

Stutzki, F.

Suzuki, S.

Tsybin, I.

C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, M. Rekas, I. Tsybin, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power linear-polarized narrow linewidth photonic crystal fiber amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801H, 75801H-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-4-3258 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, A. Steinmetz, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High average power large-pitch fiber amplifier with robust single-mode operation,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 689–691 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-36-5-689 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Schmidt, M. Rekas, C. Wirth, J. Rothhardt, S. Rhein, A. Kliner, M. Strecker, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High power narrow-band fiber-based ASE source,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4421–4427 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-5-4421 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hädrich, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Preferential gain photonic-crystal fiber for mode stabilization at high average powers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8656–8661 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-9-8656 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 94–96 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-35-2-94 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, M. Rekas, I. Tsybin, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power linear-polarized narrow linewidth photonic crystal fiber amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801H, 75801H-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Röser, T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, O. Schmidt, D. N. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Millijoule pulse energy high repetition rate femtosecond fiber chirped-pulse amplification system,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3495–3497 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-24-3495 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power ultrafast fiber laser systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 12(2), 233–244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wirth, C.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, stress, and thermo-optic effects in high average power double-clad silica fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 207–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. (1)

J. Limpert, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power ultrafast fiber laser systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 12(2), 233–244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. R. Marciante, “Gain Filtering for Single-Spatial-Mode Operation of Large-Mode-Area Fiber Amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 30–36 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Express (7)

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-4-3258 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Schmidt, M. Rekas, C. Wirth, J. Rothhardt, S. Rhein, A. Kliner, M. Strecker, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High power narrow-band fiber-based ASE source,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4421–4427 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-5-4421 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hädrich, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Preferential gain photonic-crystal fiber for mode stabilization at high average powers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8656–8661 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-9-8656 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Mode instability in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10180–10192 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-11-10180 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13240–13266 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-17-13240 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dong, H. A. McKay, L. Fu, M. Ohta, A. Marcinkevicius, S. Suzuki, and M. E. Fermann, “Ytterbium-doped all glass leakage channel fibers with highly fluorine-doped silica pump cladding,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8962–8969 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-11-8962 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Andermahr and C. Fallnich, “Optically induced long-period fiber gratings for guided mode conversion in few-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4411–4416 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-4411 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

M. J. F. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, and R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly Enhanced Nonlinearity in Doped Fibers for Low-Power All-Optical Switching: A Review,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(1), 44–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 94–96 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-35-2-94 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Koplow, D. A. V. Kliner, and L. Goldberg, “Single-mode operation of a coiled multimode fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 25(7), 442–444 (2000), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-25-7-442 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Frisken, “Transient Bragg reflection gratings in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 17(24), 1776–1778 (1992), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-17-24-1776 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Fermann, “Single-mode excitation of multimode fibers with ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23(1), 52–54 (1998), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-23-1-52 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Röser, T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, O. Schmidt, D. N. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Millijoule pulse energy high repetition rate femtosecond fiber chirped-pulse amplification system,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3495–3497 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-24-3495 .
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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (3775 KB)     

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Near-field images of a 1.3 m long LPF with 63 µm core diameter (56 µm MFD) and 200 µm airclad diameter below (left) and above (right) the mode-instability threshold. The signal output power and the pump power at 976 nm wavelength are depicted. The pulsed seed (7 nm spectral width at 1040 nm central wavelength, 40 MHz repetition rate) is amplified from 5 W to about 270 W of average power. The temporal dynamics can be seen in Media 1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured beam propagation factor (2nd moment method, averaged over both transversal directions) as a function of the output signal power for a a) PCF and b) SIF cw-amplifier. The beam quality degradation resulting from the onset of mode instabilities is indicated by arrows.

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