Abstract

We present insightful results on the kinetics of photodarkening (PD) in GexAs45-xSe55 glasses at the ambient and liquid helium temperatures when the network rigidity is increased by varying x from 0 to 16. We observe a many fold change in PD and its kinetics with decreasing network flexibility and temperature. Moreover, temporal evolution of PD shows a dramatic change with increasing x.

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References

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  1. K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. P. deNeufville, in Optical Properties of Solids, New Developments edited by B. O. Seraphin (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1976) Chapter 9.
  3. K. Ogusu and K. Shinkawa, “Optical nonlinearities in As2Se3 chalcogenide glasses doped with Cu and Ag for pulse durations on the order of nanoseconds,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8165–8172 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1–3), 1–12 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Meneghini and A. Villeneuve, “As2S3 photosensitivity by two-photon absorption: holographic gratings and self-written channel waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15(12), 2946–2950 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Paivasaari, V. K. Tikhomirov, and J. Turunen, “High refractive index chalcogenide glass for photonic crystal applications,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2336–2340 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Saitoh and K. Tanaka, “Self-developing aspherical chalcogenide-glass microlenses for semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1725–1727 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Hô, J. M. Laniel, R. Vallée, and A. Villeneuve, “Photosensitivity of As2S3 chalcogenide thin films at 1.5μm,” Opt. Lett. 28(12), 965–967 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Dror, B. Sfez, ShY. Goldin, and A. Cashingad, “Etching of photosensitive chalcogenide glasses: experiments and simulations,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12539–12547 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, N. J. Baker, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated shadow mask for sampled Bragg gratings in chalcogenide As2S3 planar waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7708–7712 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication of low loss Ge33As12Se55 (AMTIR-1) planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(011115), 1–3 (2007).
  13. G. Yang, H. Jain, A. Ganjoo, D. Zhao, Y. Xu, H. Zeng, and G. Chen, “A photo-stable chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10565–10571 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. Němec, S. Zhang, V. Nazabal, K. Fedus, G. Boudebs, A. Moreac, M. Cathelinaud, and X.-H. Zhang, “Photo-stability of pulsed laser deposited GexAsySe100-x-y amorphous thin films,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22944–22957 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. Calvez, Z. Y. Yang, and P. Lucas, “Light-induced matrix softening of Ge-As-Se network glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(17), 177402 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, H. Kamiya, E. A. Davis, and J. Singh, “Percolative growth of photodarkening in amorphous As2S3 films,” Phys. Rev. B 62(22), R14601–R14604 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Shimakawa, N. Nakagawa, and T. Itoh, “The origin of stretched exponential function in dynamic response of photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(051908), 1–3 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. C. van Popta, R. G. Decorby, C. J. Haugen, T. Robinson, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev, and S. Kasap, “Photoinduced refractive index change in As2Se3 by 633nm illumination,” Opt. Express 10(15), 639–644 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  19. A. Ganjoo and H. Jain, “Millisecond kinetics of photoinduced changes in the optical parameters of a-As2S3 films,” Phys. Rev. B 74(2), 024201 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Naik, R. Ganesan, K. V. Adarsh, K. S. Sangunni, V. Takats, and S. Kokenyesi, “In-situ pump probe optical absorption studies on Sb/As2S3 nanomultilayered film,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37–42), 1943–1946 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Shimakawa, “Percolation-controlled electronic properties in microcrystalline silicon: effective medium approach,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 266–269, 223–226 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

K. Shimakawa, N. Nakagawa, and T. Itoh, “The origin of stretched exponential function in dynamic response of photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(051908), 1–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Naik, R. Ganesan, K. V. Adarsh, K. S. Sangunni, V. Takats, and S. Kokenyesi, “In-situ pump probe optical absorption studies on Sb/As2S3 nanomultilayered film,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37–42), 1943–1946 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Ogusu and K. Shinkawa, “Optical nonlinearities in As2Se3 chalcogenide glasses doped with Cu and Ag for pulse durations on the order of nanoseconds,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8165–8172 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (4)

2006 (1)

A. Ganjoo and H. Jain, “Millisecond kinetics of photoinduced changes in the optical parameters of a-As2S3 films,” Phys. Rev. B 74(2), 024201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

A. Saitoh and K. Tanaka, “Self-developing aspherical chalcogenide-glass microlenses for semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1725–1727 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Hô, J. M. Laniel, R. Vallée, and A. Villeneuve, “Photosensitivity of As2S3 chalcogenide thin films at 1.5μm,” Opt. Lett. 28(12), 965–967 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1–3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

K. Shimakawa, “Percolation-controlled electronic properties in microcrystalline silicon: effective medium approach,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 266–269, 223–226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, H. Kamiya, E. A. Davis, and J. Singh, “Percolative growth of photodarkening in amorphous As2S3 films,” Phys. Rev. B 62(22), R14601–R14604 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adarsh, K. V.

R. Naik, R. Ganesan, K. V. Adarsh, K. S. Sangunni, V. Takats, and S. Kokenyesi, “In-situ pump probe optical absorption studies on Sb/As2S3 nanomultilayered film,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37–42), 1943–1946 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baker, N. J.

Boudebs, G.

Bulla, D. A.

Calvez, L.

L. Calvez, Z. Y. Yang, and P. Lucas, “Light-induced matrix softening of Ge-As-Se network glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(17), 177402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cashingad, A.

Cathelinaud, M.

Chen, G.

Choi, D. Y.

Choi, D.-Y.

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, N. J. Baker, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated shadow mask for sampled Bragg gratings in chalcogenide As2S3 planar waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7708–7712 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication of low loss Ge33As12Se55 (AMTIR-1) planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(011115), 1–3 (2007).

Davis, E. A.

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, H. Kamiya, E. A. Davis, and J. Singh, “Percolative growth of photodarkening in amorphous As2S3 films,” Phys. Rev. B 62(22), R14601–R14604 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Decorby, R. G.

Dror, R.

Eggleton, B. J.

Elliott, S. R.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1–3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fedus, K.

Ganesan, R.

R. Naik, R. Ganesan, K. V. Adarsh, K. S. Sangunni, V. Takats, and S. Kokenyesi, “In-situ pump probe optical absorption studies on Sb/As2S3 nanomultilayered film,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37–42), 1943–1946 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ganjoo, A.

G. Yang, H. Jain, A. Ganjoo, D. Zhao, Y. Xu, H. Zeng, and G. Chen, “A photo-stable chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10565–10571 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ganjoo and H. Jain, “Millisecond kinetics of photoinduced changes in the optical parameters of a-As2S3 films,” Phys. Rev. B 74(2), 024201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, H. Kamiya, E. A. Davis, and J. Singh, “Percolative growth of photodarkening in amorphous As2S3 films,” Phys. Rev. B 62(22), R14601–R14604 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goldin, ShY.

Haugen, C. J.

Hô, N.

Itoh, T.

K. Shimakawa, N. Nakagawa, and T. Itoh, “The origin of stretched exponential function in dynamic response of photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(051908), 1–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jain, H.

G. Yang, H. Jain, A. Ganjoo, D. Zhao, Y. Xu, H. Zeng, and G. Chen, “A photo-stable chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10565–10571 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ganjoo and H. Jain, “Millisecond kinetics of photoinduced changes in the optical parameters of a-As2S3 films,” Phys. Rev. B 74(2), 024201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kamiya, H.

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, H. Kamiya, E. A. Davis, and J. Singh, “Percolative growth of photodarkening in amorphous As2S3 films,” Phys. Rev. B 62(22), R14601–R14604 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kasap, S.

Kokenyesi, S.

R. Naik, R. Ganesan, K. V. Adarsh, K. S. Sangunni, V. Takats, and S. Kokenyesi, “In-situ pump probe optical absorption studies on Sb/As2S3 nanomultilayered film,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37–42), 1943–1946 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kolobov, A.

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Laniel, J. M.

Lucas, P.

L. Calvez, Z. Y. Yang, and P. Lucas, “Light-induced matrix softening of Ge-As-Se network glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(17), 177402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luther-Davies, B.

Madden, S.

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, N. J. Baker, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated shadow mask for sampled Bragg gratings in chalcogenide As2S3 planar waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7708–7712 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication of low loss Ge33As12Se55 (AMTIR-1) planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(011115), 1–3 (2007).

Madden, S. J.

McMullin, J. N.

Meneghini, C.

Moreac, A.

Naik, R.

R. Naik, R. Ganesan, K. V. Adarsh, K. S. Sangunni, V. Takats, and S. Kokenyesi, “In-situ pump probe optical absorption studies on Sb/As2S3 nanomultilayered film,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37–42), 1943–1946 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, N.

K. Shimakawa, N. Nakagawa, and T. Itoh, “The origin of stretched exponential function in dynamic response of photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(051908), 1–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nazabal, V.

Nemec, P.

Ogusu, K.

Paivasaari, K.

Pelusi, M. D.

Robinson, T.

Rode, A.

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, N. J. Baker, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated shadow mask for sampled Bragg gratings in chalcogenide As2S3 planar waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7708–7712 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication of low loss Ge33As12Se55 (AMTIR-1) planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(011115), 1–3 (2007).

Rode, A. V.

Saitoh, A.

A. Saitoh and K. Tanaka, “Self-developing aspherical chalcogenide-glass microlenses for semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1725–1727 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sangunni, K. S.

R. Naik, R. Ganesan, K. V. Adarsh, K. S. Sangunni, V. Takats, and S. Kokenyesi, “In-situ pump probe optical absorption studies on Sb/As2S3 nanomultilayered film,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37–42), 1943–1946 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sfez, B.

Shimakawa, K.

K. Shimakawa, N. Nakagawa, and T. Itoh, “The origin of stretched exponential function in dynamic response of photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(051908), 1–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, H. Kamiya, E. A. Davis, and J. Singh, “Percolative growth of photodarkening in amorphous As2S3 films,” Phys. Rev. B 62(22), R14601–R14604 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimakawa, “Percolation-controlled electronic properties in microcrystalline silicon: effective medium approach,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 266–269, 223–226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shinkawa, K.

Singh, J.

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, H. Kamiya, E. A. Davis, and J. Singh, “Percolative growth of photodarkening in amorphous As2S3 films,” Phys. Rev. B 62(22), R14601–R14604 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ta’eed, V. G.

Takats, V.

R. Naik, R. Ganesan, K. V. Adarsh, K. S. Sangunni, V. Takats, and S. Kokenyesi, “In-situ pump probe optical absorption studies on Sb/As2S3 nanomultilayered film,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37–42), 1943–1946 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

A. Saitoh and K. Tanaka, “Self-developing aspherical chalcogenide-glass microlenses for semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1725–1727 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tikhomirov, V. K.

Tonchev, D.

Turunen, J.

Vallée, R.

van Popta, A. C.

Villeneuve, A.

Wang, R.

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, N. J. Baker, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated shadow mask for sampled Bragg gratings in chalcogenide As2S3 planar waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7708–7712 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication of low loss Ge33As12Se55 (AMTIR-1) planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(011115), 1–3 (2007).

Xu, Y.

Yang, G.

Yang, Z. Y.

L. Calvez, Z. Y. Yang, and P. Lucas, “Light-induced matrix softening of Ge-As-Se network glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(17), 177402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zakery, A.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1–3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H.

Zhang, S.

Zhang, X.-H.

Zhao, D.

Adv. Phys. (1)

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Saitoh and K. Tanaka, “Self-developing aspherical chalcogenide-glass microlenses for semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1725–1727 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication of low loss Ge33As12Se55 (AMTIR-1) planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(011115), 1–3 (2007).

K. Shimakawa, N. Nakagawa, and T. Itoh, “The origin of stretched exponential function in dynamic response of photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(051908), 1–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (3)

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1–3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Naik, R. Ganesan, K. V. Adarsh, K. S. Sangunni, V. Takats, and S. Kokenyesi, “In-situ pump probe optical absorption studies on Sb/As2S3 nanomultilayered film,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37–42), 1943–1946 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimakawa, “Percolation-controlled electronic properties in microcrystalline silicon: effective medium approach,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 266–269, 223–226 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (8)

K. Paivasaari, V. K. Tikhomirov, and J. Turunen, “High refractive index chalcogenide glass for photonic crystal applications,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2336–2340 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dror, B. Sfez, ShY. Goldin, and A. Cashingad, “Etching of photosensitive chalcogenide glasses: experiments and simulations,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12539–12547 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, N. J. Baker, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated shadow mask for sampled Bragg gratings in chalcogenide As2S3 planar waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7708–7712 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. C. van Popta, R. G. Decorby, C. J. Haugen, T. Robinson, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev, and S. Kasap, “Photoinduced refractive index change in As2Se3 by 633nm illumination,” Opt. Express 10(15), 639–644 (2002).
[PubMed]

K. Ogusu and K. Shinkawa, “Optical nonlinearities in As2Se3 chalcogenide glasses doped with Cu and Ag for pulse durations on the order of nanoseconds,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8165–8172 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yang, H. Jain, A. Ganjoo, D. Zhao, Y. Xu, H. Zeng, and G. Chen, “A photo-stable chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10565–10571 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Němec, S. Zhang, V. Nazabal, K. Fedus, G. Boudebs, A. Moreac, M. Cathelinaud, and X.-H. Zhang, “Photo-stability of pulsed laser deposited GexAsySe100-x-y amorphous thin films,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22944–22957 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, H. Kamiya, E. A. Davis, and J. Singh, “Percolative growth of photodarkening in amorphous As2S3 films,” Phys. Rev. B 62(22), R14601–R14604 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ganjoo and H. Jain, “Millisecond kinetics of photoinduced changes in the optical parameters of a-As2S3 films,” Phys. Rev. B 74(2), 024201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. Calvez, Z. Y. Yang, and P. Lucas, “Light-induced matrix softening of Ge-As-Se network glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(17), 177402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. P. deNeufville, in Optical Properties of Solids, New Developments edited by B. O. Seraphin (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1976) Chapter 9.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission spectra of GexAs45-xSe55 thin films with x = 0, 5 and 16, before and after illumination with 532 nm laser light at room and liquid He temperatures. The intensity of illumination was kept at 1W/cm2 for all samples at both the temperatures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation of absorption coefficient with time for the wavelength, which has an initial transmittance of 0. 3 before illumination. Hollow circles represent the experimental data and the red line indicating the theoretical fit using Eq. 2.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Bandgap Values of As-prepared and Illuminated Films

Tables Icon

Table 2 Values of Δαs, τ and β

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d N d t = K p ( N T N ) K r N ,
Δ α = Δ α s [ 1 exp { ( t τ ) β } ] ,
τ = [ β / A + B ] 1 β ,

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