Abstract

The capability to focus electromagnetic energy at the nanoscale plays an important role in nanoscinece and nanotechnology. It allows enhancing light matter interactions at the nanoscale with applications related to nonlinear optics, light emission and light detection. It may also be used for enhancing resolution in microscopy, lithography and optical storage systems. Hereby we propose and experimentally demonstrate the nanoscale focusing of surface plasmons by constructing an integrated plasmonic/photonic on chip nanofocusing device in silicon platform. The device was tested directly by measuring the optical intensity along it using a near-field microscope. We found an order of magnitude enhancement of the intensity at the tip’s apex. The spot size is estimated to be 50 nm. The demonstrated device may be used as a building block for “lab on a chip” systems and for enhancing light matter interactions at the apex of the tip.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (2)

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 67–72 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Verhagen, L. K. Kuipers, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic nanofocusing in a dielectric wedge,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3665–3669 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (7)

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Highly efficient interfacing of guided plasmons and photons in nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3756–3761 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, H. Yu, and L. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Feng, D. Van Orden, M. Abashin, Q. J. Wang, Y. F. Chen, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Nanoscale optical field localization by resonantly focused plasmons,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4824–4832 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Veronis, Z. Yu, S. Kocabas, D. Miller, M. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguide devices for manipulating light at the nanoscale,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 7(4), 302–308 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Yang, W. Chen, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Miniature circular polarization analyzer with spiral plasmonic lens,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3047–3049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

K. C. Vernon, D. K. Gramotnev, and D. F. P. Pile, “Channel plasmon-polariton modes in V grooves filled with dielectric,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(3), 034304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (8)

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(11), 807–812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sharma, R. Jha, and B. D. Gupta, “Fiber-optic sensors based on surface plasmon resonance: a comprehensive review,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(8), 1118–1129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, “Enhanced nonlinear optical effects with a tapered plasmonic waveguide,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 334–337 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Theoretical investigation of compact couplers between dielectric slab waveguides and two-dimensional metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1211–1221 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ginzburg and M. Orenstein, “Plasmonic transmission lines: from micro to nano scale with λ/4 impedance matching,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6762–6767 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yan and M. Qiu, “Guided plasmon polariton at 2D metal corners,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(9), 2333–2342 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

P. Ginzburg, D. Arbel, and M. Orenstein, “Gap plasmon polariton structure for very efficient microscale-to-nanoscale interfacing,” Opt. Lett. 31(22), 3288–3290 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum optics with surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 053002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Janunts, K. S. Baghdasaryan, Kh. V. Nerkararyan, and B. Hecht, “Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Opt. Comm. 253, (2005).

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, “Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 210(3), 220–224 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1984 (1)

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope I. Light is efficiently transmitted through λ/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–232 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, “Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope,” Nature 237(5357), 510–512 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Abashin, M.

Agio, M.

X.-W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Highly efficient interfacing of guided plasmons and photons in nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3756–3761 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albrecht, M.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreani, L. C.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 67–72 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arbel, D.

Ash, E. A.

E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, “Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope,” Nature 237(5357), 510–512 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

Baghdasaryan, K. S.

N. A. Janunts, K. S. Baghdasaryan, Kh. V. Nerkararyan, and B. Hecht, “Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Opt. Comm. 253, (2005).

Bao, J.

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, H. Yu, and L. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bek, A.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 67–72 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beversluis, M.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beversluis, M. R.

A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, “Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 210(3), 220–224 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boccara, A. C.

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, “Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 210(3), 220–224 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M.

Candeloro, P.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 67–72 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, D. E.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(11), 807–812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum optics with surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 053002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

Chen, X.-W.

X.-W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Highly efficient interfacing of guided plasmons and photons in nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3756–3761 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. F.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Das, G.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 67–72 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Angelis, F.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 67–72 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demler, E. A.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(11), 807–812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Fabrizio, E.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 67–72 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Economou, E. N.

E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fainman, Y.

Fan, S.

Feng, L.

Fukui, M.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Galli, M.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 67–72 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F. J.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genov, D. A.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ginzburg, P.

Gleyzes, P.

Gramotnev, D. K.

K. C. Vernon, D. K. Gramotnev, and D. F. P. Pile, “Channel plasmon-polariton modes in V grooves filled with dielectric,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(3), 034304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, H. Yu, and L. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, B. D.

A. K. Sharma, R. Jha, and B. D. Gupta, “Fiber-optic sensors based on surface plasmon resonance: a comprehensive review,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(8), 1118–1129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haraguchi, M.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harootunian, A.

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope I. Light is efficiently transmitted through λ/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–232 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hartschuh, A.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

N. A. Janunts, K. S. Baghdasaryan, Kh. V. Nerkararyan, and B. Hecht, “Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Opt. Comm. 253, (2005).

Hemmer, P. R.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum optics with surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 053002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isaacson, M.

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope I. Light is efficiently transmitted through λ/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–232 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Janunts, N. A.

N. A. Janunts, K. S. Baghdasaryan, Kh. V. Nerkararyan, and B. Hecht, “Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Opt. Comm. 253, (2005).

Jha, R.

A. K. Sharma, R. Jha, and B. D. Gupta, “Fiber-optic sensors based on surface plasmon resonance: a comprehensive review,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(8), 1118–1129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kocabas, S.

Kuipers, L.

E. Verhagen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, “Enhanced nonlinear optical effects with a tapered plasmonic waveguide,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 334–337 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuipers, L. K.

E. Verhagen, L. K. Kuipers, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic nanofocusing in a dielectric wedge,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3665–3669 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lahrech, A.

Lal, S.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lazzarino, M.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 67–72 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levy, U.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, A.

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope I. Light is efficiently transmitted through λ/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–232 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Liberale, C.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 67–72 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lienau, C.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Link, S.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. W.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lomakin, V.

Lukin, M. D.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(11), 807–812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum optics with surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 053002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Y.

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, H. Yu, and L. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maksymov, I.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 67–72 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuzaki, Y.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D.

Muray, A.

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope I. Light is efficiently transmitted through λ/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–232 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Neacsu, C. C.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, R. L.

Nerkararyan, Kh. V.

N. A. Janunts, K. S. Baghdasaryan, Kh. V. Nerkararyan, and B. Hecht, “Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Opt. Comm. 253, (2005).

Nicholls, G.

E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, “Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope,” Nature 237(5357), 510–512 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, “Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 210(3), 220–224 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogawa, T.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, T.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Orenstein, M.

Patrini, M.

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 67–72 (2010).
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J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
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Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pile, D. F. P.

K. C. Vernon, D. K. Gramotnev, and D. F. P. Pile, “Channel plasmon-polariton modes in V grooves filled with dielectric,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(3), 034304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

E. Verhagen, L. K. Kuipers, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic nanofocusing in a dielectric wedge,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3665–3669 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Verhagen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, “Enhanced nonlinear optical effects with a tapered plasmonic waveguide,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 334–337 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, H. Yu, and L. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
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M. Yan and M. Qiu, “Guided plasmon polariton at 2D metal corners,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(9), 2333–2342 (2007).
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C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renger, J.

A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, “Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 210(3), 220–224 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodrigo, S. G.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ropers, C.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandoghdar, V.

X.-W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Highly efficient interfacing of guided plasmons and photons in nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3756–3761 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, A. K.

A. K. Sharma, R. Jha, and B. D. Gupta, “Fiber-optic sensors based on surface plasmon resonance: a comprehensive review,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(8), 1118–1129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sørensen, A. S.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(11), 807–812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum optics with surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 053002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srituravanich, W.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steele, J. M.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 137404 (2004).
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Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tong, L.

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, H. Yu, and L. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Orden, D.

Verhagen, E.

E. Verhagen, L. K. Kuipers, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic nanofocusing in a dielectric wedge,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3665–3669 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Verhagen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, “Enhanced nonlinear optical effects with a tapered plasmonic waveguide,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 334–337 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vernon, K. C.

K. C. Vernon, D. K. Gramotnev, and D. F. P. Pile, “Channel plasmon-polariton modes in V grooves filled with dielectric,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(3), 034304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Veronis, G.

Volkov, V. S.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q. J.

Wiley, B. J.

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, H. Yu, and L. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, K.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M.

Yanai, A.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Q.

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, H. Yu, and L. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

Yu, H.

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, H. Yu, and L. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhan, Q.

Zhang, S.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, H. Yu, and L. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

A. K. Sharma, R. Jha, and B. D. Gupta, “Fiber-optic sensors based on surface plasmon resonance: a comprehensive review,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(8), 1118–1129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. C. Vernon, D. K. Gramotnev, and D. F. P. Pile, “Channel plasmon-polariton modes in V grooves filled with dielectric,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(3), 034304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, “Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 210(3), 220–224 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nano Lett. (8)

X.-W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Highly efficient interfacing of guided plasmons and photons in nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3756–3761 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, H. Yu, and L. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Verhagen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, “Enhanced nonlinear optical effects with a tapered plasmonic waveguide,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 334–337 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Verhagen, L. K. Kuipers, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic nanofocusing in a dielectric wedge,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3665–3669 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

F. De Angelis, G. Das, P. Candeloro, M. Patrini, M. Galli, A. Bek, M. Lazzarino, I. Maksymov, C. Liberale, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Nanoscale chemical mapping using three-dimensional adiabatic compression of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(1), 67–72 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(11), 807–812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, “Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope,” Nature 237(5357), 510–512 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Comm. (1)

N. A. Janunts, K. S. Baghdasaryan, Kh. V. Nerkararyan, and B. Hecht, “Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Opt. Comm. 253, (2005).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

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Ultramicroscopy (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Schematic representation of nano-tip focusing device b) calculated electric field intensity in the device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Schematic illustration of the coupling geometry. b) Horizontal cross section of the calculated electric field distribution (Ey component) within the silicon waveguide coupled to the MDM waveguide c) The electric field pattern of in-plane fundamental mode of silicon waveguide with dimensions of 950x250 nm. d) The electric field pattern of fundamental mode of MDM waveguide with silicon dimensions of 950x250 nm. e) The electric field pattern of fundamental mode of MDM waveguide with silicon dimensions of 450x250 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Coupling efficiency between dielectric photonic waveguide and MDM structure as function of waveguide and MDM widths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated electric field intensity distribution of silicon tip surrounding by metal along the a) horizontal direction. b) vertical direction.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) SEM micrograph of fabricated device. b) Magnified image showing the apex of the silicon tip surrounded by metal. The magnified image is 90 degrees rotated with respect to Fig. 5a for visualization purposes. The inset demonstrates an even higher magnification of the tip’s apex, with critical dimensions of ~20 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

NSOM measurement results. a) 3D representation of the near-field signal . b) 3D collage between the topography and the near-field intensity signal.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Profiles of NSOM measurement results. a) Longitudinal profile showing nanofocusing in the longitudinal direction. The region of low intensity corresponds to the signal in the silicon waveguide and the peak intensity corresponds to the region near the apex of gold nanotip. b) Transverse profile showing nanofocusing in the transverse direction.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Convolution between the calculated electric field intensity distribution of the fabricated device and the NSOM tip aperture: a) 2D slice of the intensity distribution at the top of silicon layer. b) 1D profile along the longitudinal direction. c) 1D profile along the transverse direction.

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