Abstract

A color image was taken with a CMOS image sensor without any infrared cut-off filter, using red, green and blue metal/dielectric filters arranged in Bayer pattern with 1.75µm pixel pitch. The three colors were obtained by a thickness variation of only two layers in the 7-layer stack, with a technological process including four photolithography levels. The thickness of the filter stack was only half of the traditional color resists, potentially enabling a reduction of optical crosstalk for smaller pixels. Both color errors and signal to noise ratio derived from optimized spectral responses are expected to be similar to color resists associated with infrared filter.

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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2010

2008

S. Koyama, Y. Inaba, M. Kasano, and T. Murata, “A day and night vision MOS imager with robust photonic-crystal-based RGB-and-IR,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(3), 754–759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Guerroudj, F. Roy, and J. L. Deschanvres, “Inorganic color filters by MOCVD for CMOS imager and colorimetry,” Proc. SPIE 7001, 106–109 (2008).

2006

M. Kasano, Y. Inaba, M. Mori, S. Kasuga, T. Murata, and T. Yamaguchi, “A 2.0-/spl mu/m pixel pitch MOS image sensor with 1.5 transistor/pixel and an amorphous Si color filter,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(4), 611–617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1957

Berning, P. H.

Catrysse, P. B.

Chen, Q.

Cumming, D. R. S.

Decroux, T.

C. Mornet, J. Vaillant, T. Decroux, D. Hérault, and I. Schanen, “Evaluation of color error and noise on simulated images,” Proc. SPIE 7537, 75370Y, 75370Y-12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Deschanvres, J. L.

S. Guerroudj, F. Roy, and J. L. Deschanvres, “Inorganic color filters by MOCVD for CMOS imager and colorimetry,” Proc. SPIE 7001, 106–109 (2008).

Fesenmaier, C. C.

Guerroudj, S.

S. Guerroudj, F. Roy, and J. L. Deschanvres, “Inorganic color filters by MOCVD for CMOS imager and colorimetry,” Proc. SPIE 7001, 106–109 (2008).

Hérault, D.

C. Mornet, J. Vaillant, T. Decroux, D. Hérault, and I. Schanen, “Evaluation of color error and noise on simulated images,” Proc. SPIE 7537, 75370Y, 75370Y-12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huo, Y.

Inaba, Y.

S. Koyama, Y. Inaba, M. Kasano, and T. Murata, “A day and night vision MOS imager with robust photonic-crystal-based RGB-and-IR,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(3), 754–759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kasano, Y. Inaba, M. Mori, S. Kasuga, T. Murata, and T. Yamaguchi, “A 2.0-/spl mu/m pixel pitch MOS image sensor with 1.5 transistor/pixel and an amorphous Si color filter,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(4), 611–617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kasano, M.

S. Koyama, Y. Inaba, M. Kasano, and T. Murata, “A day and night vision MOS imager with robust photonic-crystal-based RGB-and-IR,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(3), 754–759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kasano, Y. Inaba, M. Mori, S. Kasuga, T. Murata, and T. Yamaguchi, “A 2.0-/spl mu/m pixel pitch MOS image sensor with 1.5 transistor/pixel and an amorphous Si color filter,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(4), 611–617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kasuga, S.

M. Kasano, Y. Inaba, M. Mori, S. Kasuga, T. Murata, and T. Yamaguchi, “A 2.0-/spl mu/m pixel pitch MOS image sensor with 1.5 transistor/pixel and an amorphous Si color filter,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(4), 611–617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, S.

S. Koyama, Y. Inaba, M. Kasano, and T. Murata, “A day and night vision MOS imager with robust photonic-crystal-based RGB-and-IR,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(3), 754–759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-S.

Mori, M.

M. Kasano, Y. Inaba, M. Mori, S. Kasuga, T. Murata, and T. Yamaguchi, “A 2.0-/spl mu/m pixel pitch MOS image sensor with 1.5 transistor/pixel and an amorphous Si color filter,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(4), 611–617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mornet, C.

C. Mornet, J. Vaillant, T. Decroux, D. Hérault, and I. Schanen, “Evaluation of color error and noise on simulated images,” Proc. SPIE 7537, 75370Y, 75370Y-12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Murata, T.

S. Koyama, Y. Inaba, M. Kasano, and T. Murata, “A day and night vision MOS imager with robust photonic-crystal-based RGB-and-IR,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(3), 754–759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kasano, Y. Inaba, M. Mori, S. Kasuga, T. Murata, and T. Yamaguchi, “A 2.0-/spl mu/m pixel pitch MOS image sensor with 1.5 transistor/pixel and an amorphous Si color filter,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(4), 611–617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Parrein, P.

P. Parrein, “Thin silver layer characterization for metal dielectric color filters optimization,” (to be published).

Roy, F.

S. Guerroudj, F. Roy, and J. L. Deschanvres, “Inorganic color filters by MOCVD for CMOS imager and colorimetry,” Proc. SPIE 7001, 106–109 (2008).

Schanen, I.

C. Mornet, J. Vaillant, T. Decroux, D. Hérault, and I. Schanen, “Evaluation of color error and noise on simulated images,” Proc. SPIE 7537, 75370Y, 75370Y-12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. F.

Vaillant, J.

C. Mornet, J. Vaillant, T. Decroux, D. Hérault, and I. Schanen, “Evaluation of color error and noise on simulated images,” Proc. SPIE 7537, 75370Y, 75370Y-12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, T.

M. Kasano, Y. Inaba, M. Mori, S. Kasuga, T. Murata, and T. Yamaguchi, “A 2.0-/spl mu/m pixel pitch MOS image sensor with 1.5 transistor/pixel and an amorphous Si color filter,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(4), 611–617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, Y.-T.

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

M. Kasano, Y. Inaba, M. Mori, S. Kasuga, T. Murata, and T. Yamaguchi, “A 2.0-/spl mu/m pixel pitch MOS image sensor with 1.5 transistor/pixel and an amorphous Si color filter,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(4), 611–617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Koyama, Y. Inaba, M. Kasano, and T. Murata, “A day and night vision MOS imager with robust photonic-crystal-based RGB-and-IR,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 55(3), 754–759 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

C. Mornet, J. Vaillant, T. Decroux, D. Hérault, and I. Schanen, “Evaluation of color error and noise on simulated images,” Proc. SPIE 7537, 75370Y, 75370Y-12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Guerroudj, F. Roy, and J. L. Deschanvres, “Inorganic color filters by MOCVD for CMOS imager and colorimetry,” Proc. SPIE 7001, 106–109 (2008).

Other

B. Lindbloom, http://www.brucelindbloom.com/index.html?Eqn_DeltaE_CIE2000.html .

D65 illuminant http://www.cie.co.at/publ/abst/datatables15_2004/std65.txt

P. Gidon, and G. Grand, “Optical filter matrix structure and associated image sensor,” Patent WO2008/012235A1 (2008).

M. Cohen, F. Herault, D. Cazaux, Y. Gandolfi, A. Reynard, J. P. Cowache, C. Bruno, E. Girault, T. Vaillant, J. Barbier, F. Sanchez, Y. Hotellier, N. LeBorgne, O. Augier, C. Inard, A. Jaguenear, T. Zinck, C. Michailos, J. Mazaleyrat, and E. Crolles, “Fully optimized Cu based process with dedicated cavity etch for 1.75µm and 1.45µm pixel pitch CMOS image sensors,” IEEE Int. Elec. Dev. Meeting 812–815 (2006).

H. A. Macleod, Thin-film optical filters III (Institute of Physics Publishing, London, 2001).

D. Pascale, “A review of RGB color spaces… from xyY to R’G’B’,” 10 tutorial (2003), “RGB coordinates of the Macbeth Colorchecker” (2006), http://www.10.com/main_level/Tutorials.htm .

P. Parrein, “Thin silver layer characterization for metal dielectric color filters optimization,” (to be published).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic cross section of patterned RGB metal/dielectric filters (vertical dimensions are enhanced for clarity).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated spectral responses of RGB metal/dielectric filters designed on glass wafer (design 1 of Table 1), taking into account the monochrome response of Si. Only two layers within the 7-layer filter have variable thickness from blue to red. Dark curves: Spectral responses at 0° incidence. Light curves: at 30°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TEM image of a double cavity metal/dielectric filter including two different dielectric materials.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured spectral responses (plain lines) of RGB metal/dielectric filters designed on glass wafer, compared with theory (dashed lines).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simplified scheme of the “blue” and “green” masks used for the patterning of metal/dielectric filters.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SEM images of metal/dielectric filters on CMOS wafer, at mid-process.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

QE measured on uniform stripes of metal/dielectric filters deposited on CMOS sensor with 1.75µm pixels, without any microlenses nor cavity etch.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

First color image with metal/dielectric filters patterned in 1.75µm pixels on CMOS, without IR filter.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Color Error and SNR Performances of Filters Simulated on Infinite Silica Substrate, Taking into Account the Monochrome Response of 3 µm Thick Si, 1.75 µm Pixel

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