Abstract

In this paper we demonstrate a technique that can create non-equilibrium vortex configurations with almost arbitrary charge and geometry in a Bose-Einstein condensate. We coherently transfer orbital angular momentum from a holographically generated light beam to a 87Rb condensate using a two-photon stimulated Raman process. Using matter wave interferometry, we verify the phase pattern imprinted onto the atomic wave function for a single vortex and a vortex-antivortex pair. In addition to their phase winding, the vortices created with this technique have an associated hyperfine spin texture.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424, 810–816 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249–251 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, A. López Ariste, A. Asensio Ramos, T. Belenguer, R. Manso Sainz, C. LeMen, and B. Gelly, “Detecting photons with orbital angular momentum in extended astronomical objects: application to solar observations,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A56 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 305–310 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. J. van Enk and G. Nienhuis, “Spin and orbital angular momentum of photons,” Europhys. Lett. 25, 497–501 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of laguerre-gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8189 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Volpe and D. Petrov, “Torque detection using brownian fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 210603 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826–829 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, M. J. Padgett, W. Dultz, H. Schmitzer, and K. Dholakia, “Observation of the transfer of the local angular momentum density of a multiringed light beam to an optically trapped particle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093602 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. F. Andersen, C. Ryu, P. Clade, V. Natarajan, A. Vaziri, K. Helmerson, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantized rotation of atoms from photons with orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 170406 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. C. Wright, L. S. Leslie, and N. P. Bigelow, “Optical control of the internal and external angular momentum of a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 041601 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. C. Wright, L. S. Leslie, A. Hansen, and N. P. Bigelow, “Sculpting the vortex state of a spinor BEC,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 030405 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. S. Leslie, A. Hansen, K. C. Wright, B. M. Deutsch, and N. P. Bigelow, “Creation and detection of skyrmions in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 250401 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. W. Rayfield and F. Reif, “Evidence for the creation and motion of quantized vortex rings in superfluid helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 305–308 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. R. Abo-Shaeer, C. Raman, J. M. Vogels, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of vortex lattices in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Science 292, 476–479 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Y. Shin, M. Saba, M. Vengalattore, T. A. Pasquini, C. Sanner, A. E. Leanhardt, M. Prentiss, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Dynamical instability of a doubly quantized vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160406 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. B. P. Anderson, P. C. Haljan, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Vortex precession in Bose-Einstein condensates: Observations with filled and empty cores,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2857–2860 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. V. Freilich, D. M. Bianchi, A. M. Kaufman, T. K. Langin, and D. S. Hall, “Real-time dynamics of single vortex lines and vortex dipoles in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Science 329, 1182–1185 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. V. Schweikhard, I. Coddington, P. Engels, V. P. Mogendorff, and E. A. Cornell, “Rapidly rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in and near the lowest landau level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 040404 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Sorensen, E. Demler, and M. Lukin, “Fractional quantum hall states of atoms in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 86803 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. N. Gemelke, E. Sarajlic, and S. Chu, “Rotating few-body atomic systems in the fractional quantum hall regime,” ArXiv e-prints, arXiv:1007.2677v1 (2010).
  23. N. R. Cooper, “Rapidly rotating atomic gases,” Adv. Physics 57, 2498–2501 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. N. R. Cooper, N. K. Wilkin, and J. M. F. Gunn, “Quantum phases of vortices in rotating Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 120405 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. M. Kosterlitz and D. J. Thouless, “Ordering, metastability and phase-transitions in 2 dimensional systems,” J. Phys. C 6, 1181–1203 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Z. Hadzibabic, P. Krüger, M. Cheneau, B. Battelier, and J. Dalibard, “Berezinskii-kosterlitz-thouless crossover in a trapped atomic gas,” Nature 441, 1118–1121 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. M. R. Matthews, B. P. Anderson, P. C. Haljan, D. S. Hall, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2498–2501 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. E. Leanhardt, A. Görlitz, A. P. Chikkatur, D. Kielpinski, Y. Shin, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Imprinting vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate using topological phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 190403 (2002).
  29. T. W. Neely, E. C. Samson, A. S. Bradley, M. J. Davis, and B. P. Anderson, “Observation of vortex dipoles in an oblate Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 160401 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. A. M. Turner, “Mass of a spin vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 080603 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. J. Ruostekoski and Z. Dutton, “Engineering vortex rings and systems for controlled studies of vortex interactions in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063626 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  32. U. A. Khawaja and H. T. C. Stoof, “Skyrmions in a ferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate,” Nature 411, 918–920 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. T. H. R. Skyrme, “A non-linear field theory,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 260, 127–138 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  34. A. E. Leanhardt, Y. Shin, D. Kielpinski, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Coreless vortex formation in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 140403 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. J. Ruostekoski and J. R. Anglin, “Creating vortex rings and three-dimensional skyrmions in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3934–3937 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. J. Tempere and J. T. Devreese, “Fringe pattern of interfering Bose-Einstein condensates with a vortex,” Solid State Communications 108, 993–996 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  37. F. Chevy, K. W. Madison, V. Bretin, and J. Dalibard, “Interferometric detection of a single vortex in a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031601 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  38. S. Inouye, S. Gupta, T. Rosenband, A. P. Chikkatur, A. Görlitz, T. L. Gustavson, A. E. Leanhardt, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of vortex phase singularities in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 080402 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. M. R. Andrews, C. G. Townsend, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of interference between two Bose condensates,” Science 275, 637–641 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. W. S. Bakr, J. I. Gillen, A. Peng, S. Fölling, and M. Greiner, “A quantum gas microscope for detecting single atoms in a hubbard-regime optical lattice,” Nature 462, 74–77 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, A. López Ariste, A. Asensio Ramos, T. Belenguer, R. Manso Sainz, C. LeMen, and B. Gelly, “Detecting photons with orbital angular momentum in extended astronomical objects: application to solar observations,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

D. V. Freilich, D. M. Bianchi, A. M. Kaufman, T. K. Langin, and D. S. Hall, “Real-time dynamics of single vortex lines and vortex dipoles in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Science 329, 1182–1185 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Neely, E. C. Samson, A. S. Bradley, M. J. Davis, and B. P. Anderson, “Observation of vortex dipoles in an oblate Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 160401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

A. M. Turner, “Mass of a spin vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 080603 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Bakr, J. I. Gillen, A. Peng, S. Fölling, and M. Greiner, “A quantum gas microscope for detecting single atoms in a hubbard-regime optical lattice,” Nature 462, 74–77 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Wright, L. S. Leslie, A. Hansen, and N. P. Bigelow, “Sculpting the vortex state of a spinor BEC,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 030405 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Leslie, A. Hansen, K. C. Wright, B. M. Deutsch, and N. P. Bigelow, “Creation and detection of skyrmions in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 250401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

K. C. Wright, L. S. Leslie, and N. P. Bigelow, “Optical control of the internal and external angular momentum of a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 041601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Cooper, “Rapidly rotating atomic gases,” Adv. Physics 57, 2498–2501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 305–310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

G. Volpe and D. Petrov, “Torque detection using brownian fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 210603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Andersen, C. Ryu, P. Clade, V. Natarajan, A. Vaziri, K. Helmerson, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantized rotation of atoms from photons with orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 170406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Hadzibabic, P. Krüger, M. Cheneau, B. Battelier, and J. Dalibard, “Berezinskii-kosterlitz-thouless crossover in a trapped atomic gas,” Nature 441, 1118–1121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

A. Sorensen, E. Demler, and M. Lukin, “Fractional quantum hall states of atoms in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 86803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Ruostekoski and Z. Dutton, “Engineering vortex rings and systems for controlled studies of vortex interactions in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063626 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

V. Schweikhard, I. Coddington, P. Engels, V. P. Mogendorff, and E. A. Cornell, “Rapidly rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in and near the lowest landau level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 040404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shin, M. Saba, M. Vengalattore, T. A. Pasquini, C. Sanner, A. E. Leanhardt, M. Prentiss, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Dynamical instability of a doubly quantized vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160406 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, M. J. Padgett, W. Dultz, H. Schmitzer, and K. Dholakia, “Observation of the transfer of the local angular momentum density of a multiringed light beam to an optically trapped particle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424, 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Leanhardt, Y. Shin, D. Kielpinski, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Coreless vortex formation in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 140403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (8)

J. Ruostekoski and J. R. Anglin, “Creating vortex rings and three-dimensional skyrmions in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3934–3937 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Chevy, K. W. Madison, V. Bretin, and J. Dalibard, “Interferometric detection of a single vortex in a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Inouye, S. Gupta, T. Rosenband, A. P. Chikkatur, A. Görlitz, T. L. Gustavson, A. E. Leanhardt, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of vortex phase singularities in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 080402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. R. Cooper, N. K. Wilkin, and J. M. F. Gunn, “Quantum phases of vortices in rotating Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 120405 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. A. Khawaja and H. T. C. Stoof, “Skyrmions in a ferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate,” Nature 411, 918–920 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249–251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Abo-Shaeer, C. Raman, J. M. Vogels, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of vortex lattices in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Science 292, 476–479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

B. P. Anderson, P. C. Haljan, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Vortex precession in Bose-Einstein condensates: Observations with filled and empty cores,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2857–2860 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. R. Matthews, B. P. Anderson, P. C. Haljan, D. S. Hall, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2498–2501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. Tempere and J. T. Devreese, “Fringe pattern of interfering Bose-Einstein condensates with a vortex,” Solid State Communications 108, 993–996 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. R. Andrews, C. G. Townsend, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of interference between two Bose condensates,” Science 275, 637–641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826–829 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

S. J. van Enk and G. Nienhuis, “Spin and orbital angular momentum of photons,” Europhys. Lett. 25, 497–501 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of laguerre-gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

J. M. Kosterlitz and D. J. Thouless, “Ordering, metastability and phase-transitions in 2 dimensional systems,” J. Phys. C 6, 1181–1203 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

G. W. Rayfield and F. Reif, “Evidence for the creation and motion of quantized vortex rings in superfluid helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 305–308 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

T. H. R. Skyrme, “A non-linear field theory,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 260, 127–138 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1904 (1)

A. E. Leanhardt, A. Görlitz, A. P. Chikkatur, D. Kielpinski, Y. Shin, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Imprinting vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate using topological phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 190403 (2002).

Abo-Shaeer, J. R.

J. R. Abo-Shaeer, C. Raman, J. M. Vogels, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of vortex lattices in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Science 292, 476–479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, L.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of laguerre-gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alvarez-Herrero, A.

N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, A. López Ariste, A. Asensio Ramos, T. Belenguer, R. Manso Sainz, C. LeMen, and B. Gelly, “Detecting photons with orbital angular momentum in extended astronomical objects: application to solar observations,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, M. F.

M. F. Andersen, C. Ryu, P. Clade, V. Natarajan, A. Vaziri, K. Helmerson, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantized rotation of atoms from photons with orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 170406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, B. P.

T. W. Neely, E. C. Samson, A. S. Bradley, M. J. Davis, and B. P. Anderson, “Observation of vortex dipoles in an oblate Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 160401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. P. Anderson, P. C. Haljan, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Vortex precession in Bose-Einstein condensates: Observations with filled and empty cores,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2857–2860 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Matthews, B. P. Anderson, P. C. Haljan, D. S. Hall, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2498–2501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, M. R.

M. R. Andrews, C. G. Townsend, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of interference between two Bose condensates,” Science 275, 637–641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anglin, J. R.

J. Ruostekoski and J. R. Anglin, “Creating vortex rings and three-dimensional skyrmions in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3934–3937 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asensio Ramos, A.

N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, A. López Ariste, A. Asensio Ramos, T. Belenguer, R. Manso Sainz, C. LeMen, and B. Gelly, “Detecting photons with orbital angular momentum in extended astronomical objects: application to solar observations,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bakr, W. S.

W. S. Bakr, J. I. Gillen, A. Peng, S. Fölling, and M. Greiner, “A quantum gas microscope for detecting single atoms in a hubbard-regime optical lattice,” Nature 462, 74–77 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Battelier, B.

Z. Hadzibabic, P. Krüger, M. Cheneau, B. Battelier, and J. Dalibard, “Berezinskii-kosterlitz-thouless crossover in a trapped atomic gas,” Nature 441, 1118–1121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of laguerre-gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belenguer, T.

N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, A. López Ariste, A. Asensio Ramos, T. Belenguer, R. Manso Sainz, C. LeMen, and B. Gelly, “Detecting photons with orbital angular momentum in extended astronomical objects: application to solar observations,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bianchi, D. M.

D. V. Freilich, D. M. Bianchi, A. M. Kaufman, T. K. Langin, and D. S. Hall, “Real-time dynamics of single vortex lines and vortex dipoles in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Science 329, 1182–1185 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigelow, N. P.

K. C. Wright, L. S. Leslie, A. Hansen, and N. P. Bigelow, “Sculpting the vortex state of a spinor BEC,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 030405 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Leslie, A. Hansen, K. C. Wright, B. M. Deutsch, and N. P. Bigelow, “Creation and detection of skyrmions in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 250401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Wright, L. S. Leslie, and N. P. Bigelow, “Optical control of the internal and external angular momentum of a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 041601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, A. S.

T. W. Neely, E. C. Samson, A. S. Bradley, M. J. Davis, and B. P. Anderson, “Observation of vortex dipoles in an oblate Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 160401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bretin, V.

F. Chevy, K. W. Madison, V. Bretin, and J. Dalibard, “Interferometric detection of a single vortex in a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheneau, M.

Z. Hadzibabic, P. Krüger, M. Cheneau, B. Battelier, and J. Dalibard, “Berezinskii-kosterlitz-thouless crossover in a trapped atomic gas,” Nature 441, 1118–1121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chevy, F.

F. Chevy, K. W. Madison, V. Bretin, and J. Dalibard, “Interferometric detection of a single vortex in a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chikkatur, A. P.

S. Inouye, S. Gupta, T. Rosenband, A. P. Chikkatur, A. Görlitz, T. L. Gustavson, A. E. Leanhardt, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of vortex phase singularities in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 080402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Leanhardt, A. Görlitz, A. P. Chikkatur, D. Kielpinski, Y. Shin, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Imprinting vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate using topological phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 190403 (2002).

Clade, P.

M. F. Andersen, C. Ryu, P. Clade, V. Natarajan, A. Vaziri, K. Helmerson, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantized rotation of atoms from photons with orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 170406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coddington, I.

V. Schweikhard, I. Coddington, P. Engels, V. P. Mogendorff, and E. A. Cornell, “Rapidly rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in and near the lowest landau level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 040404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, N. R.

N. R. Cooper, “Rapidly rotating atomic gases,” Adv. Physics 57, 2498–2501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Cooper, N. K. Wilkin, and J. M. F. Gunn, “Quantum phases of vortices in rotating Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 120405 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornell, E. A.

V. Schweikhard, I. Coddington, P. Engels, V. P. Mogendorff, and E. A. Cornell, “Rapidly rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in and near the lowest landau level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 040404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. P. Anderson, P. C. Haljan, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Vortex precession in Bose-Einstein condensates: Observations with filled and empty cores,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2857–2860 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Matthews, B. P. Anderson, P. C. Haljan, D. S. Hall, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2498–2501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dalibard, J.

Z. Hadzibabic, P. Krüger, M. Cheneau, B. Battelier, and J. Dalibard, “Berezinskii-kosterlitz-thouless crossover in a trapped atomic gas,” Nature 441, 1118–1121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Chevy, K. W. Madison, V. Bretin, and J. Dalibard, “Interferometric detection of a single vortex in a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M. J.

T. W. Neely, E. C. Samson, A. S. Bradley, M. J. Davis, and B. P. Anderson, “Observation of vortex dipoles in an oblate Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 160401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demler, E.

A. Sorensen, E. Demler, and M. Lukin, “Fractional quantum hall states of atoms in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 86803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, B. M.

L. S. Leslie, A. Hansen, K. C. Wright, B. M. Deutsch, and N. P. Bigelow, “Creation and detection of skyrmions in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 250401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Devreese, J. T.

J. Tempere and J. T. Devreese, “Fringe pattern of interfering Bose-Einstein condensates with a vortex,” Solid State Communications 108, 993–996 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, M. J. Padgett, W. Dultz, H. Schmitzer, and K. Dholakia, “Observation of the transfer of the local angular momentum density of a multiringed light beam to an optically trapped particle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dultz, W.

V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, M. J. Padgett, W. Dultz, H. Schmitzer, and K. Dholakia, “Observation of the transfer of the local angular momentum density of a multiringed light beam to an optically trapped particle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durfee, D. S.

M. R. Andrews, C. G. Townsend, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of interference between two Bose condensates,” Science 275, 637–641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dutton, Z.

J. Ruostekoski and Z. Dutton, “Engineering vortex rings and systems for controlled studies of vortex interactions in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063626 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Engels, P.

V. Schweikhard, I. Coddington, P. Engels, V. P. Mogendorff, and E. A. Cornell, “Rapidly rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in and near the lowest landau level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 040404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fölling, S.

W. S. Bakr, J. I. Gillen, A. Peng, S. Fölling, and M. Greiner, “A quantum gas microscope for detecting single atoms in a hubbard-regime optical lattice,” Nature 462, 74–77 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freilich, D. V.

D. V. Freilich, D. M. Bianchi, A. M. Kaufman, T. K. Langin, and D. S. Hall, “Real-time dynamics of single vortex lines and vortex dipoles in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Science 329, 1182–1185 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friese, M. E. J.

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826–829 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galajda, P.

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249–251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Garcés-Chávez, V.

V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, M. J. Padgett, W. Dultz, H. Schmitzer, and K. Dholakia, “Observation of the transfer of the local angular momentum density of a multiringed light beam to an optically trapped particle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelly, B.

N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, A. López Ariste, A. Asensio Ramos, T. Belenguer, R. Manso Sainz, C. LeMen, and B. Gelly, “Detecting photons with orbital angular momentum in extended astronomical objects: application to solar observations,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gillen, J. I.

W. S. Bakr, J. I. Gillen, A. Peng, S. Fölling, and M. Greiner, “A quantum gas microscope for detecting single atoms in a hubbard-regime optical lattice,” Nature 462, 74–77 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Görlitz, A.

S. Inouye, S. Gupta, T. Rosenband, A. P. Chikkatur, A. Görlitz, T. L. Gustavson, A. E. Leanhardt, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of vortex phase singularities in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 080402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Leanhardt, A. Görlitz, A. P. Chikkatur, D. Kielpinski, Y. Shin, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Imprinting vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate using topological phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 190403 (2002).

Greiner, M.

W. S. Bakr, J. I. Gillen, A. Peng, S. Fölling, and M. Greiner, “A quantum gas microscope for detecting single atoms in a hubbard-regime optical lattice,” Nature 462, 74–77 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grier, D. G.

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424, 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunn, J. M. F.

N. R. Cooper, N. K. Wilkin, and J. M. F. Gunn, “Quantum phases of vortices in rotating Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 120405 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, S.

S. Inouye, S. Gupta, T. Rosenband, A. P. Chikkatur, A. Görlitz, T. L. Gustavson, A. E. Leanhardt, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of vortex phase singularities in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 080402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gustavson, T. L.

S. Inouye, S. Gupta, T. Rosenband, A. P. Chikkatur, A. Görlitz, T. L. Gustavson, A. E. Leanhardt, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of vortex phase singularities in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 080402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hadzibabic, Z.

Z. Hadzibabic, P. Krüger, M. Cheneau, B. Battelier, and J. Dalibard, “Berezinskii-kosterlitz-thouless crossover in a trapped atomic gas,” Nature 441, 1118–1121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haljan, P. C.

B. P. Anderson, P. C. Haljan, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Vortex precession in Bose-Einstein condensates: Observations with filled and empty cores,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2857–2860 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Matthews, B. P. Anderson, P. C. Haljan, D. S. Hall, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2498–2501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. S.

D. V. Freilich, D. M. Bianchi, A. M. Kaufman, T. K. Langin, and D. S. Hall, “Real-time dynamics of single vortex lines and vortex dipoles in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Science 329, 1182–1185 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Matthews, B. P. Anderson, P. C. Haljan, D. S. Hall, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2498–2501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, A.

L. S. Leslie, A. Hansen, K. C. Wright, B. M. Deutsch, and N. P. Bigelow, “Creation and detection of skyrmions in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 250401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Wright, L. S. Leslie, A. Hansen, and N. P. Bigelow, “Sculpting the vortex state of a spinor BEC,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 030405 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, H.

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826–829 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heckenberg, N. R.

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826–829 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helmerson, K.

M. F. Andersen, C. Ryu, P. Clade, V. Natarajan, A. Vaziri, K. Helmerson, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantized rotation of atoms from photons with orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 170406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inouye, S.

S. Inouye, S. Gupta, T. Rosenband, A. P. Chikkatur, A. Görlitz, T. L. Gustavson, A. E. Leanhardt, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of vortex phase singularities in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 080402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaufman, A. M.

D. V. Freilich, D. M. Bianchi, A. M. Kaufman, T. K. Langin, and D. S. Hall, “Real-time dynamics of single vortex lines and vortex dipoles in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Science 329, 1182–1185 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ketterle, W.

Y. Shin, M. Saba, M. Vengalattore, T. A. Pasquini, C. Sanner, A. E. Leanhardt, M. Prentiss, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Dynamical instability of a doubly quantized vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160406 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Leanhardt, Y. Shin, D. Kielpinski, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Coreless vortex formation in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 140403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Abo-Shaeer, C. Raman, J. M. Vogels, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of vortex lattices in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Science 292, 476–479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Inouye, S. Gupta, T. Rosenband, A. P. Chikkatur, A. Görlitz, T. L. Gustavson, A. E. Leanhardt, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of vortex phase singularities in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 080402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Andrews, C. G. Townsend, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of interference between two Bose condensates,” Science 275, 637–641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Leanhardt, A. Görlitz, A. P. Chikkatur, D. Kielpinski, Y. Shin, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Imprinting vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate using topological phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 190403 (2002).

Khawaja, U. A.

U. A. Khawaja and H. T. C. Stoof, “Skyrmions in a ferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate,” Nature 411, 918–920 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kielpinski, D.

A. E. Leanhardt, Y. Shin, D. Kielpinski, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Coreless vortex formation in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 140403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Leanhardt, A. Görlitz, A. P. Chikkatur, D. Kielpinski, Y. Shin, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Imprinting vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate using topological phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 190403 (2002).

Kosterlitz, J. M.

J. M. Kosterlitz and D. J. Thouless, “Ordering, metastability and phase-transitions in 2 dimensional systems,” J. Phys. C 6, 1181–1203 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, P.

Z. Hadzibabic, P. Krüger, M. Cheneau, B. Battelier, and J. Dalibard, “Berezinskii-kosterlitz-thouless crossover in a trapped atomic gas,” Nature 441, 1118–1121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurn, D. M.

M. R. Andrews, C. G. Townsend, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of interference between two Bose condensates,” Science 275, 637–641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langin, T. K.

D. V. Freilich, D. M. Bianchi, A. M. Kaufman, T. K. Langin, and D. S. Hall, “Real-time dynamics of single vortex lines and vortex dipoles in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Science 329, 1182–1185 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leanhardt, A. E.

Y. Shin, M. Saba, M. Vengalattore, T. A. Pasquini, C. Sanner, A. E. Leanhardt, M. Prentiss, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Dynamical instability of a doubly quantized vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160406 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Leanhardt, Y. Shin, D. Kielpinski, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Coreless vortex formation in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 140403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Inouye, S. Gupta, T. Rosenband, A. P. Chikkatur, A. Görlitz, T. L. Gustavson, A. E. Leanhardt, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of vortex phase singularities in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 080402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Leanhardt, A. Görlitz, A. P. Chikkatur, D. Kielpinski, Y. Shin, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Imprinting vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate using topological phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 190403 (2002).

LeMen, C.

N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, A. López Ariste, A. Asensio Ramos, T. Belenguer, R. Manso Sainz, C. LeMen, and B. Gelly, “Detecting photons with orbital angular momentum in extended astronomical objects: application to solar observations,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leslie, L. S.

K. C. Wright, L. S. Leslie, A. Hansen, and N. P. Bigelow, “Sculpting the vortex state of a spinor BEC,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 030405 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Leslie, A. Hansen, K. C. Wright, B. M. Deutsch, and N. P. Bigelow, “Creation and detection of skyrmions in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 250401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Wright, L. S. Leslie, and N. P. Bigelow, “Optical control of the internal and external angular momentum of a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 041601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

López Ariste, A.

N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, A. López Ariste, A. Asensio Ramos, T. Belenguer, R. Manso Sainz, C. LeMen, and B. Gelly, “Detecting photons with orbital angular momentum in extended astronomical objects: application to solar observations,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M.

A. Sorensen, E. Demler, and M. Lukin, “Fractional quantum hall states of atoms in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 86803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Madison, K. W.

F. Chevy, K. W. Madison, V. Bretin, and J. Dalibard, “Interferometric detection of a single vortex in a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mair, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manso Sainz, R.

N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, A. López Ariste, A. Asensio Ramos, T. Belenguer, R. Manso Sainz, C. LeMen, and B. Gelly, “Detecting photons with orbital angular momentum in extended astronomical objects: application to solar observations,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, M. R.

M. R. Matthews, B. P. Anderson, P. C. Haljan, D. S. Hall, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2498–2501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McGloin, D.

V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, M. J. Padgett, W. Dultz, H. Schmitzer, and K. Dholakia, “Observation of the transfer of the local angular momentum density of a multiringed light beam to an optically trapped particle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miesner, H.-J.

M. R. Andrews, C. G. Townsend, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of interference between two Bose condensates,” Science 275, 637–641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mogendorff, V. P.

V. Schweikhard, I. Coddington, P. Engels, V. P. Mogendorff, and E. A. Cornell, “Rapidly rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in and near the lowest landau level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 040404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molina-Terriza, G.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 305–310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, V.

M. F. Andersen, C. Ryu, P. Clade, V. Natarajan, A. Vaziri, K. Helmerson, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantized rotation of atoms from photons with orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 170406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neely, T. W.

T. W. Neely, E. C. Samson, A. S. Bradley, M. J. Davis, and B. P. Anderson, “Observation of vortex dipoles in an oblate Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 160401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nienhuis, G.

S. J. van Enk and G. Nienhuis, “Spin and orbital angular momentum of photons,” Europhys. Lett. 25, 497–501 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ormos, P.

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249–251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, M. J. Padgett, W. Dultz, H. Schmitzer, and K. Dholakia, “Observation of the transfer of the local angular momentum density of a multiringed light beam to an optically trapped particle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pasquini, T. A.

Y. Shin, M. Saba, M. Vengalattore, T. A. Pasquini, C. Sanner, A. E. Leanhardt, M. Prentiss, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Dynamical instability of a doubly quantized vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160406 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, A.

W. S. Bakr, J. I. Gillen, A. Peng, S. Fölling, and M. Greiner, “A quantum gas microscope for detecting single atoms in a hubbard-regime optical lattice,” Nature 462, 74–77 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrov, D.

G. Volpe and D. Petrov, “Torque detection using brownian fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 210603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, W. D.

M. F. Andersen, C. Ryu, P. Clade, V. Natarajan, A. Vaziri, K. Helmerson, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantized rotation of atoms from photons with orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 170406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prentiss, M.

Y. Shin, M. Saba, M. Vengalattore, T. A. Pasquini, C. Sanner, A. E. Leanhardt, M. Prentiss, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Dynamical instability of a doubly quantized vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160406 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pritchard, D. E.

Y. Shin, M. Saba, M. Vengalattore, T. A. Pasquini, C. Sanner, A. E. Leanhardt, M. Prentiss, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Dynamical instability of a doubly quantized vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160406 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Leanhardt, Y. Shin, D. Kielpinski, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Coreless vortex formation in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 140403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Inouye, S. Gupta, T. Rosenband, A. P. Chikkatur, A. Görlitz, T. L. Gustavson, A. E. Leanhardt, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of vortex phase singularities in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 080402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Leanhardt, A. Görlitz, A. P. Chikkatur, D. Kielpinski, Y. Shin, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Imprinting vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate using topological phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 190403 (2002).

Raman, C.

J. R. Abo-Shaeer, C. Raman, J. M. Vogels, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of vortex lattices in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Science 292, 476–479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rayfield, G. W.

G. W. Rayfield and F. Reif, “Evidence for the creation and motion of quantized vortex rings in superfluid helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 305–308 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Reif, F.

G. W. Rayfield and F. Reif, “Evidence for the creation and motion of quantized vortex rings in superfluid helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 305–308 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Rosenband, T.

S. Inouye, S. Gupta, T. Rosenband, A. P. Chikkatur, A. Görlitz, T. L. Gustavson, A. E. Leanhardt, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of vortex phase singularities in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 080402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826–829 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruostekoski, J.

J. Ruostekoski and Z. Dutton, “Engineering vortex rings and systems for controlled studies of vortex interactions in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063626 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Ruostekoski and J. R. Anglin, “Creating vortex rings and three-dimensional skyrmions in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3934–3937 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, C.

M. F. Andersen, C. Ryu, P. Clade, V. Natarajan, A. Vaziri, K. Helmerson, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantized rotation of atoms from photons with orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 170406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saba, M.

Y. Shin, M. Saba, M. Vengalattore, T. A. Pasquini, C. Sanner, A. E. Leanhardt, M. Prentiss, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Dynamical instability of a doubly quantized vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160406 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samson, E. C.

T. W. Neely, E. C. Samson, A. S. Bradley, M. J. Davis, and B. P. Anderson, “Observation of vortex dipoles in an oblate Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 160401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanner, C.

Y. Shin, M. Saba, M. Vengalattore, T. A. Pasquini, C. Sanner, A. E. Leanhardt, M. Prentiss, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Dynamical instability of a doubly quantized vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160406 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitzer, H.

V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, M. J. Padgett, W. Dultz, H. Schmitzer, and K. Dholakia, “Observation of the transfer of the local angular momentum density of a multiringed light beam to an optically trapped particle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweikhard, V.

V. Schweikhard, I. Coddington, P. Engels, V. P. Mogendorff, and E. A. Cornell, “Rapidly rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in and near the lowest landau level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 040404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, Y.

Y. Shin, M. Saba, M. Vengalattore, T. A. Pasquini, C. Sanner, A. E. Leanhardt, M. Prentiss, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Dynamical instability of a doubly quantized vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160406 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Leanhardt, Y. Shin, D. Kielpinski, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Coreless vortex formation in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 140403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Leanhardt, A. Görlitz, A. P. Chikkatur, D. Kielpinski, Y. Shin, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Imprinting vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate using topological phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 190403 (2002).

Skyrme, T. H. R.

T. H. R. Skyrme, “A non-linear field theory,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 260, 127–138 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Sorensen, A.

A. Sorensen, E. Demler, and M. Lukin, “Fractional quantum hall states of atoms in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 86803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of laguerre-gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoof, H. T. C.

U. A. Khawaja and H. T. C. Stoof, “Skyrmions in a ferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate,” Nature 411, 918–920 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tempere, J.

J. Tempere and J. T. Devreese, “Fringe pattern of interfering Bose-Einstein condensates with a vortex,” Solid State Communications 108, 993–996 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thouless, D. J.

J. M. Kosterlitz and D. J. Thouless, “Ordering, metastability and phase-transitions in 2 dimensional systems,” J. Phys. C 6, 1181–1203 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Torner, L.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 305–310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torres, J. P.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 305–310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, C. G.

M. R. Andrews, C. G. Townsend, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of interference between two Bose condensates,” Science 275, 637–641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, A. M.

A. M. Turner, “Mass of a spin vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 080603 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uribe-Patarroyo, N.

N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, A. López Ariste, A. Asensio Ramos, T. Belenguer, R. Manso Sainz, C. LeMen, and B. Gelly, “Detecting photons with orbital angular momentum in extended astronomical objects: application to solar observations,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van Enk, S. J.

S. J. van Enk and G. Nienhuis, “Spin and orbital angular momentum of photons,” Europhys. Lett. 25, 497–501 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vaziri, A.

M. F. Andersen, C. Ryu, P. Clade, V. Natarajan, A. Vaziri, K. Helmerson, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantized rotation of atoms from photons with orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 170406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vengalattore, M.

Y. Shin, M. Saba, M. Vengalattore, T. A. Pasquini, C. Sanner, A. E. Leanhardt, M. Prentiss, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Dynamical instability of a doubly quantized vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160406 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogels, J. M.

J. R. Abo-Shaeer, C. Raman, J. M. Vogels, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of vortex lattices in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Science 292, 476–479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volpe, G.

G. Volpe and D. Petrov, “Torque detection using brownian fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 210603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weihs, G.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieman, C. E.

B. P. Anderson, P. C. Haljan, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Vortex precession in Bose-Einstein condensates: Observations with filled and empty cores,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2857–2860 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Matthews, B. P. Anderson, P. C. Haljan, D. S. Hall, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2498–2501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wilkin, N. K.

N. R. Cooper, N. K. Wilkin, and J. M. F. Gunn, “Quantum phases of vortices in rotating Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 120405 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of laguerre-gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, K. C.

K. C. Wright, L. S. Leslie, A. Hansen, and N. P. Bigelow, “Sculpting the vortex state of a spinor BEC,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 030405 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Leslie, A. Hansen, K. C. Wright, B. M. Deutsch, and N. P. Bigelow, “Creation and detection of skyrmions in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 250401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Wright, L. S. Leslie, and N. P. Bigelow, “Optical control of the internal and external angular momentum of a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 041601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Physics (1)

N. R. Cooper, “Rapidly rotating atomic gases,” Adv. Physics 57, 2498–2501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249–251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. Alvarez-Herrero, A. López Ariste, A. Asensio Ramos, T. Belenguer, R. Manso Sainz, C. LeMen, and B. Gelly, “Detecting photons with orbital angular momentum in extended astronomical objects: application to solar observations,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

S. J. van Enk and G. Nienhuis, “Spin and orbital angular momentum of photons,” Europhys. Lett. 25, 497–501 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. C (1)

J. M. Kosterlitz and D. J. Thouless, “Ordering, metastability and phase-transitions in 2 dimensional systems,” J. Phys. C 6, 1181–1203 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 305–310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (5)

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424, 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Hadzibabic, P. Krüger, M. Cheneau, B. Battelier, and J. Dalibard, “Berezinskii-kosterlitz-thouless crossover in a trapped atomic gas,” Nature 441, 1118–1121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. A. Khawaja and H. T. C. Stoof, “Skyrmions in a ferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate,” Nature 411, 918–920 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Bakr, J. I. Gillen, A. Peng, S. Fölling, and M. Greiner, “A quantum gas microscope for detecting single atoms in a hubbard-regime optical lattice,” Nature 462, 74–77 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (4)

J. Ruostekoski and Z. Dutton, “Engineering vortex rings and systems for controlled studies of vortex interactions in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063626 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Chevy, K. W. Madison, V. Bretin, and J. Dalibard, “Interferometric detection of a single vortex in a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of laguerre-gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Wright, L. S. Leslie, and N. P. Bigelow, “Optical control of the internal and external angular momentum of a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 041601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (19)

K. C. Wright, L. S. Leslie, A. Hansen, and N. P. Bigelow, “Sculpting the vortex state of a spinor BEC,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 030405 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Leslie, A. Hansen, K. C. Wright, B. M. Deutsch, and N. P. Bigelow, “Creation and detection of skyrmions in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 250401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Rayfield and F. Reif, “Evidence for the creation and motion of quantized vortex rings in superfluid helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 305–308 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shin, M. Saba, M. Vengalattore, T. A. Pasquini, C. Sanner, A. E. Leanhardt, M. Prentiss, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Dynamical instability of a doubly quantized vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160406 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. P. Anderson, P. C. Haljan, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Vortex precession in Bose-Einstein condensates: Observations with filled and empty cores,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2857–2860 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Schweikhard, I. Coddington, P. Engels, V. P. Mogendorff, and E. A. Cornell, “Rapidly rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in and near the lowest landau level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 040404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sorensen, E. Demler, and M. Lukin, “Fractional quantum hall states of atoms in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 86803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Volpe and D. Petrov, “Torque detection using brownian fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 210603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826–829 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Garcés-Chávez, D. McGloin, M. J. Padgett, W. Dultz, H. Schmitzer, and K. Dholakia, “Observation of the transfer of the local angular momentum density of a multiringed light beam to an optically trapped particle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Andersen, C. Ryu, P. Clade, V. Natarajan, A. Vaziri, K. Helmerson, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantized rotation of atoms from photons with orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 170406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Inouye, S. Gupta, T. Rosenband, A. P. Chikkatur, A. Görlitz, T. L. Gustavson, A. E. Leanhardt, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of vortex phase singularities in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 080402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Leanhardt, Y. Shin, D. Kielpinski, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Coreless vortex formation in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 140403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ruostekoski and J. R. Anglin, “Creating vortex rings and three-dimensional skyrmions in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3934–3937 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. R. Cooper, N. K. Wilkin, and J. M. F. Gunn, “Quantum phases of vortices in rotating Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 120405 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Matthews, B. P. Anderson, P. C. Haljan, D. S. Hall, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2498–2501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Leanhardt, A. Görlitz, A. P. Chikkatur, D. Kielpinski, Y. Shin, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, “Imprinting vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate using topological phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 190403 (2002).

T. W. Neely, E. C. Samson, A. S. Bradley, M. J. Davis, and B. P. Anderson, “Observation of vortex dipoles in an oblate Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 160401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Turner, “Mass of a spin vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 080603 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1)

T. H. R. Skyrme, “A non-linear field theory,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 260, 127–138 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

M. R. Andrews, C. G. Townsend, H.-J. Miesner, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of interference between two Bose condensates,” Science 275, 637–641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Freilich, D. M. Bianchi, A. M. Kaufman, T. K. Langin, and D. S. Hall, “Real-time dynamics of single vortex lines and vortex dipoles in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Science 329, 1182–1185 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Abo-Shaeer, C. Raman, J. M. Vogels, and W. Ketterle, “Observation of vortex lattices in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Science 292, 476–479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid State Communications (1)

J. Tempere and J. T. Devreese, “Fringe pattern of interfering Bose-Einstein condensates with a vortex,” Solid State Communications 108, 993–996 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

N. Gemelke, E. Sarajlic, and S. Chu, “Rotating few-body atomic systems in the fractional quantum hall regime,” ArXiv e-prints, arXiv:1007.2677v1 (2010).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Raman scheme for 87Rb, D1 line, using a Gaussian beam and the first order diffracted beam from a hologram. Δ = 4.18 GHz is the common detuning of both beams from the intermediate |52 P 1/2; F = 2〉 state. (b) interference pattern of a Gaussian beam with the first order diffracted beam from a hologram for producing optical vortices with l = 1,2,4,8 and total OAM l = 15. The key structures from the original binary hologram producing the respective phase windings are shown as cut outs and are related to the interference pattern. Structures in the original holograms are accurate to approximately 500 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Absorption image of a condensate with a single, l = 1, vortex. (b) A vortex-antivortex state with total l = 0. Here, the cloud shows transfer back to the F = 1 hyperfine state in the center. This was chosen as a result of optimizing the Raman pulse parameters for the outer parts of the cloud. (c) A spin texture similar to a skyrmion corresponding to the core region of the vortex in (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Pulse sequence for atom interferometry with two Raman pulses (details in text) (b) Absorption images for different phases of a single vortex, l = 1, state of the BEC interfering with a uniform phase state.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Bottom row: absorption images for a vortex-antivortex state interfering with a uniform phase state. Middle row: calculated interference patterns for a vortex-antivortex state. Top row: calculated interference patterns for a state with two vortices rotating in the same direction. The simulation shows the interference patterns for phase differences of (a) 0π/5, (b) 4π/5, (c) 5π/5 and (d) 9π/5. The phases of the vortex state in the simulated data where chosen by eye in order to match the experimental data and do not resemble the exact experimental phases.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A matter wave hologram (b) resembling the original hologram (a) (microscopy image of the chrome mask) is created if linear momentum is transferred in the second pulse of the described sequence.

Metrics