Abstract

We report the first three-dimensional photonic metamaterial, an array of erected U-shape plasmonic gold meta-molecules, that exhibits a profound response to the magnetic field of light incident normal to the array. The metamaterial was fabricated using a double exposure e-beam lithographic process. It was investigated by optical measurements and finite-element simulations, and showed that the magnetic field solely depends on the plasmonic resonance mode showing either enhanced in the centre of the erected U-shape meta-molecule (16 times enhancement) or enhanced around two prongs of erected U-shape meta-molecule (4 times enhancement).

© 2011 OSA

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  1. T. Kaelberer, V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Toroidal dipolar response in a metamaterial,” Science 330(6010), 1510–1512 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. T. Chen, P. C. Wu, C. J. Chen, H. Y. Chung, Y. F. Chau, C. H. Kuan, and D. P. Tsai, “Electromagnetic energy vortex associated with sub-wavelength plasmonic Taiji marks,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19665–19671 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Diessel, M. Decker, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Near-field optical experiments on low-symmetry split-ring-resonator arrays,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3661–3663 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Negative magnetic permeability in the visible light region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(23), 237401 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. S. Li, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Towards the lasing spaser: controlling metamaterial optical response with semiconductor quantum dots,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8548–8551 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, E. Plum, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Spectral collapse in ensembles of metamolecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223901 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. E. Plum, K. Tanaka, W. T. Chen, V. A. Fedotov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery,” J. Opt. 13(5), 055102 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. B. Lahiri, S. G. McMeekin, A. Z. Khokhar, R. M. De La Rue, and N. P. Johnson, “Magnetic response of split ring resonators (SRRs) at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express 18(3), 3210–3218 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. L. Zhou and S. T. Chui, “Eigenmodes of metallic ring systems: A rigorous approach,” Phys. Rev. B 74(3), 035419 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2943–2945 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1259–1261 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, E. Pshenay-Severin, J. Petschulat, A. Chipouline, J. Kuhl, T. Pertsch, H. Giessen, and F. Lederer, “The origin of magnetic polarizability in metamaterials at optical frequencies - an electrodynamic approach,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8871–8883 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. G. Boudarham, N. Feth, V. Myroshnychenko, S. Linden, J. García de Abajo, M. Wegener, and M. Kociak, “Spectral imaging of individual split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 255501 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8827–8836 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. N. Liu, H. C. Guo, L. W. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  28. N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  29. D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. H. Cho and D. H. Gracias, “Self-assembly of lithographically patterned nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4049–4052 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  32. Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, K. Tanaka, W. T. Chen, V. A. Fedotov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery,” J. Opt. 13(5), 055102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (8)

V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, E. Plum, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Spectral collapse in ensembles of metamolecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kaelberer, V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Toroidal dipolar response in a metamaterial,” Science 330(6010), 1510–1512 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Boudarham, N. Feth, V. Myroshnychenko, S. Linden, J. García de Abajo, M. Wegener, and M. Kociak, “Spectral imaging of individual split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 255501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Lahiri, S. G. McMeekin, A. Z. Khokhar, R. M. De La Rue, and N. P. Johnson, “Magnetic response of split ring resonators (SRRs) at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express 18(3), 3210–3218 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Chen, P. C. Wu, C. J. Chen, H. Y. Chung, Y. F. Chau, C. H. Kuan, and D. P. Tsai, “Electromagnetic energy vortex associated with sub-wavelength plasmonic Taiji marks,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19665–19671 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Diessel, M. Decker, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Near-field optical experiments on low-symmetry split-ring-resonator arrays,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3661–3663 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Towards the lasing spaser: controlling metamaterial optical response with semiconductor quantum dots,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8548–8551 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Cho and D. H. Gracias, “Self-assembly of lithographically patterned nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4049–4052 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. S. Li, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, H. C. Guo, L. W. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, E. Pshenay-Severin, J. Petschulat, A. Chipouline, J. Kuhl, T. Pertsch, H. Giessen, and F. Lederer, “The origin of magnetic polarizability in metamaterials at optical frequencies - an electrodynamic approach,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8871–8883 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (3)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Negative magnetic permeability in the visible light region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(23), 237401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2943–2945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, R.

Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bitzer, A.

V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, E. Plum, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Spectral collapse in ensembles of metamolecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boudarham, G.

G. Boudarham, N. Feth, V. Myroshnychenko, S. Linden, J. García de Abajo, M. Wegener, and M. Kociak, “Spectral imaging of individual split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 255501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bourouina, T.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burckel, D. B.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chau, Y. F.

Chen, C. J.

Chen, W. T.

E. Plum, K. Tanaka, W. T. Chen, V. A. Fedotov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery,” J. Opt. 13(5), 055102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Chen, P. C. Wu, C. J. Chen, H. Y. Chung, Y. F. Chau, C. H. Kuan, and D. P. Tsai, “Electromagnetic energy vortex associated with sub-wavelength plasmonic Taiji marks,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19665–19671 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chipouline, A.

Cho, J. H.

J. H. Cho and D. H. Gracias, “Self-assembly of lithographically patterned nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4049–4052 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, C. T.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chui, S. T.

L. Zhou and S. T. Chui, “Eigenmodes of metallic ring systems: A rigorous approach,” Phys. Rev. B 74(3), 035419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chung, H. Y.

De La Rue, R. M.

Decker, M.

Diessel, D.

Drachev, V. P.

Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Economou, E. N.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2943–2945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, A. R.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1259–1261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Etrich, C.

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedotov, V. A.

E. Plum, K. Tanaka, W. T. Chen, V. A. Fedotov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery,” J. Opt. 13(5), 055102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Kaelberer, V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Toroidal dipolar response in a metamaterial,” Science 330(6010), 1510–1512 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, E. Plum, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Spectral collapse in ensembles of metamolecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Towards the lasing spaser: controlling metamaterial optical response with semiconductor quantum dots,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8548–8551 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feth, N.

G. Boudarham, N. Feth, V. Myroshnychenko, S. Linden, J. García de Abajo, M. Wegener, and M. Kociak, “Spectral imaging of individual split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 255501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L. W.

N. Liu, H. C. Guo, L. W. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

García de Abajo, J.

G. Boudarham, N. Feth, V. Myroshnychenko, S. Linden, J. García de Abajo, M. Wegener, and M. Kociak, “Spectral imaging of individual split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 255501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, H. C. Guo, L. W. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, E. Pshenay-Severin, J. Petschulat, A. Chipouline, J. Kuhl, T. Pertsch, H. Giessen, and F. Lederer, “The origin of magnetic polarizability in metamaterials at optical frequencies - an electrodynamic approach,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8871–8883 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8827–8836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ginn, J. C.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gracias, D. H.

J. H. Cho and D. H. Gracias, “Self-assembly of lithographically patterned nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4049–4052 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. S. Li, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
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B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
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S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
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S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
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T. Kaelberer, V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Toroidal dipolar response in a metamaterial,” Science 330(6010), 1510–1512 (2010).
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V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, E. Plum, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Spectral collapse in ensembles of metamolecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223901 (2010).
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S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. S. Li, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
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Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008).
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J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
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Plum, E.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Towards the lasing spaser: controlling metamaterial optical response with semiconductor quantum dots,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8548–8551 (2009).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. Liu, H. C. Guo, L. W. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008).
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D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1259–1261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2943–2945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

E. Plum, K. Tanaka, W. T. Chen, V. A. Fedotov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery,” J. Opt. 13(5), 055102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Negative magnetic permeability in the visible light region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(23), 237401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
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D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
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W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
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W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, K. Tanaka, W. T. Chen, V. A. Fedotov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery,” J. Opt. 13(5), 055102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, E. Plum, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Spectral collapse in ensembles of metamolecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kaelberer, V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Toroidal dipolar response in a metamaterial,” Science 330(6010), 1510–1512 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Chen, P. C. Wu, C. J. Chen, H. Y. Chung, Y. F. Chau, C. H. Kuan, and D. P. Tsai, “Electromagnetic energy vortex associated with sub-wavelength plasmonic Taiji marks,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19665–19671 (2010).
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E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Towards the lasing spaser: controlling metamaterial optical response with semiconductor quantum dots,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8548–8551 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, M.

V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, E. Plum, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Spectral collapse in ensembles of metamolecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. Boudarham, N. Feth, V. Myroshnychenko, S. Linden, J. García de Abajo, M. Wegener, and M. Kociak, “Spectral imaging of individual split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 255501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Diessel, M. Decker, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Near-field optical experiments on low-symmetry split-ring-resonator arrays,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3661–3663 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1259–1261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wendt, J. R.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wiltshire, M. C. K.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, P. C.

Zentgraf, T.

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. S. Li, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W. L.

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. S. Li, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. S. Li, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. H.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. M.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

E. Plum, K. Tanaka, W. T. Chen, V. A. Fedotov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery,” J. Opt. 13(5), 055102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, E. Plum, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Spectral collapse in ensembles of metamolecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kaelberer, V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Toroidal dipolar response in a metamaterial,” Science 330(6010), 1510–1512 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Towards the lasing spaser: controlling metamaterial optical response with semiconductor quantum dots,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8548–8551 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J. F.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

L. Zhou and S. T. Chui, “Eigenmodes of metallic ring systems: A rigorous approach,” Phys. Rev. B 74(3), 035419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S.

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, W. M.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (2)

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2943–2945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

E. Plum, K. Tanaka, W. T. Chen, V. A. Fedotov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery,” J. Opt. 13(5), 055102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Metamaterials (Amst.) (1)

Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. H. Cho and D. H. Gracias, “Self-assembly of lithographically patterned nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4049–4052 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

N. Liu, H. C. Guo, L. W. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou and S. T. Chui, “Eigenmodes of metallic ring systems: A rigorous approach,” Phys. Rev. B 74(3), 035419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

G. Boudarham, N. Feth, V. Myroshnychenko, S. Linden, J. García de Abajo, M. Wegener, and M. Kociak, “Spectral imaging of individual split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 255501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
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S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, E. Plum, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Spectral collapse in ensembles of metamolecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Negative magnetic permeability in the visible light region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(23), 237401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. S. Li, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (5)

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kaelberer, V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Toroidal dipolar response in a metamaterial,” Science 330(6010), 1510–1512 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram showing the feature size of erected U-shape three-dimensional resonance ring, L1 = 110 nm, H1 = 30 nm, H2 = 30 nm, W2 = 40 nm, W1 = 40 nm, P = 200 nm, respectively. The optical properties of the fabricated sample are studied in the case of x-polarized illumination as well as y-polarized illumination. In the case of x-polarized illumination, the electric field of incident light oscillate parallel to the resonant ring. In the case of y-polarized illumination, the electric field of incident light pass through the resonant ring. (b) SEM image of a small region from the fabricated sample. The inset shows a magnified view of four erected U-shape three-dimensional resonance rings with bottom length L1 110 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental transmission spectra for x-polarized illumination (the purple curve) and y-polarized illumination (the green curve). (b) Finite-element simulation transmission spectra for x-polarized illumination (the purple curve) and y-polarized illumination (the green curve). The inset in both frames (a) and (b) show the propagating direction of incident light as well as the polarization direction of incident light related to the resonance ring.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution of the finite-element simulation transmission spectra for x-polarized illumination upon varying the bottom length L1 (a) and the prong length H2 (b) of erected U-shape three-dimensional gold ring. The inset in frames (a) and (b) show the dimensions (in nm) of the prong length H2 and the bottom length L1 of erected U-shape gold ring. Simulation magnetic field in arbitrary units (color-coded) and field line of magnetic field (white line) for mode I (c) and mode II (d) of Fig. 3(b). The simulation results of a top view shown are at the root plane of the prongs of the erected U-shape nano gold ring. The inset of Figs. 3(c) and 3(d) show the direction of flowing surface current (black arrows) at a side view.

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