Abstract

Spacing variation of adjoining reflecting thin films in iridophore is responsible for the variable interference color in the paracheirodon innesi. On the basis of this phenomenon, colloidal crystal thin films with different structures are fabricated from monodisperse poly(styrene-methyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) (PSMA) colloids. The relationship between the colors and structures of the films is investigated and discussed according to the principle of light interference. A two-layer colloidal film having uniform color is researched and it displays diverse colors before and after swelling by styrene (St), which can be used to mimic the variable structural color of the paracheirodon innesi.

© 2011 OSA

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2011

J. Zhang, M. Wang, X. Ge, M. Wu, Q. Wu, J. Yang, M. Wang, Z. Jin, and N. Liu, “Facile fabrication of free-standing colloidal-crystal films by interfacial self-assembly,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 353(1), 16–21 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Ishizu, I. Amir, N. Okamoto, S. Uchida, M. Ozawa, and H. Chen, “Synthesis of tailored core-brush polymer particles via a living radical polymerization and architecture of colloidal crystals,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 353(1), 69–75 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Yoshioka, B. Matsuhana, S. Tanaka, Y. Inouye, N. Oshima, and S. Kinoshita, “Mechanism of variable structural colour in the neon tetra: quantitative evaluation of the Venetian blind model,” J. R. Soc. Interface 8(54), 56–66 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

T. Kanai, D. Lee, H. C. Shum, and D. A. Weitz, “Fabrication of tunable spherical colloidal crystals immobilized in soft hydrogels,” Small 6(7), 807–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Saranathan, C. O. Osuji, S. G. J. Mochrie, H. Noh, S. Narayanan, A. Sandy, E. R. Dufresne, and R. O. Prum, “Structure, function, and self-assembly of single network gyroid (I4132) photonic crystals in butterfly wing scales,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(26), 11676–11681 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Cho, G. R. Yi, J. H. Moon, D. C. Kim, B. J. Lee, and S. M. Yang, “Dry etching of colloidal crystal films,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 341(2), 209–214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Agrawal, D. Fischer, S. Gupta, N. E. Zafeiropoulos, A. Pich, E. Lidorikis, and M. Stamm, “Recent developments in fabrication and applications of colloid based composite particles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 16389 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

F. Liu, B. Q. Dong, X. H. Liu, Y. M. Zheng, and J. Zi, “Structural color change in longhorn beetles Tmesisternus isabellae,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16183–16191 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. U. Jeong, J. H. Jang, C. Y. Koh, M. J. Graham, K. Y. Jin, S. J. Park, C. Nah, M. H. Lee, S. Z. D. Cheng, and E. L. Thomas, “Colour-tunable spiral photonic actuators,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(14), 1956 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Dufresne, H. Noh, V. Saranathan, S. G. J. Mochrie, H. Cao, and R. O. Prum, “Self-assembly of amorphous biophotonic nanostructures by phase separation,” Soft Matter 5(9), 1792 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Scotognella, D. P. Puzzo, A. Monguzzi, D. S. Wiersma, D. Maschke, R. Tubino, and G. A. Ozin, “Nanoparticle one-dimensional photonic-crystal dye laser,” Small 5(18), 2048–2052 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Felici, P. Gallo, A. Mohan, B. Dwir, A. Rudra, and E. Kapon, “Site-controlled InGaAs quantum dots with tunable emission energy,” Small 5(8), 938–943 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

M. E. Protas and N. H. Patel, “Evolution of coloration patterns,” Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 24(1), 425–446 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rassart, J. F. Colomer, T. Tabarrant, and J. P. Vigneron, “Diffractive hygrochromic effect in the cuticle of the hercules beetle dynastes hercules,” N. J. Phys. 10(3), 033014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Blum, A. P. Mosk, I. S. Nikolaev, V. Subramaniam, and W. L. Vos, “Color control of natural fluorescent proteins by photonic crystals,” Small 4(4), 492–496 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

P. H. C. Camargo, Z. Y. Li, and Y. Xia, “Colloidal building blocks with potential for magnetically configurable photonic crystals,” Soft Matter 3(10), 1215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Vigneron, J. M. Pasteels, D. M. Windsor, Z. Vértesy, M. Rassart, T. Seldrum, J. Dumont, O. Deparis, V. Lousse, L. P. Biró, D. Ertz, and V. Welch, “Switchable reflector in the Panamanian tortoise beetle Charidotella egregia (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae),” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 76(3), 031907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Parker and H. E. Townley, “Biomimetics of photonic nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(6), 347–353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, F. Tao, Y. Jiang, and Z. Xu, “3-D ordered macroporous cuprous oxide: Fabrication, optical, and photoelectrochemical properties,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 308(2), 460–465 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

Z. Z. Gu, D. Wang, and H. Mohwald, “Self-assembly of microspheres at the air/water/air interface into free-standing colloidal crystal films,” Soft Matter 3(1), 68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Cong and W. Cao, “Array patterns of binary colloidal crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(5), 1695–1698 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Yan, A. Chen, S. J. Chua, and X. S. Zhao, “Incorporation of point defects into self-assembled three-dimensional colloidal crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(23), 2849–2853 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Wang, J. Li, C. T. Chan, V. Salgueiriño-Maceira, L. M. Liz-Marzán, S. Romanov, and F. Caruso, “Optical properties of nanoparticle-based metallodielectric inverse opals,” Small 1(1), 122–130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. Cong and W. Cao, “Thin film interference of colloidal thin films,” Langmuir 20(19), 8049–8053 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

L. M. Mäthger, M. F. Land, U. E. Siebeck, and N. J. Marshall, “Rapid colour changes in multilayer reflecting stripes in the paradise whiptail, Pentapodus paradiseus,” J. Exp. Biol. 206(20), 3607–3613 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Z. Gu, H. Uetsuka, K. Takahashi, R. Nakajima, H. Onishi, A. Fujishima, and O. Sato, “Structural color and the lotus effect,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 42(8), 894–897 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ball, “Photonic crystals that control light promise to be useful for optoelectronics and visual displays,” Chem. Br. 8, 23 (2003).

H. Fudouzi and Y. Xia, “Photonic papers and inks: color writing with colorless materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(11), 892–896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Cong and W. Cao, “Colloidal crystallization induced by capillary force,” Langmuir 19(20), 8177–8181 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

Z. Z. Gu, R. Horie, S. Kubo, Y. Yamada, A. Fujishima, and O. Sato, “Fabrication of a metal-coated three-dimensionally ordered macroporous film and its application as a refractive index sensor,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41(7), 1153–1156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Sumioka, H. Kayashima, and T. Tsutsui, “Tuning the optical properties of inverse opal photonic crystals by deformation,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(18), 1284–1286 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Bardosova and R. H. Tredgold, “Ordered layers of monodispersive colloids,” J. Mater. Chem. 12(10), 2835–2842 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. D. Joannopoulos, “Self-assembly lights up,” Nature 414(6861), 257–258 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Foulger, P. Jiang, Y. Ying, A. C. Lattam, D. W. Smith, and J. Ballato, “Photonic bandgap composites,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(24), 1898 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Z. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals,” Nature 414(6861), 289–293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

S. John, A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

J. E. G. J. Wijnhoven and W. L. Vos, “Preparation of photonic crystals made of air spheres in titania,” Science 281(5378), 802–804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. H. Holtz and S. A. Asher, “Polymerized colloidal crystal hydrogel films as intelligent chemical sensing materials,” Nature 389(6653), 829–832 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992

N. Oshima and H. Nagaishi, “Study of the motile mechanism in neon tetra iridophores,” Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A. Physiol. 102(2), 273–278 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989

J. N. Lythgoe and J. Shand, “The structural basis for iridescent colour changes in dermal and corneal iridophores in fish,” J. Exp. Biol. 141, 313 (1989).

1987

J. Clothier and J. N. Lythgoe, “Light-induced colour changes by the iridophores of the Neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi,” J. Cell Sci. 88(Pt 5), 663–668 (1987).
[PubMed]

N. Oshima and R. Fujii, “Motile mechanism of blue damselfish iridophores,” Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 8(1), 85–90 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(20), 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

J. N. Lythgoe and J. Shand, “Changes in spectral reflexions from the iridophores of the neon tetra,” J. Physiol. 325, 23–34 (1982).
[PubMed]

1972

H. E. Hinton and G. M. Jarman, “Physiological colour change in the hercules beetle,” Nature 238(5360), 160–161 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, M.

M. Agrawal, D. Fischer, S. Gupta, N. E. Zafeiropoulos, A. Pich, E. Lidorikis, and M. Stamm, “Recent developments in fabrication and applications of colloid based composite particles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 16389 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Amir, I.

K. Ishizu, I. Amir, N. Okamoto, S. Uchida, M. Ozawa, and H. Chen, “Synthesis of tailored core-brush polymer particles via a living radical polymerization and architecture of colloidal crystals,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 353(1), 69–75 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Asher, S. A.

J. H. Holtz and S. A. Asher, “Polymerized colloidal crystal hydrogel films as intelligent chemical sensing materials,” Nature 389(6653), 829–832 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ball, P.

P. Ball, “Photonic crystals that control light promise to be useful for optoelectronics and visual displays,” Chem. Br. 8, 23 (2003).

Ballato, J.

S. H. Foulger, P. Jiang, Y. Ying, A. C. Lattam, D. W. Smith, and J. Ballato, “Photonic bandgap composites,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(24), 1898 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bardosova, M.

M. Bardosova and R. H. Tredgold, “Ordered layers of monodispersive colloids,” J. Mater. Chem. 12(10), 2835–2842 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biró, L. P.

J. P. Vigneron, J. M. Pasteels, D. M. Windsor, Z. Vértesy, M. Rassart, T. Seldrum, J. Dumont, O. Deparis, V. Lousse, L. P. Biró, D. Ertz, and V. Welch, “Switchable reflector in the Panamanian tortoise beetle Charidotella egregia (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae),” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 76(3), 031907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanco, A.

S. John, A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blum, C.

C. Blum, A. P. Mosk, I. S. Nikolaev, V. Subramaniam, and W. L. Vos, “Color control of natural fluorescent proteins by photonic crystals,” Small 4(4), 492–496 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bo, X. Z.

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Z. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals,” Nature 414(6861), 289–293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Camargo, P. H. C.

P. H. C. Camargo, Z. Y. Li, and Y. Xia, “Colloidal building blocks with potential for magnetically configurable photonic crystals,” Soft Matter 3(10), 1215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

E. R. Dufresne, H. Noh, V. Saranathan, S. G. J. Mochrie, H. Cao, and R. O. Prum, “Self-assembly of amorphous biophotonic nanostructures by phase separation,” Soft Matter 5(9), 1792 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

H. Cong and W. Cao, “Array patterns of binary colloidal crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(5), 1695–1698 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Cong and W. Cao, “Thin film interference of colloidal thin films,” Langmuir 20(19), 8049–8053 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cong and W. Cao, “Colloidal crystallization induced by capillary force,” Langmuir 19(20), 8177–8181 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Caruso, F.

D. Wang, J. Li, C. T. Chan, V. Salgueiriño-Maceira, L. M. Liz-Marzán, S. Romanov, and F. Caruso, “Optical properties of nanoparticle-based metallodielectric inverse opals,” Small 1(1), 122–130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

D. Wang, J. Li, C. T. Chan, V. Salgueiriño-Maceira, L. M. Liz-Marzán, S. Romanov, and F. Caruso, “Optical properties of nanoparticle-based metallodielectric inverse opals,” Small 1(1), 122–130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

Q. Yan, A. Chen, S. J. Chua, and X. S. Zhao, “Incorporation of point defects into self-assembled three-dimensional colloidal crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(23), 2849–2853 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photos and illustration of the variable structural color in paracheirodon innesi.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

UV-Vis reflection spectra of the variable structural color in the lateral stripe of paracheirodon innesi.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical and AFM images of the formed colloidal thin film by inclined deposition method: (a) image observed by the optical microscope on the AFM; (b), (c), (d), (e) and (f) images scanned at AFM tapping mode of the B, C, D, E and F regions of (a), respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic illustration of the stairlike colloidal thin film (d represents the diameter of colloids).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical and SEM images of the formed hexagonal two-layer colloidal thin film by dipping method: (a) optical image; (b) SEM image; (c) detail of the marked rectangular area of (b); (d) detail of the marked rectangular area of (c).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical and SEM images of two-layer colloidal films before and after swelling by St: (a) optical image before swelling; (b) optical image after swelling; (c) optical image after evaporation of St; (d) SEM image of (c); (e) detail of the marked region of (d); (f) detail of the marked region of (e).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic illustration of the variation in thickness of two-layer film before and after swelling by St (t 0, the thickness before swelling; t 1, the thickness after swelling).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

UV-Vis reflection spectra of the variable structural color in the two-layer colloidal thin film. (The dot line is the band gap of 380 nm PSMA colloidal crystal measured from a very thick 37-layer reference sample)

Equations (2)

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λ = 2 n t / ( m + 0.5 ) m = 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 , ...
n 2 = ( 1 Φ ) n p 2 + Φ n a i r 2

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