Abstract

A spatial light modulator (SLM) based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer configuration has been fabricated and tested. The Fabry-Perot spacer layer is a thin film of the SEO100 electro-optic polymer which serves as the nonlinear medium. Measurement results demonstrate the modulation of multiple pixels operating simultaneously at frequencies ranging from 300 kHz to 800 kHz which is significantly faster than SLMs based on liquid crystal and digital micromirror device technology. An average modulation contrast of 50% for all pixels is achieved with a drive voltage of 70 Vrms at 100 kHz. Microwave speeds and CMOS compatibility are feasible with improved transmission line and cavity design.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. D. S. Monaghan, U. Gopinathan, B. M. Hennelly, D. P. Kelly, T. J. Naughton, and J. T. Sheridan, “Applications of spatial light modulators in optical signal processing systems,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 358–368 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Kohler, X. Schwab, and W. Osten, “Optimally tuned spatial light modulators for digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 960–967 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S.-H. Zhai, J. Ding, J. Chen, Y.-X. Fan, and H.-T. Wang, “Three-wave shearing interferometer based on spatial light modulator,” Opt. Express 17(2), 970–977 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. Hu, L. Xuan, Y. Liu, Z. Cao, D. Li, and Q. Mu, “Phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator for wavefront correction with high precision,” Opt. Express 12(26), 6403–6409 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, “Smart spatial light modulators using liquid crystals on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(2), 699–714 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Dudley, W. M. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications,” Proc. SPIE 4985, 14–25 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Noharet, Q. Wang, S. Junique, D. Agren, and S. Almqvist, “Multiple quantum well spatial light modulators for optical signal processing,” Proc. SPIE 5618, 146–155 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Mohseni, W. K. Chan, H. An, A. Ulmer, and D. Capewell, “Tunable surface-normal modulators operating near 1550 nm with a high-extinction ratio at high temperatures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 214–216 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. A. Bauchert, S. A. Serati, and A. Furman, “Advances in liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Proc. SPIE 4734, 35–43 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Gan, H. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, B. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Low drive voltage Fabry-Perot etalon device tunable filters using poled hybrid sol-gel materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041127 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Gan, H. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, B. Liu, S.-T. Ho, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid Fabry-Perot etalon using an electro-optic polymer for optical modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141113 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Gan, C. Greenlee, C. Sheng, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, S. Wang, W. Lin, M. Yamamoto, K. Mohanalingam, and N. Peyghambarian, “Near-resonance electro-optic activity enhancement and improved modulation performance for polymer based Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 203302 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Garmire, “Theory of quarter-wave-stack dielectric mirrors used in a thin Fabry-Perot filter,” Appl. Opt. 42(27), 5442–5449 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(18), 1734–1736 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Greenlee, A. Guilmo, A. Opadeyi, R. Himmelhuber, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, S. Huang, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Mach-Zehnder interferometry method for decoupling electro-optic and piezoelectric effects in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 041109 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

C. Greenlee, A. Guilmo, A. Opadeyi, R. Himmelhuber, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, S. Huang, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Mach-Zehnder interferometry method for decoupling electro-optic and piezoelectric effects in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 041109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

H. Gan, C. Greenlee, C. Sheng, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, S. Wang, W. Lin, M. Yamamoto, K. Mohanalingam, and N. Peyghambarian, “Near-resonance electro-optic activity enhancement and improved modulation performance for polymer based Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 203302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. Gan, H. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, B. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Low drive voltage Fabry-Perot etalon device tunable filters using poled hybrid sol-gel materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Gan, H. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, B. Liu, S.-T. Ho, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid Fabry-Perot etalon using an electro-optic polymer for optical modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Kohler, X. Schwab, and W. Osten, “Optimally tuned spatial light modulators for digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 960–967 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mohseni, W. K. Chan, H. An, A. Ulmer, and D. Capewell, “Tunable surface-normal modulators operating near 1550 nm with a high-extinction ratio at high temperatures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 214–216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. S. Monaghan, U. Gopinathan, B. M. Hennelly, D. P. Kelly, T. J. Naughton, and J. T. Sheridan, “Applications of spatial light modulators in optical signal processing systems,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 358–368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

L. Hu, L. Xuan, Y. Liu, Z. Cao, D. Li, and Q. Mu, “Phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator for wavefront correction with high precision,” Opt. Express 12(26), 6403–6409 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Noharet, Q. Wang, S. Junique, D. Agren, and S. Almqvist, “Multiple quantum well spatial light modulators for optical signal processing,” Proc. SPIE 5618, 146–155 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. Dudley, W. M. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications,” Proc. SPIE 4985, 14–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Garmire, “Theory of quarter-wave-stack dielectric mirrors used in a thin Fabry-Perot filter,” Appl. Opt. 42(27), 5442–5449 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

K. A. Bauchert, S. A. Serati, and A. Furman, “Advances in liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Proc. SPIE 4734, 35–43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1993

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, “Smart spatial light modulators using liquid crystals on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(2), 699–714 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(18), 1734–1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Agren, D.

B. Noharet, Q. Wang, S. Junique, D. Agren, and S. Almqvist, “Multiple quantum well spatial light modulators for optical signal processing,” Proc. SPIE 5618, 146–155 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Almqvist, S.

B. Noharet, Q. Wang, S. Junique, D. Agren, and S. Almqvist, “Multiple quantum well spatial light modulators for optical signal processing,” Proc. SPIE 5618, 146–155 (2004).
[CrossRef]

An, H.

H. Mohseni, W. K. Chan, H. An, A. Ulmer, and D. Capewell, “Tunable surface-normal modulators operating near 1550 nm with a high-extinction ratio at high temperatures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 214–216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bablumian, A.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bauchert, K. A.

K. A. Bauchert, S. A. Serati, and A. Furman, “Advances in liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Proc. SPIE 4734, 35–43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blanche, P.-A.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, Z.

Capewell, D.

H. Mohseni, W. K. Chan, H. An, A. Ulmer, and D. Capewell, “Tunable surface-normal modulators operating near 1550 nm with a high-extinction ratio at high temperatures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 214–216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. K.

H. Mohseni, W. K. Chan, H. An, A. Ulmer, and D. Capewell, “Tunable surface-normal modulators operating near 1550 nm with a high-extinction ratio at high temperatures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 214–216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

H. Gan, H. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, B. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Low drive voltage Fabry-Perot etalon device tunable filters using poled hybrid sol-gel materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Christenson, C.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeRose, C. T.

H. Gan, H. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, B. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Low drive voltage Fabry-Perot etalon device tunable filters using poled hybrid sol-gel materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Gan, H. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, B. Liu, S.-T. Ho, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid Fabry-Perot etalon using an electro-optic polymer for optical modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J.

Dudley, D.

D. Dudley, W. M. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications,” Proc. SPIE 4985, 14–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, W. M.

D. Dudley, W. M. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications,” Proc. SPIE 4985, 14–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fallahi, M.

C. Greenlee, A. Guilmo, A. Opadeyi, R. Himmelhuber, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, S. Huang, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Mach-Zehnder interferometry method for decoupling electro-optic and piezoelectric effects in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 041109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Gan, C. Greenlee, C. Sheng, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, S. Wang, W. Lin, M. Yamamoto, K. Mohanalingam, and N. Peyghambarian, “Near-resonance electro-optic activity enhancement and improved modulation performance for polymer based Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 203302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Gan, H. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, B. Liu, S.-T. Ho, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid Fabry-Perot etalon using an electro-optic polymer for optical modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Gan, H. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, B. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Low drive voltage Fabry-Perot etalon device tunable filters using poled hybrid sol-gel materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y.-X.

Flores, D.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furman, A.

K. A. Bauchert, S. A. Serati, and A. Furman, “Advances in liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Proc. SPIE 4734, 35–43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gan, H.

H. Gan, C. Greenlee, C. Sheng, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, S. Wang, W. Lin, M. Yamamoto, K. Mohanalingam, and N. Peyghambarian, “Near-resonance electro-optic activity enhancement and improved modulation performance for polymer based Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 203302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Gan, H. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, B. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Low drive voltage Fabry-Perot etalon device tunable filters using poled hybrid sol-gel materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Gan, H. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, B. Liu, S.-T. Ho, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid Fabry-Perot etalon using an electro-optic polymer for optical modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garmire, E.

Gopinathan, U.

D. S. Monaghan, U. Gopinathan, B. M. Hennelly, D. P. Kelly, T. J. Naughton, and J. T. Sheridan, “Applications of spatial light modulators in optical signal processing systems,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 358–368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Greenlee, C.

C. Greenlee, A. Guilmo, A. Opadeyi, R. Himmelhuber, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, S. Huang, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Mach-Zehnder interferometry method for decoupling electro-optic and piezoelectric effects in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 041109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Gan, C. Greenlee, C. Sheng, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, S. Wang, W. Lin, M. Yamamoto, K. Mohanalingam, and N. Peyghambarian, “Near-resonance electro-optic activity enhancement and improved modulation performance for polymer based Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 203302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gu, T.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guilmo, A.

C. Greenlee, A. Guilmo, A. Opadeyi, R. Himmelhuber, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, S. Huang, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Mach-Zehnder interferometry method for decoupling electro-optic and piezoelectric effects in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 041109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hennelly, B. M.

D. S. Monaghan, U. Gopinathan, B. M. Hennelly, D. P. Kelly, T. J. Naughton, and J. T. Sheridan, “Applications of spatial light modulators in optical signal processing systems,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 358–368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Himmelhuber, R.

C. Greenlee, A. Guilmo, A. Opadeyi, R. Himmelhuber, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, S. Huang, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Mach-Zehnder interferometry method for decoupling electro-optic and piezoelectric effects in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 041109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S.-T.

H. Gan, H. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, B. Liu, S.-T. Ho, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid Fabry-Perot etalon using an electro-optic polymer for optical modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, W.-Y.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, L.

Huang, S.

C. Greenlee, A. Guilmo, A. Opadeyi, R. Himmelhuber, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, S. Huang, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Mach-Zehnder interferometry method for decoupling electro-optic and piezoelectric effects in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 041109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

C. Greenlee, A. Guilmo, A. Opadeyi, R. Himmelhuber, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, S. Huang, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Mach-Zehnder interferometry method for decoupling electro-optic and piezoelectric effects in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 041109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Gan, H. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, B. Liu, S.-T. Ho, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid Fabry-Perot etalon using an electro-optic polymer for optical modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Gan, H. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, B. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Low drive voltage Fabry-Perot etalon device tunable filters using poled hybrid sol-gel materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K. M.

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, “Smart spatial light modulators using liquid crystals on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(2), 699–714 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Junique, S.

B. Noharet, Q. Wang, S. Junique, D. Agren, and S. Almqvist, “Multiple quantum well spatial light modulators for optical signal processing,” Proc. SPIE 5618, 146–155 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kathaperumal, M.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, D. P.

D. S. Monaghan, U. Gopinathan, B. M. Hennelly, D. P. Kelly, T. J. Naughton, and J. T. Sheridan, “Applications of spatial light modulators in optical signal processing systems,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 358–368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, C.

Li, D.

Lin, W.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Gan, C. Greenlee, C. Sheng, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, S. Wang, W. Lin, M. Yamamoto, K. Mohanalingam, and N. Peyghambarian, “Near-resonance electro-optic activity enhancement and improved modulation performance for polymer based Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 203302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

H. Gan, H. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, B. Liu, S.-T. Ho, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid Fabry-Perot etalon using an electro-optic polymer for optical modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Luo, J.

C. Greenlee, A. Guilmo, A. Opadeyi, R. Himmelhuber, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, S. Huang, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Mach-Zehnder interferometry method for decoupling electro-optic and piezoelectric effects in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 041109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Gan, H. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, B. Liu, S.-T. Ho, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid Fabry-Perot etalon using an electro-optic polymer for optical modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Gan, H. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, B. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Low drive voltage Fabry-Perot etalon device tunable filters using poled hybrid sol-gel materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Man, H. T.

C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(18), 1734–1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McKnight, D. J.

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, “Smart spatial light modulators using liquid crystals on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(2), 699–714 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mohanalingam, K.

H. Gan, C. Greenlee, C. Sheng, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, S. Wang, W. Lin, M. Yamamoto, K. Mohanalingam, and N. Peyghambarian, “Near-resonance electro-optic activity enhancement and improved modulation performance for polymer based Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 203302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mohseni, H.

H. Mohseni, W. K. Chan, H. An, A. Ulmer, and D. Capewell, “Tunable surface-normal modulators operating near 1550 nm with a high-extinction ratio at high temperatures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 214–216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Monaghan, D. S.

D. S. Monaghan, U. Gopinathan, B. M. Hennelly, D. P. Kelly, T. J. Naughton, and J. T. Sheridan, “Applications of spatial light modulators in optical signal processing systems,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 358–368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mu, Q.

Naughton, T. J.

D. S. Monaghan, U. Gopinathan, B. M. Hennelly, D. P. Kelly, T. J. Naughton, and J. T. Sheridan, “Applications of spatial light modulators in optical signal processing systems,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 358–368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Noharet, B.

B. Noharet, Q. Wang, S. Junique, D. Agren, and S. Almqvist, “Multiple quantum well spatial light modulators for optical signal processing,” Proc. SPIE 5618, 146–155 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A.

C. Greenlee, A. Guilmo, A. Opadeyi, R. Himmelhuber, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, S. Huang, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Mach-Zehnder interferometry method for decoupling electro-optic and piezoelectric effects in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 041109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Gan, C. Greenlee, C. Sheng, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, S. Wang, W. Lin, M. Yamamoto, K. Mohanalingam, and N. Peyghambarian, “Near-resonance electro-optic activity enhancement and improved modulation performance for polymer based Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 203302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Gan, H. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, B. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Low drive voltage Fabry-Perot etalon device tunable filters using poled hybrid sol-gel materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Gan, H. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, B. Liu, S.-T. Ho, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid Fabry-Perot etalon using an electro-optic polymer for optical modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opadeyi, A.

C. Greenlee, A. Guilmo, A. Opadeyi, R. Himmelhuber, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, S. Huang, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Mach-Zehnder interferometry method for decoupling electro-optic and piezoelectric effects in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 041109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Osten, W.

Peyghambarian, N.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Greenlee, A. Guilmo, A. Opadeyi, R. Himmelhuber, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, S. Huang, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Mach-Zehnder interferometry method for decoupling electro-optic and piezoelectric effects in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 041109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Gan, C. Greenlee, C. Sheng, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, S. Wang, W. Lin, M. Yamamoto, K. Mohanalingam, and N. Peyghambarian, “Near-resonance electro-optic activity enhancement and improved modulation performance for polymer based Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 203302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Gan, H. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, B. Liu, S.-T. Ho, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid Fabry-Perot etalon using an electro-optic polymer for optical modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Gan, H. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, B. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Low drive voltage Fabry-Perot etalon device tunable filters using poled hybrid sol-gel materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rachwal, B.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwab, X.

Serati, S. A.

K. A. Bauchert, S. A. Serati, and A. Furman, “Advances in liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Proc. SPIE 4734, 35–43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, C.

H. Gan, C. Greenlee, C. Sheng, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, S. Wang, W. Lin, M. Yamamoto, K. Mohanalingam, and N. Peyghambarian, “Near-resonance electro-optic activity enhancement and improved modulation performance for polymer based Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 203302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sheridan, J. T.

D. S. Monaghan, U. Gopinathan, B. M. Hennelly, D. P. Kelly, T. J. Naughton, and J. T. Sheridan, “Applications of spatial light modulators in optical signal processing systems,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 358–368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Siddiqui, O.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slaughter, J.

D. Dudley, W. M. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications,” Proc. SPIE 4985, 14–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Teng, C. C.

C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(18), 1734–1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulmer, A.

H. Mohseni, W. K. Chan, H. An, A. Ulmer, and D. Capewell, “Tunable surface-normal modulators operating near 1550 nm with a high-extinction ratio at high temperatures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 214–216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, I.

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, “Smart spatial light modulators using liquid crystals on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(2), 699–714 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Voorakaranam, R.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.-T.

Wang, P.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

B. Noharet, Q. Wang, S. Junique, D. Agren, and S. Almqvist, “Multiple quantum well spatial light modulators for optical signal processing,” Proc. SPIE 5618, 146–155 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

H. Gan, C. Greenlee, C. Sheng, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, S. Wang, W. Lin, M. Yamamoto, K. Mohanalingam, and N. Peyghambarian, “Near-resonance electro-optic activity enhancement and improved modulation performance for polymer based Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 203302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xuan, L.

Yamamoto, M.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Gan, C. Greenlee, C. Sheng, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, S. Wang, W. Lin, M. Yamamoto, K. Mohanalingam, and N. Peyghambarian, “Near-resonance electro-optic activity enhancement and improved modulation performance for polymer based Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 203302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, S.-H.

Zhang, H.

H. Gan, H. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, B. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Low drive voltage Fabry-Perot etalon device tunable filters using poled hybrid sol-gel materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Gan, H. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, B. Liu, S.-T. Ho, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid Fabry-Perot etalon using an electro-optic polymer for optical modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.-H.

C. Greenlee, A. Guilmo, A. Opadeyi, R. Himmelhuber, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, S. Huang, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Mach-Zehnder interferometry method for decoupling electro-optic and piezoelectric effects in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 041109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(18), 1734–1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Greenlee, A. Guilmo, A. Opadeyi, R. Himmelhuber, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, S. Huang, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Mach-Zehnder interferometry method for decoupling electro-optic and piezoelectric effects in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 041109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Gan, H. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, B. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Low drive voltage Fabry-Perot etalon device tunable filters using poled hybrid sol-gel materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Gan, H. Zhang, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, B. Liu, S.-T. Ho, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid Fabry-Perot etalon using an electro-optic polymer for optical modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Gan, C. Greenlee, C. Sheng, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, S. Wang, W. Lin, M. Yamamoto, K. Mohanalingam, and N. Peyghambarian, “Near-resonance electro-optic activity enhancement and improved modulation performance for polymer based Fabry-Perot interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 203302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, “Smart spatial light modulators using liquid crystals on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(2), 699–714 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H. Mohseni, W. K. Chan, H. An, A. Ulmer, and D. Capewell, “Tunable surface-normal modulators operating near 1550 nm with a high-extinction ratio at high temperatures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 214–216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

D. Dudley, W. M. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications,” Proc. SPIE 4985, 14–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Noharet, Q. Wang, S. Junique, D. Agren, and S. Almqvist, “Multiple quantum well spatial light modulators for optical signal processing,” Proc. SPIE 5618, 146–155 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Bauchert, S. A. Serati, and A. Furman, “Advances in liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Proc. SPIE 4734, 35–43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Monaghan, U. Gopinathan, B. M. Hennelly, D. P. Kelly, T. J. Naughton, and J. T. Sheridan, “Applications of spatial light modulators in optical signal processing systems,” Proc. SPIE 5827, 358–368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (3044 KB)     

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout of fabricated SLM device test region at a design wavelength of 1550 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fabrication process procedure for creating the spatial light modulator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Detailed description of UV lithography (a) lift-off procedure and (b) etching procedure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characterization setup for SLM. The upper portion of setup is used for measuring throughput of the SLM while the lower portion is used to characterize each pixel individually. The driver is a custom built 64 channel high voltage amplifier. FG: function generator, DVM: digital voltage meter, OSC: oscilloscope, OSA: optical spectrum analyzer, PC: personal computer, and L: lens.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The spectral shift for one pixel as applied DC voltage is varied from −200V to 200V. (b) The average peak wavelength shift as applied DC voltage is varied from −200V to 200V. A linear fit to the data is performed. (c) The average normalized intensity and isolation ratio as applied DC voltage is varied from −200V to 200V.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) The relationship between average modulation contrast and applied RMS voltage at a drive frequency of 100 kHz. (b) Oscilloscope screenshot that shows pixel modulation depth of approximately 28% for a drive signal of 50 Vrms at 500 kHz. (c) The normalized modulation contrast frequency response for select pixels.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Device throughput using C-band ASE source with no voltage applied. (b) Device throughput using two C-band tunable lasers at wavelengths of 1545 nm and 1555 nm with no voltage applied, (c) 200 VDC applied to pixel 5, (d) 200 VDC applied to pixels 5 and 6, (e) 200 VDC applied to pixels 5, 6, 7, and 8, (f) 200 VDC applied to pixels 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, and 8, (g) 200 VDC applied to pixels 1, 2, 7, and 8, (h) 200 VDC applied to pixels 1, 2, 5, and 6, (i) 200 VDC applied to pixels 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, (j) 200 VDC applied to pixels 3, 4, 7, and 8, (k) 200 VDC applied to pixels 1, 2, 3, and 4 and (l) 200 VDC applied to pixels 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Pixel modulation of top two rows of 4x4 array as a drive voltage of 150 Vrms at 2 Hz is applied to select pixels. (Media 1)

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