Abstract

In this article, the characteristics of GaN-based LEDs grown on Ar-implanted GaN templates to form inverted Al0.27Ga0.83N pyramidal shells beneath an active layer were investigated. GaN-based epitaxial layers grown on the selective Ar-implanted regions had lower growth rates compared with those grown on the implantation-free regions. This resulted in selective growth, and formation of V-shaped concaves in the epitaxial layers. Accordingly, the inverted Al0.27Ga0.83N pyramidal shells were formed after the Al0.27Ga0.83N and GaN layers were subsequently grown on the V-shaped concaves. The experimental results indicate that the light-output power of LEDs with inverted AlGaN pyramidal shells was higher than those of conventional LEDs. With a 20 mA current injection, the output power was enhanced by 10% when the LEDs were embedded with inverted Al0.27Ga0.83N pyramidal shells. The enhancement in output power was primarily due to the light scattering at the Al0.27Ga0.83N/GaN interface, which leads to a higher escape probability for the photons, that is, light-extraction efficiency. Based on the ray tracing simulation, the output power of LEDs grown on Ar-implanted GaN templates can be enhanced by over 20% compared with the LEDs without the embedded AlGaN pyramidal shells, if the AlGaN layers were replaced by Al0.5Ga0.5N layers.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. J. K. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C. J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN- based Light-Emitting Diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 263511 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, T. K. Ko, and C. F. Shen, “GaN-based LEDs output power improved by textured GaN/sapphire interface using in situ SiH4 treatment process during epitaxial growth,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1275–1280 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. B. Lee, T. Wang, Y. H. Liu, J. P. Ao, Y. Izumi, Y. Lacroix, H. D. Li, J. Bai, Y. Naoi, and S. Sakai, “High-performance 348 nm AlGaN/GaN based ultraviolet light emitting diode with a SiN buffer layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 7A), 4450–4453 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 955–961 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. Mukai and S. Nakamura, “Ultraviolet InGaN and GaN single quantum well structure light emitting diodes grown on epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 10), 5735–5739 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, C. H. Lin, K. Y. Lee, H. W. Hsu, C. C. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based LEDs with a SiO2 nanorod array and a patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(6), 582–584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, T. K. Ko, and C. F. Shen, “GaN-based LEDs output power improved by textured GaN/sapphire interface using in situ SiH4 treatment process during epitaxial growth,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1275–1280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

H. C. Lin, R. S. Lin, J.-I. Chyi, and C.-M. Lee, “Light output enhancement of InGaN light- emitting diodes grown on masklessly etched sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(19), 1621–1623 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. K. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C. J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN- based Light-Emitting Diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 263511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, “Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(8), G765–G770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, P. T. Wang, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, and Y. K. Su, “High efficiency and improved ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1213–1215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, M. L. Lee, S. C. Shei, and W. C. Lai, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with naturally formed truncated micropyramids on top surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. E. Park, S. M. Lim, C. R. Lee, C. S. Kim, and B. O, “Influence of SiN buffer layer in GaN epilayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 249(3–4), 487–491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y. B. Lee, T. Wang, Y. H. Liu, J. P. Ao, Y. Izumi, Y. Lacroix, H. D. Li, J. Bai, Y. Naoi, and S. Sakai, “High-performance 348 nm AlGaN/GaN based ultraviolet light emitting diode with a SiN buffer layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 7A), 4450–4453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, A. G. Baca, C. G. Willison, J. Han, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, J. C. Zolper, and L. F. Lester, “High density plasma-induced etch damage in GaN,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 573, 271–273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukai and S. Nakamura, “Ultraviolet InGaN and GaN single quantum well structure light emitting diodes grown on epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 10), 5735–5739 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 955–961 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Liu, B. Mensching, M. Zeitler, K. Volz, and B. Rauschenbach, “Ion implantation in GaN at liquid-nitrogen temperature: Structural characteristics and amorphization,” Phys. Rev. B 57(4), 2530–2535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amano, H.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ao, J. P.

Y. B. Lee, T. Wang, Y. H. Liu, J. P. Ao, Y. Izumi, Y. Lacroix, H. D. Li, J. Bai, Y. Naoi, and S. Sakai, “High-performance 348 nm AlGaN/GaN based ultraviolet light emitting diode with a SiN buffer layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 7A), 4450–4453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baca, A. G.

R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, A. G. Baca, C. G. Willison, J. Han, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, J. C. Zolper, and L. F. Lester, “High density plasma-induced etch damage in GaN,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 573, 271–273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bai, J.

Y. B. Lee, T. Wang, Y. H. Liu, J. P. Ao, Y. Izumi, Y. Lacroix, H. D. Li, J. Bai, Y. Naoi, and S. Sakai, “High-performance 348 nm AlGaN/GaN based ultraviolet light emitting diode with a SiN buffer layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 7A), 4450–4453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X. A.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C. S.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, T. K. Ko, and C. F. Shen, “GaN-based LEDs output power improved by textured GaN/sapphire interface using in situ SiH4 treatment process during epitaxial growth,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1275–1280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, T. K. Ko, and C. F. Shen, “GaN-based LEDs output power improved by textured GaN/sapphire interface using in situ SiH4 treatment process during epitaxial growth,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1275–1280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, P. T. Wang, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, and Y. K. Su, “High efficiency and improved ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1213–1215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chi, G. C.

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S. F.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chyi, J.-I.

H. C. Lin, R. S. Lin, J.-I. Chyi, and C.-M. Lee, “Light output enhancement of InGaN light- emitting diodes grown on masklessly etched sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(19), 1621–1623 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dang, G. T.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Denbaars, S. P.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, J. S.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fini, P. T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, J.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, A. G. Baca, C. G. Willison, J. Han, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, J. C. Zolper, and L. F. Lester, “High density plasma-induced etch damage in GaN,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 573, 271–273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, B. A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hickman, R.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R. H.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, “Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(8), G765–G770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, H. W.

H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, C. H. Lin, K. Y. Lee, H. W. Hsu, C. C. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based LEDs with a SiO2 nanorod array and a patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(6), 582–584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. W.

H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, C. H. Lin, K. Y. Lee, H. W. Hsu, C. C. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based LEDs with a SiO2 nanorod array and a patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(6), 582–584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. K.

H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, C. H. Lin, K. Y. Lee, H. W. Hsu, C. C. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based LEDs with a SiO2 nanorod array and a patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(6), 582–584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. C.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, “Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(8), G765–G770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Izumi, Y.

Y. B. Lee, T. Wang, Y. H. Liu, J. P. Ao, Y. Izumi, Y. Lacroix, H. D. Li, J. Bai, Y. Naoi, and S. Sakai, “High-performance 348 nm AlGaN/GaN based ultraviolet light emitting diode with a SiN buffer layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 7A), 4450–4453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kamiyama, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, C. S.

S. E. Park, S. M. Lim, C. R. Lee, C. S. Kim, and B. O, “Influence of SiN buffer layer in GaN epilayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 249(3–4), 487–491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. K.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, T. K. Ko, and C. F. Shen, “GaN-based LEDs output power improved by textured GaN/sapphire interface using in situ SiH4 treatment process during epitaxial growth,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1275–1280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kou, C. H.

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, C. H.

J. K. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C. J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN- based Light-Emitting Diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 263511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, P. T. Wang, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, and Y. K. Su, “High efficiency and improved ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1213–1215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. W.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, P. T. Wang, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, and Y. K. Su, “High efficiency and improved ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1213–1215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, C. H. Lin, K. Y. Lee, H. W. Hsu, C. C. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based LEDs with a SiO2 nanorod array and a patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(6), 582–584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lacroix, Y.

Y. B. Lee, T. Wang, Y. H. Liu, J. P. Ao, Y. Izumi, Y. Lacroix, H. D. Li, J. Bai, Y. Naoi, and S. Sakai, “High-performance 348 nm AlGaN/GaN based ultraviolet light emitting diode with a SiN buffer layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 7A), 4450–4453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, T. K. Ko, and C. F. Shen, “GaN-based LEDs output power improved by textured GaN/sapphire interface using in situ SiH4 treatment process during epitaxial growth,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1275–1280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C. J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN- based Light-Emitting Diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 263511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, P. T. Wang, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, and Y. K. Su, “High efficiency and improved ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1213–1215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, M. L. Lee, S. C. Shei, and W. C. Lai, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with naturally formed truncated micropyramids on top surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. E.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. R.

S. E. Park, S. M. Lim, C. R. Lee, C. S. Kim, and B. O, “Influence of SiN buffer layer in GaN epilayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 249(3–4), 487–491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-M.

H. C. Lin, R. S. Lin, J.-I. Chyi, and C.-M. Lee, “Light output enhancement of InGaN light- emitting diodes grown on masklessly etched sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(19), 1621–1623 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. Y.

H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, C. H. Lin, K. Y. Lee, H. W. Hsu, C. C. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based LEDs with a SiO2 nanorod array and a patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(6), 582–584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. L.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, T. K. Ko, and C. F. Shen, “GaN-based LEDs output power improved by textured GaN/sapphire interface using in situ SiH4 treatment process during epitaxial growth,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1275–1280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C. J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN- based Light-Emitting Diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 263511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, M. L. Lee, S. C. Shei, and W. C. Lai, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with naturally formed truncated micropyramids on top surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. B.

Y. B. Lee, T. Wang, Y. H. Liu, J. P. Ao, Y. Izumi, Y. Lacroix, H. D. Li, J. Bai, Y. Naoi, and S. Sakai, “High-performance 348 nm AlGaN/GaN based ultraviolet light emitting diode with a SiN buffer layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 7A), 4450–4453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lester, L. F.

R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, A. G. Baca, C. G. Willison, J. Han, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, J. C. Zolper, and L. F. Lester, “High density plasma-induced etch damage in GaN,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 573, 271–273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. D.

Y. B. Lee, T. Wang, Y. H. Liu, J. P. Ao, Y. Izumi, Y. Lacroix, H. D. Li, J. Bai, Y. Naoi, and S. Sakai, “High-performance 348 nm AlGaN/GaN based ultraviolet light emitting diode with a SiN buffer layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 7A), 4450–4453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. M.

S. E. Park, S. M. Lim, C. R. Lee, C. S. Kim, and B. O, “Influence of SiN buffer layer in GaN epilayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 249(3–4), 487–491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, C. H. Lin, K. Y. Lee, H. W. Hsu, C. C. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based LEDs with a SiO2 nanorod array and a patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(6), 582–584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. C.

H. C. Lin, R. S. Lin, J.-I. Chyi, and C.-M. Lee, “Light output enhancement of InGaN light- emitting diodes grown on masklessly etched sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(19), 1621–1623 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, R. S.

H. C. Lin, R. S. Lin, J.-I. Chyi, and C.-M. Lee, “Light output enhancement of InGaN light- emitting diodes grown on masklessly etched sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(19), 1621–1623 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. H.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, “Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(8), G765–G770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W. Y.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

C. Liu, B. Mensching, M. Zeitler, K. Volz, and B. Rauschenbach, “Ion implantation in GaN at liquid-nitrogen temperature: Structural characteristics and amorphization,” Phys. Rev. B 57(4), 2530–2535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. H.

Y. B. Lee, T. Wang, Y. H. Liu, J. P. Ao, Y. Izumi, Y. Lacroix, H. D. Li, J. Bai, Y. Naoi, and S. Sakai, “High-performance 348 nm AlGaN/GaN based ultraviolet light emitting diode with a SiN buffer layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 7A), 4450–4453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. S.

J. K. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C. J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN- based Light-Emitting Diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 263511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mensching, B.

C. Liu, B. Mensching, M. Zeitler, K. Volz, and B. Rauschenbach, “Ion implantation in GaN at liquid-nitrogen temperature: Structural characteristics and amorphization,” Phys. Rev. B 57(4), 2530–2535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukai, T.

T. Mukai and S. Nakamura, “Ultraviolet InGaN and GaN single quantum well structure light emitting diodes grown on epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 10), 5735–5739 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mukai and S. Nakamura, “Ultraviolet InGaN and GaN single quantum well structure light emitting diodes grown on epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 10), 5735–5739 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 955–961 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naoi, Y.

Y. B. Lee, T. Wang, Y. H. Liu, J. P. Ao, Y. Izumi, Y. Lacroix, H. D. Li, J. Bai, Y. Naoi, and S. Sakai, “High-performance 348 nm AlGaN/GaN based ultraviolet light emitting diode with a SiN buffer layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 7A), 4450–4453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O, B.

S. E. Park, S. M. Lim, C. R. Lee, C. S. Kim, and B. O, “Influence of SiN buffer layer in GaN epilayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 249(3–4), 487–491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Onuma, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, M. H.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, “Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(8), G765–G770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. E.

S. E. Park, S. M. Lim, C. R. Lee, C. S. Kim, and B. O, “Influence of SiN buffer layer in GaN epilayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 249(3–4), 487–491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, A. G. Baca, C. G. Willison, J. Han, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, J. C. Zolper, and L. F. Lester, “High density plasma-induced etch damage in GaN,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 573, 271–273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rauschenbach, B.

C. Liu, B. Mensching, M. Zeitler, K. Volz, and B. Rauschenbach, “Ion implantation in GaN at liquid-nitrogen temperature: Structural characteristics and amorphization,” Phys. Rev. B 57(4), 2530–2535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ren, F.

R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, A. G. Baca, C. G. Willison, J. Han, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, J. C. Zolper, and L. F. Lester, “High density plasma-induced etch damage in GaN,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 573, 271–273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, S.

Y. B. Lee, T. Wang, Y. H. Liu, J. P. Ao, Y. Izumi, Y. Lacroix, H. D. Li, J. Bai, Y. Naoi, and S. Sakai, “High-performance 348 nm AlGaN/GaN based ultraviolet light emitting diode with a SiN buffer layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 7A), 4450–4453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shei, S. C.

J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, M. L. Lee, S. C. Shei, and W. C. Lai, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with naturally formed truncated micropyramids on top surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, P. T. Wang, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, and Y. K. Su, “High efficiency and improved ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1213–1215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shen, C. F.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, T. K. Ko, and C. F. Shen, “GaN-based LEDs output power improved by textured GaN/sapphire interface using in situ SiH4 treatment process during epitaxial growth,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1275–1280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, T. K. Ko, and C. F. Shen, “GaN-based LEDs output power improved by textured GaN/sapphire interface using in situ SiH4 treatment process during epitaxial growth,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1275–1280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C. J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN- based Light-Emitting Diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 263511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, M. L. Lee, S. C. Shei, and W. C. Lai, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with naturally formed truncated micropyramids on top surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, P. T. Wang, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, and Y. K. Su, “High efficiency and improved ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1213–1215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shih, W. C.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shul, R. J.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, A. G. Baca, C. G. Willison, J. Han, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, J. C. Zolper, and L. F. Lester, “High density plasma-induced etch damage in GaN,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 573, 271–273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sota, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Speck, J. S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, Y. K.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, P. T. Wang, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, and Y. K. Su, “High efficiency and improved ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1213–1215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. M.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, T. K. Ko, and C. F. Shen, “GaN-based LEDs output power improved by textured GaN/sapphire interface using in situ SiH4 treatment process during epitaxial growth,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1275–1280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, P. T. Wang, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, and Y. K. Su, “High efficiency and improved ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1213–1215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, M. L. Lee, S. C. Shei, and W. C. Lai, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with naturally formed truncated micropyramids on top surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J. M.

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tun, C. J.

J. K. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C. J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN- based Light-Emitting Diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 263511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Uedono, A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Hove, J. M.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Volz, K.

C. Liu, B. Mensching, M. Zeitler, K. Volz, and B. Rauschenbach, “Ion implantation in GaN at liquid-nitrogen temperature: Structural characteristics and amorphization,” Phys. Rev. B 57(4), 2530–2535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P. T.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, P. T. Wang, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, and Y. K. Su, “High efficiency and improved ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1213–1215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

Y. B. Lee, T. Wang, Y. H. Liu, J. P. Ao, Y. Izumi, Y. Lacroix, H. D. Li, J. Bai, Y. Naoi, and S. Sakai, “High-performance 348 nm AlGaN/GaN based ultraviolet light emitting diode with a SiN buffer layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 7A), 4450–4453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. K.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, “Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(8), G765–G770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wen, K. S.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, “Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(8), G765–G770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wen, T. C.

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Willison, C. G.

R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, A. G. Baca, C. G. Willison, J. Han, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, J. C. Zolper, and L. F. Lester, “High density plasma-induced etch damage in GaN,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 573, 271–273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D. S.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, “Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(8), G765–G770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, C. C.

H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, C. H. Lin, K. Y. Lee, H. W. Hsu, C. C. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based LEDs with a SiO2 nanorod array and a patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(6), 582–584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y. S.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, “Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(8), G765–G770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zeitler, M.

C. Liu, B. Mensching, M. Zeitler, K. Volz, and B. Rauschenbach, “Ion implantation in GaN at liquid-nitrogen temperature: Structural characteristics and amorphization,” Phys. Rev. B 57(4), 2530–2535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, A. P.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, A. G. Baca, C. G. Willison, J. Han, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, J. C. Zolper, and L. F. Lester, “High density plasma-induced etch damage in GaN,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 573, 271–273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zolper, J. C.

R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, A. G. Baca, C. G. Willison, J. Han, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, J. C. Zolper, and L. F. Lester, “High density plasma-induced etch damage in GaN,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 573, 271–273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, M. L. Lee, S. C. Shei, and W. C. Lai, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with naturally formed truncated micropyramids on top surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C. J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN- based Light-Emitting Diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 263511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (2)

H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, C. H. Lin, K. Y. Lee, H. W. Hsu, C. C. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based LEDs with a SiO2 nanorod array and a patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(6), 582–584 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, T. K. Ko, and C. F. Shen, “GaN-based LEDs output power improved by textured GaN/sapphire interface using in situ SiH4 treatment process during epitaxial growth,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1275–1280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

H. C. Lin, R. S. Lin, J.-I. Chyi, and C.-M. Lee, “Light output enhancement of InGaN light- emitting diodes grown on masklessly etched sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(19), 1621–1623 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, P. T. Wang, W. C. Lai, S. C. Shei, S. J. Chang, C. H. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, and Y. K. Su, “High efficiency and improved ESD characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1213–1215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

S. E. Park, S. M. Lim, C. R. Lee, C. S. Kim, and B. O, “Influence of SiN buffer layer in GaN epilayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 249(3–4), 487–491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, “Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(8), G765–G770 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. B. Lee, T. Wang, Y. H. Liu, J. P. Ao, Y. Izumi, Y. Lacroix, H. D. Li, J. Bai, Y. Naoi, and S. Sakai, “High-performance 348 nm AlGaN/GaN based ultraviolet light emitting diode with a SiN buffer layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 7A), 4450–4453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukai and S. Nakamura, “Ultraviolet InGaN and GaN single quantum well structure light emitting diodes grown on epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 10), 5735–5739 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, A. G. Baca, C. G. Willison, J. Han, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, J. C. Zolper, and L. F. Lester, “High density plasma-induced etch damage in GaN,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 573, 271–273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. Liu, B. Mensching, M. Zeitler, K. Volz, and B. Rauschenbach, “Ion implantation in GaN at liquid-nitrogen temperature: Structural characteristics and amorphization,” Phys. Rev. B 57(4), 2530–2535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 955–961 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, 2006), pp. 150–160.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Illustration of Ar-implanted on GaN template (b) GaN regrowth rate on implantation-free regions more than Ar-implanted regions (c) GaN layer to form V-shaped concaves typical tilted-angle-view SEM image of LED-I (d) interted AlGaN/GaN pyramidal sells on the concaves (e) epitaxial blue LED structure on AlGaN pyramidal shells.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Top-view micrographs obtained through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (b) cross-sectional view by SEM (c) typical SEM micrograph taken near the Al0.27Ga0.83N/GaN interfaces (d) shows schematic structure of the LED-I.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Relative output power of the LED-I and LED-II as a function of injection current (b) illustration of photons escape into the free space (c) light scattering at the embedded AlGaN pyramidal shells.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) and (b) Show the cross-sectional ray trajectory images of conventional LED-I and LED-II, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Room-temperature current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of LED-I and LED-II.

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