Abstract

In this study, gallium nitride (GaN)-based metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs) with a gallium oxide (GaOx) gate layer formed by alternating current bias-assisted photoelectrochemical oxidation of n-GaN are presented. By introducing the GaOx gate layer to the GaN MIS UV PDs, the leakage current is reduced and a much larger UV-to-visible rejection ratio (RUV/vis) of spectral responsivity is achieved. In addition, a bias-dependent spectral response results in marked increase of the RUV/vis with bias voltage up to ~105. The bias-dependent responsivity suggests the possible existence of internal gain in of the GaN MIS PDs.

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  1. E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnès, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001) (and references therein).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. H. Chang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. C. Yang, H. S. Kuo, J. H. Yang, and W. C. Lai, “Inverted Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN ultraviolet p-i-n photodiodes formed on p-GaN template layer grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 013502 (2010) (and references therein).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Parish, S. Keller, P. Kozodoy, J. A. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. B. Fleischer, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and E. J. Tarsa, “High-performance (Al,Ga)N-based solar-blind ultraviolet p–i–n detectors on laterally epitaxially overgrown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 247–249 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Monroy, M. Hamilton, D. Walker, P. Kung, F. J. Sánchez, and M. Razeghi, “High-quality visible-blind AlGaN p-i-n photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(8), 1171–1173 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, M. G. Chen, C. J. Kao, J. M. Tsai, and G. C. Chi, “GaN Schottky barrier photodetectors with a low-temperature GaN cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2913–2915 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of low-temperature-grown GaN cap layer on reduced leakage current of GaN Schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 052103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. L. Lee, T. S. Mue, J. K. Sheu, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, and T. H. Hsueh, “Effect of thermal annealing on GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with gallium oxide gate layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(11), H1019–H1022 (2010) (and references therein).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. T. Lee, H. W. Chen, and H. Y. Lee, “Metal–oxide–semiconductor devices using Ga2O3 dielectrics on n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(24), 4304–4306 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, and W. C. Hung, “Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of GaN using Cl2/Ar and Cl2/N2 Gases,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(3), 1970–1974 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, and C. C. Hu, “Nonalloyed Cr/Au-based Ohmic contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182106 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Muñoz, F. Omnès, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3–4), 537–543 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. D. Hwang, G. H. Yang, Y. Y. Yang, and P. C. Yao, “Nitride-Based UV Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor Photodetector with Liquid-Phase-Deposition Oxide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(11), 7913–7915 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Z. Chiou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, J. Gong, C. S. Chang, and S. H. Liu, “The properties of photo chemical-vapor deposition SiO2 and its application in GaN metal-insulator semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” J. Electron. Mater. 32(5), 395–399 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Binet and D. Gourier, “Origin of The Blue Luminescence of β-Ga2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 59(8), 1241–1249 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. C. Hsu, S. T. Chang, T. C. Chen, P. S. Kuo, P. S. Chen, Z. Pei, and C. W. Liu, “A High Efficient 820 nm MOS Ge Quantum Dot Photodetector,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 24(5), 318–320 (2003) (and references therein).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, and Y. R. Shu, “Ultraviolet bandpass Al0.17Ga0.83N/GaN heterojunction phototransitors with high optical gain and high rejection ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053506 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. C. Chang, C. L. Yu, S. J. Chang, Y. C. Lin, C. H. Liu, and S. L. Wu, “Low-Noise and High-Detectivity GaN-Based UV Photodiode With a Semi-Insulating Mg-Doped GaN Cap Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(9), 1270–1273 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2010

K. H. Chang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. C. Yang, H. S. Kuo, J. H. Yang, and W. C. Lai, “Inverted Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN ultraviolet p-i-n photodiodes formed on p-GaN template layer grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 013502 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, T. S. Mue, J. K. Sheu, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, and T. H. Hsueh, “Effect of thermal annealing on GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with gallium oxide gate layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(11), H1019–H1022 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, and Y. R. Shu, “Ultraviolet bandpass Al0.17Ga0.83N/GaN heterojunction phototransitors with high optical gain and high rejection ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

P. C. Chang, C. L. Yu, S. J. Chang, Y. C. Lin, C. H. Liu, and S. L. Wu, “Low-Noise and High-Detectivity GaN-Based UV Photodiode With a Semi-Insulating Mg-Doped GaN Cap Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(9), 1270–1273 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, and C. C. Hu, “Nonalloyed Cr/Au-based Ohmic contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. D. Hwang, G. H. Yang, Y. Y. Yang, and P. C. Yao, “Nitride-Based UV Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor Photodetector with Liquid-Phase-Deposition Oxide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(11), 7913–7915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of low-temperature-grown GaN cap layer on reduced leakage current of GaN Schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 052103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

B. C. Hsu, S. T. Chang, T. C. Chen, P. S. Kuo, P. S. Chen, Z. Pei, and C. W. Liu, “A High Efficient 820 nm MOS Ge Quantum Dot Photodetector,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 24(5), 318–320 (2003) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Chiou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, J. Gong, C. S. Chang, and S. H. Liu, “The properties of photo chemical-vapor deposition SiO2 and its application in GaN metal-insulator semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” J. Electron. Mater. 32(5), 395–399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Lee, H. W. Chen, and H. Y. Lee, “Metal–oxide–semiconductor devices using Ga2O3 dielectrics on n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(24), 4304–4306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, M. G. Chen, C. J. Kao, J. M. Tsai, and G. C. Chi, “GaN Schottky barrier photodetectors with a low-temperature GaN cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2913–2915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnès, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Muñoz, F. Omnès, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3–4), 537–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, and W. C. Hung, “Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of GaN using Cl2/Ar and Cl2/N2 Gases,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(3), 1970–1974 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Parish, S. Keller, P. Kozodoy, J. A. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. B. Fleischer, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and E. J. Tarsa, “High-performance (Al,Ga)N-based solar-blind ultraviolet p–i–n detectors on laterally epitaxially overgrown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 247–249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Monroy, M. Hamilton, D. Walker, P. Kung, F. J. Sánchez, and M. Razeghi, “High-quality visible-blind AlGaN p-i-n photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(8), 1171–1173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

L. Binet and D. Gourier, “Origin of The Blue Luminescence of β-Ga2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 59(8), 1241–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beaumont, B.

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Muñoz, F. Omnès, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3–4), 537–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Binet, L.

L. Binet and D. Gourier, “Origin of The Blue Luminescence of β-Ga2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 59(8), 1241–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Calle, F.

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Muñoz, F. Omnès, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3–4), 537–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnès, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. M.

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, and W. C. Hung, “Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of GaN using Cl2/Ar and Cl2/N2 Gases,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(3), 1970–1974 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. S.

Y. Z. Chiou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, J. Gong, C. S. Chang, and S. H. Liu, “The properties of photo chemical-vapor deposition SiO2 and its application in GaN metal-insulator semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” J. Electron. Mater. 32(5), 395–399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, K. H.

M. L. Lee, T. S. Mue, J. K. Sheu, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, and T. H. Hsueh, “Effect of thermal annealing on GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with gallium oxide gate layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(11), H1019–H1022 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Chang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. C. Yang, H. S. Kuo, J. H. Yang, and W. C. Lai, “Inverted Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN ultraviolet p-i-n photodiodes formed on p-GaN template layer grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 013502 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Chang, P. C.

P. C. Chang, C. L. Yu, S. J. Chang, Y. C. Lin, C. H. Liu, and S. L. Wu, “Low-Noise and High-Detectivity GaN-Based UV Photodiode With a Semi-Insulating Mg-Doped GaN Cap Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(9), 1270–1273 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

P. C. Chang, C. L. Yu, S. J. Chang, Y. C. Lin, C. H. Liu, and S. L. Wu, “Low-Noise and High-Detectivity GaN-Based UV Photodiode With a Semi-Insulating Mg-Doped GaN Cap Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(9), 1270–1273 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Chiou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, J. Gong, C. S. Chang, and S. H. Liu, “The properties of photo chemical-vapor deposition SiO2 and its application in GaN metal-insulator semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” J. Electron. Mater. 32(5), 395–399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, M. G. Chen, C. J. Kao, J. M. Tsai, and G. C. Chi, “GaN Schottky barrier photodetectors with a low-temperature GaN cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2913–2915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. T.

B. C. Hsu, S. T. Chang, T. C. Chen, P. S. Kuo, P. S. Chen, Z. Pei, and C. W. Liu, “A High Efficient 820 nm MOS Ge Quantum Dot Photodetector,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 24(5), 318–320 (2003) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. W.

C. T. Lee, H. W. Chen, and H. Y. Lee, “Metal–oxide–semiconductor devices using Ga2O3 dielectrics on n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(24), 4304–4306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M. G.

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, M. G. Chen, C. J. Kao, J. M. Tsai, and G. C. Chi, “GaN Schottky barrier photodetectors with a low-temperature GaN cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2913–2915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P. S.

B. C. Hsu, S. T. Chang, T. C. Chen, P. S. Kuo, P. S. Chen, Z. Pei, and C. W. Liu, “A High Efficient 820 nm MOS Ge Quantum Dot Photodetector,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 24(5), 318–320 (2003) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. C.

B. C. Hsu, S. T. Chang, T. C. Chen, P. S. Kuo, P. S. Chen, Z. Pei, and C. W. Liu, “A High Efficient 820 nm MOS Ge Quantum Dot Photodetector,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 24(5), 318–320 (2003) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Chi, G. C.

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, M. G. Chen, C. J. Kao, J. M. Tsai, and G. C. Chi, “GaN Schottky barrier photodetectors with a low-temperature GaN cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2913–2915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, and W. C. Hung, “Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of GaN using Cl2/Ar and Cl2/N2 Gases,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(3), 1970–1974 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chiou, Y. Z.

Y. Z. Chiou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, J. Gong, C. S. Chang, and S. H. Liu, “The properties of photo chemical-vapor deposition SiO2 and its application in GaN metal-insulator semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” J. Electron. Mater. 32(5), 395–399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

G. Parish, S. Keller, P. Kozodoy, J. A. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. B. Fleischer, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and E. J. Tarsa, “High-performance (Al,Ga)N-based solar-blind ultraviolet p–i–n detectors on laterally epitaxially overgrown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 247–249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fini, P. T.

G. Parish, S. Keller, P. Kozodoy, J. A. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. B. Fleischer, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and E. J. Tarsa, “High-performance (Al,Ga)N-based solar-blind ultraviolet p–i–n detectors on laterally epitaxially overgrown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 247–249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fleischer, S. B.

G. Parish, S. Keller, P. Kozodoy, J. A. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. B. Fleischer, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and E. J. Tarsa, “High-performance (Al,Ga)N-based solar-blind ultraviolet p–i–n detectors on laterally epitaxially overgrown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 247–249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gibart, P.

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnès, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Muñoz, F. Omnès, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3–4), 537–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gong, J.

Y. Z. Chiou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, J. Gong, C. S. Chang, and S. H. Liu, “The properties of photo chemical-vapor deposition SiO2 and its application in GaN metal-insulator semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” J. Electron. Mater. 32(5), 395–399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gourier, D.

L. Binet and D. Gourier, “Origin of The Blue Luminescence of β-Ga2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 59(8), 1241–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, M.

E. Monroy, M. Hamilton, D. Walker, P. Kung, F. J. Sánchez, and M. Razeghi, “High-quality visible-blind AlGaN p-i-n photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(8), 1171–1173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, B. C.

B. C. Hsu, S. T. Chang, T. C. Chen, P. S. Kuo, P. S. Chen, Z. Pei, and C. W. Liu, “A High Efficient 820 nm MOS Ge Quantum Dot Photodetector,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 24(5), 318–320 (2003) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Hsueh, T. H.

M. L. Lee, T. S. Mue, J. K. Sheu, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, and T. H. Hsueh, “Effect of thermal annealing on GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with gallium oxide gate layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(11), H1019–H1022 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C. C.

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, and C. C. Hu, “Nonalloyed Cr/Au-based Ohmic contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hung, W. C.

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, and W. C. Hung, “Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of GaN using Cl2/Ar and Cl2/N2 Gases,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(3), 1970–1974 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J. D.

J. D. Hwang, G. H. Yang, Y. Y. Yang, and P. C. Yao, “Nitride-Based UV Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor Photodetector with Liquid-Phase-Deposition Oxide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(11), 7913–7915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ibbetson, J. A.

G. Parish, S. Keller, P. Kozodoy, J. A. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. B. Fleischer, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and E. J. Tarsa, “High-performance (Al,Ga)N-based solar-blind ultraviolet p–i–n detectors on laterally epitaxially overgrown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 247–249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jou, M. J.

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, and W. C. Hung, “Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of GaN using Cl2/Ar and Cl2/N2 Gases,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(3), 1970–1974 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. J.

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, M. G. Chen, C. J. Kao, J. M. Tsai, and G. C. Chi, “GaN Schottky barrier photodetectors with a low-temperature GaN cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2913–2915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

G. Parish, S. Keller, P. Kozodoy, J. A. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. B. Fleischer, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and E. J. Tarsa, “High-performance (Al,Ga)N-based solar-blind ultraviolet p–i–n detectors on laterally epitaxially overgrown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 247–249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kozodoy, P.

G. Parish, S. Keller, P. Kozodoy, J. A. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. B. Fleischer, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and E. J. Tarsa, “High-performance (Al,Ga)N-based solar-blind ultraviolet p–i–n detectors on laterally epitaxially overgrown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 247–249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kung, P.

E. Monroy, M. Hamilton, D. Walker, P. Kung, F. J. Sánchez, and M. Razeghi, “High-quality visible-blind AlGaN p-i-n photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(8), 1171–1173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. S.

K. H. Chang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. C. Yang, H. S. Kuo, J. H. Yang, and W. C. Lai, “Inverted Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN ultraviolet p-i-n photodiodes formed on p-GaN template layer grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 013502 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, P. S.

B. C. Hsu, S. T. Chang, T. C. Chen, P. S. Kuo, P. S. Chen, Z. Pei, and C. W. Liu, “A High Efficient 820 nm MOS Ge Quantum Dot Photodetector,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 24(5), 318–320 (2003) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

K. H. Chang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. C. Yang, H. S. Kuo, J. H. Yang, and W. C. Lai, “Inverted Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN ultraviolet p-i-n photodiodes formed on p-GaN template layer grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 013502 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of low-temperature-grown GaN cap layer on reduced leakage current of GaN Schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 052103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, M. G. Chen, C. J. Kao, J. M. Tsai, and G. C. Chi, “GaN Schottky barrier photodetectors with a low-temperature GaN cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2913–2915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. T.

C. T. Lee, H. W. Chen, and H. Y. Lee, “Metal–oxide–semiconductor devices using Ga2O3 dielectrics on n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(24), 4304–4306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. Y.

C. T. Lee, H. W. Chen, and H. Y. Lee, “Metal–oxide–semiconductor devices using Ga2O3 dielectrics on n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(24), 4304–4306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. L.

M. L. Lee, T. S. Mue, J. K. Sheu, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, and T. H. Hsueh, “Effect of thermal annealing on GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with gallium oxide gate layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(11), H1019–H1022 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Chang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. C. Yang, H. S. Kuo, J. H. Yang, and W. C. Lai, “Inverted Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN ultraviolet p-i-n photodiodes formed on p-GaN template layer grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 013502 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, and Y. R. Shu, “Ultraviolet bandpass Al0.17Ga0.83N/GaN heterojunction phototransitors with high optical gain and high rejection ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, and C. C. Hu, “Nonalloyed Cr/Au-based Ohmic contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of low-temperature-grown GaN cap layer on reduced leakage current of GaN Schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 052103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, M. G. Chen, C. J. Kao, J. M. Tsai, and G. C. Chi, “GaN Schottky barrier photodetectors with a low-temperature GaN cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2913–2915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. C.

P. C. Chang, C. L. Yu, S. J. Chang, Y. C. Lin, C. H. Liu, and S. L. Wu, “Low-Noise and High-Detectivity GaN-Based UV Photodiode With a Semi-Insulating Mg-Doped GaN Cap Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(9), 1270–1273 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. C.

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, and W. C. Hung, “Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of GaN using Cl2/Ar and Cl2/N2 Gases,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(3), 1970–1974 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. H.

P. C. Chang, C. L. Yu, S. J. Chang, Y. C. Lin, C. H. Liu, and S. L. Wu, “Low-Noise and High-Detectivity GaN-Based UV Photodiode With a Semi-Insulating Mg-Doped GaN Cap Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(9), 1270–1273 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. W.

B. C. Hsu, S. T. Chang, T. C. Chen, P. S. Kuo, P. S. Chen, Z. Pei, and C. W. Liu, “A High Efficient 820 nm MOS Ge Quantum Dot Photodetector,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 24(5), 318–320 (2003) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. H.

Y. Z. Chiou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, J. Gong, C. S. Chang, and S. H. Liu, “The properties of photo chemical-vapor deposition SiO2 and its application in GaN metal-insulator semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” J. Electron. Mater. 32(5), 395–399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marchand, H.

G. Parish, S. Keller, P. Kozodoy, J. A. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. B. Fleischer, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and E. J. Tarsa, “High-performance (Al,Ga)N-based solar-blind ultraviolet p–i–n detectors on laterally epitaxially overgrown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 247–249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

G. Parish, S. Keller, P. Kozodoy, J. A. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. B. Fleischer, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and E. J. Tarsa, “High-performance (Al,Ga)N-based solar-blind ultraviolet p–i–n detectors on laterally epitaxially overgrown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 247–249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Monroy, E.

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnès, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Muñoz, F. Omnès, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3–4), 537–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Monroy, M. Hamilton, D. Walker, P. Kung, F. J. Sánchez, and M. Razeghi, “High-quality visible-blind AlGaN p-i-n photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(8), 1171–1173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mue, T. S.

M. L. Lee, T. S. Mue, J. K. Sheu, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, and T. H. Hsueh, “Effect of thermal annealing on GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with gallium oxide gate layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(11), H1019–H1022 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Muñoz, E.

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnès, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Muñoz, F. Omnès, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3–4), 537–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Omnès, F.

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Muñoz, F. Omnès, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3–4), 537–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnès, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Parish, G.

G. Parish, S. Keller, P. Kozodoy, J. A. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. B. Fleischer, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and E. J. Tarsa, “High-performance (Al,Ga)N-based solar-blind ultraviolet p–i–n detectors on laterally epitaxially overgrown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 247–249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pau, J. L.

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnès, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Muñoz, F. Omnès, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3–4), 537–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pei, Z.

B. C. Hsu, S. T. Chang, T. C. Chen, P. S. Kuo, P. S. Chen, Z. Pei, and C. W. Liu, “A High Efficient 820 nm MOS Ge Quantum Dot Photodetector,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 24(5), 318–320 (2003) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

E. Monroy, M. Hamilton, D. Walker, P. Kung, F. J. Sánchez, and M. Razeghi, “High-quality visible-blind AlGaN p-i-n photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(8), 1171–1173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez, F. J.

E. Monroy, M. Hamilton, D. Walker, P. Kung, F. J. Sánchez, and M. Razeghi, “High-quality visible-blind AlGaN p-i-n photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(8), 1171–1173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

K. H. Chang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. C. Yang, H. S. Kuo, J. H. Yang, and W. C. Lai, “Inverted Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN ultraviolet p-i-n photodiodes formed on p-GaN template layer grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 013502 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, T. S. Mue, J. K. Sheu, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, and T. H. Hsueh, “Effect of thermal annealing on GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with gallium oxide gate layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(11), H1019–H1022 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, and Y. R. Shu, “Ultraviolet bandpass Al0.17Ga0.83N/GaN heterojunction phototransitors with high optical gain and high rejection ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, and C. C. Hu, “Nonalloyed Cr/Au-based Ohmic contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of low-temperature-grown GaN cap layer on reduced leakage current of GaN Schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 052103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, M. G. Chen, C. J. Kao, J. M. Tsai, and G. C. Chi, “GaN Schottky barrier photodetectors with a low-temperature GaN cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2913–2915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, and W. C. Hung, “Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of GaN using Cl2/Ar and Cl2/N2 Gases,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(3), 1970–1974 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shu, Y. R.

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, and Y. R. Shu, “Ultraviolet bandpass Al0.17Ga0.83N/GaN heterojunction phototransitors with high optical gain and high rejection ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. K.

Y. Z. Chiou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, J. Gong, C. S. Chang, and S. H. Liu, “The properties of photo chemical-vapor deposition SiO2 and its application in GaN metal-insulator semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” J. Electron. Mater. 32(5), 395–399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, M. G. Chen, C. J. Kao, J. M. Tsai, and G. C. Chi, “GaN Schottky barrier photodetectors with a low-temperature GaN cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2913–2915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, and W. C. Hung, “Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of GaN using Cl2/Ar and Cl2/N2 Gases,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(3), 1970–1974 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tarsa, E. J.

G. Parish, S. Keller, P. Kozodoy, J. A. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. B. Fleischer, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and E. J. Tarsa, “High-performance (Al,Ga)N-based solar-blind ultraviolet p–i–n detectors on laterally epitaxially overgrown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 247–249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J. M.

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, M. G. Chen, C. J. Kao, J. M. Tsai, and G. C. Chi, “GaN Schottky barrier photodetectors with a low-temperature GaN cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2913–2915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tu, S. J.

M. L. Lee, T. S. Mue, J. K. Sheu, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, and T. H. Hsueh, “Effect of thermal annealing on GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with gallium oxide gate layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(11), H1019–H1022 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Chang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. C. Yang, H. S. Kuo, J. H. Yang, and W. C. Lai, “Inverted Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN ultraviolet p-i-n photodiodes formed on p-GaN template layer grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 013502 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Walker, D.

E. Monroy, M. Hamilton, D. Walker, P. Kung, F. J. Sánchez, and M. Razeghi, “High-quality visible-blind AlGaN p-i-n photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(8), 1171–1173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. L.

P. C. Chang, C. L. Yu, S. J. Chang, Y. C. Lin, C. H. Liu, and S. L. Wu, “Low-Noise and High-Detectivity GaN-Based UV Photodiode With a Semi-Insulating Mg-Doped GaN Cap Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(9), 1270–1273 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

K. H. Chang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. C. Yang, H. S. Kuo, J. H. Yang, and W. C. Lai, “Inverted Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN ultraviolet p-i-n photodiodes formed on p-GaN template layer grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 013502 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. H.

J. D. Hwang, G. H. Yang, Y. Y. Yang, and P. C. Yao, “Nitride-Based UV Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor Photodetector with Liquid-Phase-Deposition Oxide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(11), 7913–7915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. H.

K. H. Chang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. C. Yang, H. S. Kuo, J. H. Yang, and W. C. Lai, “Inverted Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN ultraviolet p-i-n photodiodes formed on p-GaN template layer grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 013502 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. Y.

J. D. Hwang, G. H. Yang, Y. Y. Yang, and P. C. Yao, “Nitride-Based UV Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor Photodetector with Liquid-Phase-Deposition Oxide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(11), 7913–7915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yao, P. C.

J. D. Hwang, G. H. Yang, Y. Y. Yang, and P. C. Yao, “Nitride-Based UV Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor Photodetector with Liquid-Phase-Deposition Oxide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(11), 7913–7915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. L.

P. C. Chang, C. L. Yu, S. J. Chang, Y. C. Lin, C. H. Liu, and S. L. Wu, “Low-Noise and High-Detectivity GaN-Based UV Photodiode With a Semi-Insulating Mg-Doped GaN Cap Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(9), 1270–1273 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. H. Chang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, C. C. Yang, H. S. Kuo, J. H. Yang, and W. C. Lai, “Inverted Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN ultraviolet p-i-n photodiodes formed on p-GaN template layer grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 013502 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

G. Parish, S. Keller, P. Kozodoy, J. A. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. B. Fleischer, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and E. J. Tarsa, “High-performance (Al,Ga)N-based solar-blind ultraviolet p–i–n detectors on laterally epitaxially overgrown GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 247–249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Monroy, M. Hamilton, D. Walker, P. Kung, F. J. Sánchez, and M. Razeghi, “High-quality visible-blind AlGaN p-i-n photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(8), 1171–1173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, M. G. Chen, C. J. Kao, J. M. Tsai, and G. C. Chi, “GaN Schottky barrier photodetectors with a low-temperature GaN cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2913–2915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Effect of low-temperature-grown GaN cap layer on reduced leakage current of GaN Schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 052103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Lee, H. W. Chen, and H. Y. Lee, “Metal–oxide–semiconductor devices using Ga2O3 dielectrics on n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(24), 4304–4306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, and C. C. Hu, “Nonalloyed Cr/Au-based Ohmic contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, and Y. R. Shu, “Ultraviolet bandpass Al0.17Ga0.83N/GaN heterojunction phototransitors with high optical gain and high rejection ratio,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

B. C. Hsu, S. T. Chang, T. C. Chen, P. S. Kuo, P. S. Chen, Z. Pei, and C. W. Liu, “A High Efficient 820 nm MOS Ge Quantum Dot Photodetector,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 24(5), 318–320 (2003) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J.

P. C. Chang, C. L. Yu, S. J. Chang, Y. C. Lin, C. H. Liu, and S. L. Wu, “Low-Noise and High-Detectivity GaN-Based UV Photodiode With a Semi-Insulating Mg-Doped GaN Cap Layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(9), 1270–1273 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, and W. C. Hung, “Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of GaN using Cl2/Ar and Cl2/N2 Gases,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(3), 1970–1974 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Muñoz, F. Omnès, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3–4), 537–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

M. L. Lee, T. S. Mue, J. K. Sheu, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, and T. H. Hsueh, “Effect of thermal annealing on GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with gallium oxide gate layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(11), H1019–H1022 (2010) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater.

Y. Z. Chiou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, J. Gong, C. S. Chang, and S. H. Liu, “The properties of photo chemical-vapor deposition SiO2 and its application in GaN metal-insulator semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” J. Electron. Mater. 32(5), 395–399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids

L. Binet and D. Gourier, “Origin of The Blue Luminescence of β-Ga2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 59(8), 1241–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

E. Muñoz, E. Monroy, J. L. Pau, F. Calle, F. Omnès, and P. Gibart, “III nitrides and UV detection,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(32), 7115–7137 (2001) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

J. D. Hwang, G. H. Yang, Y. Y. Yang, and P. C. Yao, “Nitride-Based UV Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor Photodetector with Liquid-Phase-Deposition Oxide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(11), 7913–7915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a)schematic device structure (b)representative photograph of the fabricated circular photodetectors (c) schematic band diagram for depicting the mechanism of defect-assisted tunneling around the metal/GaOx/n-GaN interfaces.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical reverse I-V curves taken in dark and under illumination from the experimental PDs. The incident light wavelength was 360 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral responses of (a)PD-1, (b)PD-2 and (c)PD-3 measured at different reverse biases.

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