Abstract

We present a detailed study of non-planar or ‘stand-up’ split ring resonators operating at terahertz frequencies. Based on a facile multilayer electroplating fabrication, this technique can create large area split ring resonators on both rigid substrates and conformally compliant structures. In agreement with simulation results, the characterization of these metamaterials shows a strong response induced purely by the magnetic field. The retrieved parameters also exhibit negative permeability values over a broad frequency span. The extracted parameters exhibit bianisotropy due to the symmetry breaking of the substrate, and this effect is investigated for both single and broad side coupled split rings. Our 3D metamaterial examples pave the way towards numerous potential applications in the terahertz region of the spectrum.

© 2011 OSA

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  3. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial exhibiting negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–380 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
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  6. N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
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  7. H. Tao, N. I. landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181–7188 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7, 543–546 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, “Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15, 1084–1095 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 041102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication and charaterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Choi, S. H. Lee, T. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Kang, Y. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470, 369–373 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. Zhang, Y. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 14701 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. B. Lochel, A. Maciossek, H. J. Quenzer, B. Wagner, and G. Engelmann, “Magnetically driven microstructures fabricated with multilayer electroplating,” Sen. Actuators A 46, 98–103 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J.-B. Yoon, B.-I. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and E. Yoon, “3-D construction of monolithic passive components for RF and microwave ICs using thick-metal surface micromachining technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 51, 279–288 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. A. Powell and Y. S. Kivshar, “Substrate-induced bianisotropy in metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 091106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  28. W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. R. Marqués, F. Medina, and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, “Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 144440 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  30. H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 232004 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  31. R. Zhao, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials: retrieval of the effective parameters with and without substrate,” Opt. Express 18, 14553–14567 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. D. R. Smith, “Analytic expressions for the constitutive parameters of magnetoelectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 036605 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  33. R. Marqués, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Medina, “Comparative analysis of edge- and broadside-coupled split ring resonators for metamaterial design - theory and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2572–2581 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, T. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Kang, Y. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470, 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

X. Liu, S. MacNaughton, D. B. Shrekenhamer, H. Tao, S. Selvarasah, A. Totachawattana, R. D. Averitt, M. R. Dokmeci, S. Sonkusale, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterials on parylene thin film substrates: design, fabrication, and characterization at terahertz frequency,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 96, 011906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, G. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Metamaterials: micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. 22, 5053–5057 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328, 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Powell and Y. S. Kivshar, “Substrate-induced bianisotropy in metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 091106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, “Analytic expressions for the constitutive parameters of magnetoelectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 036605 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhao, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials: retrieval of the effective parameters with and without substrate,” Opt. Express 18, 14553–14567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 14701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (8)

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication and charaterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7, 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial exhibiting negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–380 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 232004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Paul, C. Imhof, B. Reinhard, R. Zengerle, and R. Beigang, “Negative index bulk metamaterial at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 16, 6736–6744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, N. I. landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, “Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15, 1084–1095 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Wu, Z. Yu, S. Wang, R. S. Williams, Y. Liu, C. Sun, X. Zhang, E. Kim, Y. R. Shen, and N. X. Fang, “Midinfrared metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Focused-ion-beam nanofabrication of near-infrared magnetic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2547–2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2003)
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Yoon, B.-I. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and E. Yoon, “3-D construction of monolithic passive components for RF and microwave ICs using thick-metal surface micromachining technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 51, 279–288 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Marqués, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Medina, “Comparative analysis of edge- and broadside-coupled split ring resonators for metamaterial design - theory and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2572–2581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Marqués, F. Medina, and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, “Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 144440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

B. Lochel, A. Maciossek, H. J. Quenzer, B. Wagner, and G. Engelmann, “Magnetically driven microstructures fabricated with multilayer electroplating,” Sen. Actuators A 46, 98–103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Aronsson, M. T.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

X. Liu, S. MacNaughton, D. B. Shrekenhamer, H. Tao, S. Selvarasah, A. Totachawattana, R. D. Averitt, M. R. Dokmeci, S. Sonkusale, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterials on parylene thin film substrates: design, fabrication, and characterization at terahertz frequency,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 96, 011906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 14701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 232004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication and charaterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, N. I. landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, “Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15, 1084–1095 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bade, K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial exhibiting negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–380 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Beigang, R.

Bingham, C. M.

H. Tao, N. I. landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication and charaterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 232004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, G. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Metamaterials: micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. 22, 5053–5057 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenner, P.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328, 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burckel, D. B.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, G. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Metamaterials: micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. 22, 5053–5057 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, “Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15, 1084–1095 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, M.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, T. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Kang, Y. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470, 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, Y.-S.

J.-B. Yoon, B.-I. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and E. Yoon, “3-D construction of monolithic passive components for RF and microwave ICs using thick-metal surface micromachining technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 51, 279–288 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Decker, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dokmeci, M. R.

X. Liu, S. MacNaughton, D. B. Shrekenhamer, H. Tao, S. Selvarasah, A. Totachawattana, R. D. Averitt, M. R. Dokmeci, S. Sonkusale, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterials on parylene thin film substrates: design, fabrication, and characterization at terahertz frequency,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 96, 011906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, A. R.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, G. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Metamaterials: micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. 22, 5053–5057 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engelmann, G.

B. Lochel, A. Maciossek, H. J. Quenzer, B. Wagner, and G. Engelmann, “Magnetically driven microstructures fabricated with multilayer electroplating,” Sen. Actuators A 46, 98–103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Focused-ion-beam nanofabrication of near-infrared magnetic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2547–2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ergin, T.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328, 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, K.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 14701 (2009).
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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
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Padilla, W. J.

X. Liu, S. MacNaughton, D. B. Shrekenhamer, H. Tao, S. Selvarasah, A. Totachawattana, R. D. Averitt, M. R. Dokmeci, S. Sonkusale, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterials on parylene thin film substrates: design, fabrication, and characterization at terahertz frequency,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 96, 011906 (2010).
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H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 14701 (2009).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 041102 (2007).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Choi, S. H. Lee, T. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Kang, Y. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470, 369–373 (2011).
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S. Zhang, Y. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
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C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Focused-ion-beam nanofabrication of near-infrared magnetic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2547–2549 (2005).
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H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication and charaterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
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D. A. Powell and Y. S. Kivshar, “Substrate-induced bianisotropy in metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 091106 (2010).
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B. Lochel, A. Maciossek, H. J. Quenzer, B. Wagner, and G. Engelmann, “Magnetically driven microstructures fabricated with multilayer electroplating,” Sen. Actuators A 46, 98–103 (1995).
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R. Marqués, F. Medina, and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, “Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 144440 (2002).
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Rill, M. S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
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J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
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N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2008).
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X. Liu, S. MacNaughton, D. B. Shrekenhamer, H. Tao, S. Selvarasah, A. Totachawattana, R. D. Averitt, M. R. Dokmeci, S. Sonkusale, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterials on parylene thin film substrates: design, fabrication, and characterization at terahertz frequency,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 96, 011906 (2010).
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W. Wu, Z. Yu, S. Wang, R. S. Williams, Y. Liu, C. Sun, X. Zhang, E. Kim, Y. R. Shen, and N. X. Fang, “Midinfrared metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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M. Choi, S. H. Lee, T. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Kang, Y. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470, 369–373 (2011).
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H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication and charaterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
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D. R. Smith, “Analytic expressions for the constitutive parameters of magnetoelectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 036605 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2003)
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonkusale, S.

X. Liu, S. MacNaughton, D. B. Shrekenhamer, H. Tao, S. Selvarasah, A. Totachawattana, R. D. Averitt, M. R. Dokmeci, S. Sonkusale, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterials on parylene thin film substrates: design, fabrication, and characterization at terahertz frequency,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 96, 011906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

R. Zhao, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials: retrieval of the effective parameters with and without substrate,” Opt. Express 18, 14553–14567 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Focused-ion-beam nanofabrication of near-infrared magnetic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2547–2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staude, I.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7, 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stenger, N.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328, 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Strikwerda, A. C.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 14701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 232004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication and charaterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

W. Wu, Z. Yu, S. Wang, R. S. Williams, Y. Liu, C. Sun, X. Zhang, E. Kim, Y. R. Shen, and N. X. Fang, “Midinfrared metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tao, H.

X. Liu, S. MacNaughton, D. B. Shrekenhamer, H. Tao, S. Selvarasah, A. Totachawattana, R. D. Averitt, M. R. Dokmeci, S. Sonkusale, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterials on parylene thin film substrates: design, fabrication, and characterization at terahertz frequency,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 96, 011906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 14701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 232004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication and charaterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, N. I. landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, “Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15, 1084–1095 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ten Eyck, G. A.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, G. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Metamaterials: micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. 22, 5053–5057 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thiel, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7, 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Totachawattana, A.

X. Liu, S. MacNaughton, D. B. Shrekenhamer, H. Tao, S. Selvarasah, A. Totachawattana, R. D. Averitt, M. R. Dokmeci, S. Sonkusale, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterials on parylene thin film substrates: design, fabrication, and characterization at terahertz frequency,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 96, 011906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial exhibiting negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–380 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial exhibiting negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–380 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2003)
[CrossRef]

von Freymann, G.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7, 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, B.

B. Lochel, A. Maciossek, H. J. Quenzer, B. Wagner, and G. Engelmann, “Magnetically driven microstructures fabricated with multilayer electroplating,” Sen. Actuators A 46, 98–103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

W. Wu, Z. Yu, S. Wang, R. S. Williams, Y. Liu, C. Sun, X. Zhang, E. Kim, Y. R. Shen, and N. X. Fang, “Midinfrared metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328, 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7, 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Focused-ion-beam nanofabrication of near-infrared magnetic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2547–2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, J. R.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, G. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Metamaterials: micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. 22, 5053–5057 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. S.

W. Wu, Z. Yu, S. Wang, R. S. Williams, Y. Liu, C. Sun, X. Zhang, E. Kim, Y. R. Shen, and N. X. Fang, “Midinfrared metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.

W. Wu, Z. Yu, S. Wang, R. S. Williams, Y. Liu, C. Sun, X. Zhang, E. Kim, Y. R. Shen, and N. X. Fang, “Midinfrared metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Yoon, E.

J.-B. Yoon, B.-I. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and E. Yoon, “3-D construction of monolithic passive components for RF and microwave ICs using thick-metal surface micromachining technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 51, 279–288 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, J.-B.

J.-B. Yoon, B.-I. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and E. Yoon, “3-D construction of monolithic passive components for RF and microwave ICs using thick-metal surface micromachining technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 51, 279–288 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

W. Wu, Z. Yu, S. Wang, R. S. Williams, Y. Liu, C. Sun, X. Zhang, E. Kim, Y. R. Shen, and N. X. Fang, “Midinfrared metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zengerle, R.

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial exhibiting negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–380 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, Y. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial exhibiting negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–380 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

S. Zhang, Y. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

S. Zhang, Y. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 14701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial exhibiting negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–380 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, N. I. landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16, 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 232004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication and charaterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Wu, Z. Yu, S. Wang, R. S. Williams, Y. Liu, C. Sun, X. Zhang, E. Kim, Y. R. Shen, and N. X. Fang, “Midinfrared metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Zhao, R.

Zhou, J. F.

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Focused-ion-beam nanofabrication of near-infrared magnetic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2547–2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zide, J. M. O.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (2)

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Focused-ion-beam nanofabrication of near-infrared magnetic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2547–2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, G. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Metamaterials: micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. 22, 5053–5057 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phy. Lett. (1)

X. Liu, S. MacNaughton, D. B. Shrekenhamer, H. Tao, S. Selvarasah, A. Totachawattana, R. D. Averitt, M. R. Dokmeci, S. Sonkusale, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterials on parylene thin film substrates: design, fabrication, and characterization at terahertz frequency,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 96, 011906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. A. Powell and Y. S. Kivshar, “Substrate-induced bianisotropy in metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 091106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Wu, Z. Yu, S. Wang, R. S. Williams, Y. Liu, C. Sun, X. Zhang, E. Kim, Y. R. Shen, and N. X. Fang, “Midinfrared metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

R. Marqués, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Medina, “Comparative analysis of edge- and broadside-coupled split ring resonators for metamaterial design - theory and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2572–2581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (2)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Yoon, B.-I. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and E. Yoon, “3-D construction of monolithic passive components for RF and microwave ICs using thick-metal surface micromachining technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 51, 279–288 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 232004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (3)

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7, 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (3)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, T. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K. Kang, Y. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470, 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial exhibiting negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–380 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Marqués, F. Medina, and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, “Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 144440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: design, fabrication and charaterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

D. R. Smith, “Analytic expressions for the constitutive parameters of magnetoelectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 036605 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 14701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (5)

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328, 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2003)
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sen. Actuators A (1)

B. Lochel, A. Maciossek, H. J. Quenzer, B. Wagner, and G. Engelmann, “Magnetically driven microstructures fabricated with multilayer electroplating,” Sen. Actuators A 46, 98–103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structural geometry of 3D SRRs and Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of fabricated structures. (a), Schematic diagram of the arrayed SRRs on a silicon substrate. (b), Typical dimensions for unit cell of SRRs: p = 50 μm, w = 6 μm, h = 33 μm, g = 6 μm, D = 6 μm, and l = 28 μm, 30 μm and 36 μm for three different samples respectively. The two pillars on the gap side are of the same height. (c), The oblique close-up view of fabricated unit cell of SRR in copper with l = 36 μm using multilayer electroplating technique. (d), Oblique view of arrayed SRRs on a 2 inch silicon wafer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Frequency dependent THz electric field transmission relative to a silicon substrate reference on three samples with different bottom-bar length. (a), Experimentally measured. (b), Simulations. The inset shows simulated circulating current at the fundamental resonance of SRRs with l = 28 μm. The incident THz wave is normal to the substrate and the electric field for the green, blue and red lines is polarized as shown in Fig. 1(b) with magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of SRRs. The H field for the orange line is parallel to the plane of the ring.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Structural geometry of flexible 3D SRRs and frequency dependant transmission coefficients on the samples. (a), Oblique view of arrayed SRRs on 30-μm-thick polyimide substrate.(b), Photograph of a bendable 2-inch long polyimide stripe with 3D metamaterials standing on. Inset shows a close-up view of unit cell of SRR. (c), Experimental results and (d), simulation. The incident THz wave is normal to the substrate and the magnetic field is normal to the plane of SRRs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Retrieved constitutive parameters of refractive index n, permittivity ε, permeability μ and bianisotropic parameter ξ based on numerical simulation for 3D SRRs. (a), Free-standing metamaterials in the air with inversion symmetry in the propagation direction of electromagnetic waves. It should be noticed that the imaginary part of permittivity ε is close to zero. (b), metamaterials standing on a silicon substrate. (c), metamaterials standing on a 30-μm polyimide substrate. Blue lines are real parts of parameters. Red lines are imaginary parts of parameters. The dimensions of the structure is set the same as the 3D SRRs with bottom length of 28 μm and gap of 6 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

3D Broadside-coupled SRRs on a GaAs substrate. (a), Experimental (solid line) and simulation (dashed line) results with different separation d. The insets show an oblique view of fabricated BC-SRRs with a separation of 18 μm and a schematic of the BC-SRR unit cell, respectively. (b), Extracted bianisotropy ξ based on simulation. The inset shows the extracted permeability μ. The THz wave is still at normal incidence and the magnetic field is normal to the plane of rings. The dimensions of a single ring in the BC-SRRs are the same as the sample on polyimide substrate with bottom length of 36 μm. The parameters extraction was conducted on the BC-SRR metamaterial array with d = 12 μm. Solid lines are real parts of parameters. Dotted lines are imaginary parts of parameters.

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