Abstract

We demonstrate in a first experimental study the application of novel micro-machined optoelectronic probes for a time-domain reflectometry-based localization of discontinuities and faults in electronic structures at unprecedented resolution and accuracy (± 0.55µm). Thanks to the THz-range bandwidth of our optoelectronic system – including the active probes used for pulse injection and detection – the spatial resolution and precision of high-end all-electronic detection systems is surpassed by more than one order of magnitude. The new analytic technology holds great promise for rapid and precise fault detection and location in advanced (3D) integrated semiconductor chips and packages.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Nagel, F. Richter, P. Haring-Bolívar, and H. Kurz, “A functionalized THz sensor for marker-free DNA analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(22), 3625–3636 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

M. Nagel, A. Michalski, T. Botzem, and H. Kurz, “Near-field investigation of THz surface-wave emission from optically excited graphite flakes,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4667–4672 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-5-4667 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, M. Nagel, H. K. Rasmussen, O. Bang, T. M. Monro, and D. Abbott, “Direct probing of evanescent field for characterization of porous terahertz fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. Wächter, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Tapered photoconductive terahertz field probe tip with subwavelength spatial resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Zschech, R. Huebner, D. Chumakov, O. Aubel, D. Friedrich, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, and G. Schneider, “Stress-induced phenomena in nanosized copper interconnect structures studied by x-ray and electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

E. McGibney and J. Barrett, “An overview of electrical characterization techniques and theory for IC packages and interconnects,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 29(1), 131–139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M.-K. Chen, C.-C. Tai, and Y.-J. Huang, “Nondestructive analysis of interconnection in two-die BGA using TDR,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(2), 400–405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

M. Nagel, F. Richter, P. Haring-Bolívar, and H. Kurz, “A functionalized THz sensor for marker-free DNA analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(22), 3625–3636 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

B. T. Rosner and D. W. van der Weide, “High-frequency near-field microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(7), 2505–2525 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. Nagel, T. Dekorsy, M. Brucherseifer, P. Haring-Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Characterization of polypropylene thin-film microstrip lines at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 29(2), 97–100 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Nagatsuma, M. Shinagawa, N. Sabri, A. Sasaki, Y. Royter, and A. Hirata, “1.55-μm photonic systems for microwave and millimeter-wave measurement,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1831–1839 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

G. Harsányi, J. E. Semmens, and S. R. Martell, “A new application of acoustic micro imaging: screening MCM-C multilayer defects,” Microelectron. Reliab. 40(3), 477–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

T. Pfeifer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Löffler, C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, “Optoelectronic on-chip characterization of ultrafast electric devices: measurement techniques and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 586–604 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, “Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at low-temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(25), 3276–3278 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

K. J. Weingarten, M. J. W. Rodwel, and D. M. Bloom, “Picosecond optical-sampling of GaAs integrated-circuits,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 198–220 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. A. Valdmanis and G. Mourou, “Subpicosecond electrooptic sampling: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 69–78 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

D. H. Auston, “Picosecond optoelectronic switching and gating in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26(3), 101 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, D.

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, M. Nagel, H. K. Rasmussen, O. Bang, T. M. Monro, and D. Abbott, “Direct probing of evanescent field for characterization of porous terahertz fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Afshar V, S.

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, M. Nagel, H. K. Rasmussen, O. Bang, T. M. Monro, and D. Abbott, “Direct probing of evanescent field for characterization of porous terahertz fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Atakaramians, S.

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, M. Nagel, H. K. Rasmussen, O. Bang, T. M. Monro, and D. Abbott, “Direct probing of evanescent field for characterization of porous terahertz fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aubel, O.

E. Zschech, R. Huebner, D. Chumakov, O. Aubel, D. Friedrich, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, and G. Schneider, “Stress-induced phenomena in nanosized copper interconnect structures studied by x-ray and electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

D. H. Auston, “Picosecond optoelectronic switching and gating in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26(3), 101 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, M. Nagel, H. K. Rasmussen, O. Bang, T. M. Monro, and D. Abbott, “Direct probing of evanescent field for characterization of porous terahertz fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, J.

E. McGibney and J. Barrett, “An overview of electrical characterization techniques and theory for IC packages and interconnects,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 29(1), 131–139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bloom, D. M.

K. J. Weingarten, M. J. W. Rodwel, and D. M. Bloom, “Picosecond optical-sampling of GaAs integrated-circuits,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 198–220 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bolten, J.

M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Botzem, T.

Brucherseifer, M.

M. Nagel, T. Dekorsy, M. Brucherseifer, P. Haring-Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Characterization of polypropylene thin-film microstrip lines at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 29(2), 97–100 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Calawa, A. R.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, “Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at low-temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(25), 3276–3278 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.-K.

M.-K. Chen, C.-C. Tai, and Y.-J. Huang, “Nondestructive analysis of interconnection in two-die BGA using TDR,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(2), 400–405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chumakov, D.

E. Zschech, R. Huebner, D. Chumakov, O. Aubel, D. Friedrich, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, and G. Schneider, “Stress-induced phenomena in nanosized copper interconnect structures studied by x-ray and electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dekorsy, T.

M. Nagel, T. Dekorsy, M. Brucherseifer, P. Haring-Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Characterization of polypropylene thin-film microstrip lines at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 29(2), 97–100 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Frankel, M. Y.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, “Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at low-temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(25), 3276–3278 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, D.

E. Zschech, R. Huebner, D. Chumakov, O. Aubel, D. Friedrich, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, and G. Schneider, “Stress-induced phenomena in nanosized copper interconnect structures studied by x-ray and electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, “Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at low-temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(25), 3276–3278 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Guttmann, P.

E. Zschech, R. Huebner, D. Chumakov, O. Aubel, D. Friedrich, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, and G. Schneider, “Stress-induced phenomena in nanosized copper interconnect structures studied by x-ray and electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haring-Bolivar, P.

M. Nagel, T. Dekorsy, M. Brucherseifer, P. Haring-Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Characterization of polypropylene thin-film microstrip lines at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 29(2), 97–100 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haring-Bolívar, P.

M. Nagel, F. Richter, P. Haring-Bolívar, and H. Kurz, “A functionalized THz sensor for marker-free DNA analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(22), 3625–3636 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harsányi, G.

G. Harsányi, J. E. Semmens, and S. R. Martell, “A new application of acoustic micro imaging: screening MCM-C multilayer defects,” Microelectron. Reliab. 40(3), 477–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heiliger, H.-M.

T. Pfeifer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Löffler, C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, “Optoelectronic on-chip characterization of ultrafast electric devices: measurement techniques and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 586–604 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heim, S.

E. Zschech, R. Huebner, D. Chumakov, O. Aubel, D. Friedrich, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, and G. Schneider, “Stress-induced phenomena in nanosized copper interconnect structures studied by x-ray and electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hirata, A.

T. Nagatsuma, M. Shinagawa, N. Sabri, A. Sasaki, Y. Royter, and A. Hirata, “1.55-μm photonic systems for microwave and millimeter-wave measurement,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1831–1839 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.-J.

M.-K. Chen, C.-C. Tai, and Y.-J. Huang, “Nondestructive analysis of interconnection in two-die BGA using TDR,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(2), 400–405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huebner, R.

E. Zschech, R. Huebner, D. Chumakov, O. Aubel, D. Friedrich, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, and G. Schneider, “Stress-induced phenomena in nanosized copper interconnect structures studied by x-ray and electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

M. Nagel, A. Michalski, T. Botzem, and H. Kurz, “Near-field investigation of THz surface-wave emission from optically excited graphite flakes,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4667–4672 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-5-4667 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Wächter, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Tapered photoconductive terahertz field probe tip with subwavelength spatial resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Wächter, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Frequency-dependent characterization of THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on single-wires,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10815–10822 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-26-10815 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nagel, F. Richter, P. Haring-Bolívar, and H. Kurz, “A functionalized THz sensor for marker-free DNA analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(22), 3625–3636 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nagel, T. Dekorsy, M. Brucherseifer, P. Haring-Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Characterization of polypropylene thin-film microstrip lines at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 29(2), 97–100 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfeifer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Löffler, C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, “Optoelectronic on-chip characterization of ultrafast electric devices: measurement techniques and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 586–604 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, T.

T. Pfeifer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Löffler, C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, “Optoelectronic on-chip characterization of ultrafast electric devices: measurement techniques and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 586–604 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lüpke, G.

T. Pfeifer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Löffler, C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, “Optoelectronic on-chip characterization of ultrafast electric devices: measurement techniques and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 586–604 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Martell, S. R.

G. Harsányi, J. E. Semmens, and S. R. Martell, “A new application of acoustic micro imaging: screening MCM-C multilayer defects,” Microelectron. Reliab. 40(3), 477–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matheisen, C.

M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McGibney, E.

E. McGibney and J. Barrett, “An overview of electrical characterization techniques and theory for IC packages and interconnects,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 29(1), 131–139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, C.

T. Pfeifer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Löffler, C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, “Optoelectronic on-chip characterization of ultrafast electric devices: measurement techniques and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 586–604 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Michalski, A.

Monro, T. M.

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, M. Nagel, H. K. Rasmussen, O. Bang, T. M. Monro, and D. Abbott, “Direct probing of evanescent field for characterization of porous terahertz fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

J. A. Valdmanis and G. Mourou, “Subpicosecond electrooptic sampling: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 69–78 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G. A.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, “Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at low-temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(25), 3276–3278 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nagatsuma, T.

T. Nagatsuma, M. Shinagawa, N. Sabri, A. Sasaki, Y. Royter, and A. Hirata, “1.55-μm photonic systems for microwave and millimeter-wave measurement,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1831–1839 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, M.

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, M. Nagel, H. K. Rasmussen, O. Bang, T. M. Monro, and D. Abbott, “Direct probing of evanescent field for characterization of porous terahertz fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagel, A. Michalski, T. Botzem, and H. Kurz, “Near-field investigation of THz surface-wave emission from optically excited graphite flakes,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4667–4672 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-5-4667 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Wächter, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Tapered photoconductive terahertz field probe tip with subwavelength spatial resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Wächter, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Frequency-dependent characterization of THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on single-wires,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10815–10822 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-26-10815 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nagel, F. Richter, P. Haring-Bolívar, and H. Kurz, “A functionalized THz sensor for marker-free DNA analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(22), 3625–3636 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nagel, T. Dekorsy, M. Brucherseifer, P. Haring-Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Characterization of polypropylene thin-film microstrip lines at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 29(2), 97–100 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ohlhoff, C.

T. Pfeifer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Löffler, C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, “Optoelectronic on-chip characterization of ultrafast electric devices: measurement techniques and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 586–604 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, T.

T. Pfeifer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Löffler, C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, “Optoelectronic on-chip characterization of ultrafast electric devices: measurement techniques and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 586–604 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, H. K.

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, M. Nagel, H. K. Rasmussen, O. Bang, T. M. Monro, and D. Abbott, “Direct probing of evanescent field for characterization of porous terahertz fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Richter, F.

M. Nagel, F. Richter, P. Haring-Bolívar, and H. Kurz, “A functionalized THz sensor for marker-free DNA analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(22), 3625–3636 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodwel, M. J. W.

K. J. Weingarten, M. J. W. Rodwel, and D. M. Bloom, “Picosecond optical-sampling of GaAs integrated-circuits,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 198–220 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

T. Pfeifer, H.-M. Heiliger, T. Löffler, C. Ohlhoff, C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, “Optoelectronic on-chip characterization of ultrafast electric devices: measurement techniques and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 586–604 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rosner, B. T.

B. T. Rosner and D. W. van der Weide, “High-frequency near-field microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(7), 2505–2525 (2002).
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T. Nagatsuma, M. Shinagawa, N. Sabri, A. Sasaki, Y. Royter, and A. Hirata, “1.55-μm photonic systems for microwave and millimeter-wave measurement,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1831–1839 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sabri, N.

T. Nagatsuma, M. Shinagawa, N. Sabri, A. Sasaki, Y. Royter, and A. Hirata, “1.55-μm photonic systems for microwave and millimeter-wave measurement,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1831–1839 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, A.

T. Nagatsuma, M. Shinagawa, N. Sabri, A. Sasaki, Y. Royter, and A. Hirata, “1.55-μm photonic systems for microwave and millimeter-wave measurement,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1831–1839 (2001).
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E. Zschech, R. Huebner, D. Chumakov, O. Aubel, D. Friedrich, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, and G. Schneider, “Stress-induced phenomena in nanosized copper interconnect structures studied by x-ray and electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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G. Harsányi, J. E. Semmens, and S. R. Martell, “A new application of acoustic micro imaging: screening MCM-C multilayer defects,” Microelectron. Reliab. 40(3), 477–484 (2000).
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T. Nagatsuma, M. Shinagawa, N. Sabri, A. Sasaki, Y. Royter, and A. Hirata, “1.55-μm photonic systems for microwave and millimeter-wave measurement,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1831–1839 (2001).
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S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, “Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at low-temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(25), 3276–3278 (1991).
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B. T. Rosner and D. W. van der Weide, “High-frequency near-field microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(7), 2505–2525 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161107 (2010).
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M. Wächter, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Tapered photoconductive terahertz field probe tip with subwavelength spatial resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041112 (2009).
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M. Wächter, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Frequency-dependent characterization of THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on single-wires,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10815–10822 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-26-10815 .
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M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161107 (2010).
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M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161107 (2010).
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S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, “Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at low-temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(25), 3276–3278 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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E. Zschech, R. Huebner, D. Chumakov, O. Aubel, D. Friedrich, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, and G. Schneider, “Stress-induced phenomena in nanosized copper interconnect structures studied by x-ray and electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093711 (2009).
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S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, M. Nagel, H. K. Rasmussen, O. Bang, T. M. Monro, and D. Abbott, “Direct probing of evanescent field for characterization of porous terahertz fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121104 (2011).
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S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, “Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at low-temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(25), 3276–3278 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Wächter, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Tapered photoconductive terahertz field probe tip with subwavelength spatial resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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J. A. Valdmanis and G. Mourou, “Subpicosecond electrooptic sampling: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 69–78 (1986).
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M.-K. Chen, C.-C. Tai, and Y.-J. Huang, “Nondestructive analysis of interconnection in two-die BGA using TDR,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(2), 400–405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

T. Nagatsuma, M. Shinagawa, N. Sabri, A. Sasaki, Y. Royter, and A. Hirata, “1.55-μm photonic systems for microwave and millimeter-wave measurement,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1831–1839 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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E. Zschech, R. Huebner, D. Chumakov, O. Aubel, D. Friedrich, P. Guttmann, S. Heim, and G. Schneider, “Stress-induced phenomena in nanosized copper interconnect structures studied by x-ray and electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093711 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Reliab. (1)

G. Harsányi, J. E. Semmens, and S. R. Martell, “A new application of acoustic micro imaging: screening MCM-C multilayer defects,” Microelectron. Reliab. 40(3), 477–484 (2000).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Minimum distance dmin between neighboring resolvable discontinuities vs. signal rise time τrise.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of the applied optical pump/probe set-up for terahertz time-domain measurements. (b) SEM picture of the tip region of the used probe-tips. (c) Detailed to scale model of the applied probe configuration and orientation used for the measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured time-domain signal for a vertical probe-tip to sample distance of 10 µm. The detection tip is placed in a distance of 2.9 mm from the open-end of the waveguide. (b) Time-domain data of the incoming and (c) the reflected pulse peaks measured at different probe-to-discontinuity distances ddo as listed. (d) Measured time-position of the reflected signal against waveguide shift from the open-end discontinuity. Fitting against a linear evolution reveals a location accuracy of ± 0.55 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spatial resolved signal mappings at different time-delays showing the propagation of the pulse reflection from the open-end of the TFMS line (x/y-axis alignment as shown in Fig. 2).

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