Abstract

A simple technique for transverse mode selection in a large-mode-area (multimode) fiber laser is described. The technique exploits the different spectral responses of feedback elements based on a fiber Bragg grating and a volume Bragg grating to achieve wavelength-dependent mode filtering. This approach has been applied to a cladding-pumped thulium-doped fiber laser with a multimode core to achieve a single-spatial-mode output beam with a beam propagation factor (M2) of 1.05 at 1923 nm. Without mode selection the free-running fiber laser has a multimode output beam with an M2 parameter of 3.3. Selective excitation of higher order modes is also possible via the technique and preliminary results for laser oscillation on the LP11 mode are also discussed along with the prospects for scaling to higher power levels.

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References

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2009

J. R. Marciante, “Gain filtering for single-spatial-mode operation of large-mode-area fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 30–36 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

L. Dong, X. Peng, and J. Li, “Leakage channel optical fibers with large effective area,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24(8), 1689–1690 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, A. Galvanauskas, D. Guertin, N. Jabobson, and K. Tankala, “Effectively single-mode chirally-coupled core fiber,” ASSP 2007, 1–3 (2007).

M. Gong, Y. Yuan, C. Li, P. Yan, H. Zhang, and S. Liao, “Numerical modeling of transverse mode competition in strongly pumped multimode fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3236–3246 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wielandy, A. D. Yablon, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Implications of higher-order mode content in large mode area fibers with good beam quality,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15402–15409 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, U. Manyam, A. Sanchez, M.-Y. Chen, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206, 610206-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2000

1998

M. E. Fermann, “Single-mode excitation of multimode fibers with ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23(1), 52–54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, and P. St. J. Russell, “Large mode area photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Photon. News 9(12), 34–35 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Othonos, “Fiber Bragg gratings,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(12), 4309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, and P. St. J. Russell, “Large mode area photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Photon. News 9(12), 34–35 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carter, A.

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, U. Manyam, A. Sanchez, M.-Y. Chen, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206, 610206-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G.

C. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, A. Galvanauskas, D. Guertin, N. Jabobson, and K. Tankala, “Effectively single-mode chirally-coupled core fiber,” ASSP 2007, 1–3 (2007).

Chen, M.-Y.

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, U. Manyam, A. Sanchez, M.-Y. Chen, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206, 610206-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, U. Manyam, A. Sanchez, M.-Y. Chen, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206, 610206-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cregan, R. F.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, and P. St. J. Russell, “Large mode area photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Photon. News 9(12), 34–35 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

L. Dong, X. Peng, and J. Li, “Leakage channel optical fibers with large effective area,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24(8), 1689–1690 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Farroni, J.

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, U. Manyam, A. Sanchez, M.-Y. Chen, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206, 610206-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fermann, M. E.

Galvanauskas, A.

C. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, A. Galvanauskas, D. Guertin, N. Jabobson, and K. Tankala, “Effectively single-mode chirally-coupled core fiber,” ASSP 2007, 1–3 (2007).

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, U. Manyam, A. Sanchez, M.-Y. Chen, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206, 610206-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ghalmi, S.

Goldberg, L.

Gong, M.

Guertin, D.

C. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, A. Galvanauskas, D. Guertin, N. Jabobson, and K. Tankala, “Effectively single-mode chirally-coupled core fiber,” ASSP 2007, 1–3 (2007).

Jabobson, N.

C. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, A. Galvanauskas, D. Guertin, N. Jabobson, and K. Tankala, “Effectively single-mode chirally-coupled core fiber,” ASSP 2007, 1–3 (2007).

Jacobson, N.

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, U. Manyam, A. Sanchez, M.-Y. Chen, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206, 610206-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsson, B.

Kliner, D. A.

Knight, J. C.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, and P. St. J. Russell, “Large mode area photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Photon. News 9(12), 34–35 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koplow, J. P.

Laurell, F.

Li, C.

Li, J.

L. Dong, X. Peng, and J. Li, “Leakage channel optical fibers with large effective area,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24(8), 1689–1690 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, S.

Litchinitser, N.

C. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, A. Galvanauskas, D. Guertin, N. Jabobson, and K. Tankala, “Effectively single-mode chirally-coupled core fiber,” ASSP 2007, 1–3 (2007).

Liu, C.

C. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, A. Galvanauskas, D. Guertin, N. Jabobson, and K. Tankala, “Effectively single-mode chirally-coupled core fiber,” ASSP 2007, 1–3 (2007).

Machewirth, D.

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, U. Manyam, A. Sanchez, M.-Y. Chen, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206, 610206-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Manyam, U.

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, U. Manyam, A. Sanchez, M.-Y. Chen, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206, 610206-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marciante, J. R.

J. R. Marciante, “Gain filtering for single-spatial-mode operation of large-mode-area fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 30–36 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Othonos, A.

A. Othonos, “Fiber Bragg gratings,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(12), 4309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pasiskevicius, V.

Peng, X.

L. Dong, X. Peng, and J. Li, “Leakage channel optical fibers with large effective area,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24(8), 1689–1690 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ramachandran, S.

Russell, P. St. J.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, and P. St. J. Russell, “Large mode area photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Photon. News 9(12), 34–35 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Samson, B.

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, U. Manyam, A. Sanchez, M.-Y. Chen, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206, 610206-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, A.

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, U. Manyam, A. Sanchez, M.-Y. Chen, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206, 610206-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tankala, K.

C. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, A. Galvanauskas, D. Guertin, N. Jabobson, and K. Tankala, “Effectively single-mode chirally-coupled core fiber,” ASSP 2007, 1–3 (2007).

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, U. Manyam, A. Sanchez, M.-Y. Chen, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206, 610206-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tiihonen, M.

Torruellas, W.

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, U. Manyam, A. Sanchez, M.-Y. Chen, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206, 610206-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wielandy, S.

Yablon, A. D.

Yan, P.

Yuan, Y.

Zhang, H.

ASSP

C. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, A. Galvanauskas, D. Guertin, N. Jabobson, and K. Tankala, “Effectively single-mode chirally-coupled core fiber,” ASSP 2007, 1–3 (2007).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. R. Marciante, “Gain filtering for single-spatial-mode operation of large-mode-area fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 30–36 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

L. Dong, X. Peng, and J. Li, “Leakage channel optical fibers with large effective area,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24(8), 1689–1690 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Photon. News

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, and P. St. J. Russell, “Large mode area photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Photon. News 9(12), 34–35 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, U. Manyam, A. Sanchez, M.-Y. Chen, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206, 610206-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

A. Othonos, “Fiber Bragg gratings,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(12), 4309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental layout of cladding-pumped Tm-doped fiber laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated reflectivity spectrum for fiber Bragg grating written in multimode Tm-doped fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output beam profile for: (a) Free running operation. (b) VBG tuned to 1923 nm to excite the LP01 mode. (c) VBG tuned to 1919 nm to excite the LP11 mode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Laser output power versus launched pump power for LP01 and LP11 mode operation.

Equations (3)

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λ F B G = 2 n e f f Λ 1
λ V B G = 2 n V B G Λ 2 cos ( θ )
Λ 2 cos ( θ ) = n e f f Λ F B G n V B G

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