Abstract

We proposed and demonstrate an all-optical demodulation and format conversion scheme for multi-channel (carrier suppressed) return-to-zero differential phase shift keying ((CS)RZ-DPSK) signals. By utilizing a single delay interferometer (DI) with half bit delay, multi-channel (CS)RZ-DPSK signals can be demodulated simultaneously at the destructive port of the DI, with the corresponding converted nonreturn-to-zero differential phase shift keying (NRZ-DPSK) signals obtained at the constructive port. The proposed multi-channel operation has been demonstrated for 6*20 Gb/s RZ-DPSK and 6*40 Gb/s CSRZ-DPSK signals, with ~0.8 and 1.2 dB average power penalties for the format conversions respectively.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. G. Rouskas and H. Perros, “A tutorial on optical networks,” in Advanced Lectures on Networking, E. Gregori, G. Anastasi, and S. Basagni, eds. (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2002), pp. 496–500.
  2. Y. Yu, X. Zhang, D. Huang, L. Li, and W. Fu, “20-Gb/s all-optical format conversions from RZ signals with different duty cycles to NRZ signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(14), 1027–1029 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Banchi, M. Presi, A. D'Errico, G. Contestabile, and E. Ciaramella, “All-optical 10 and 40 Gbit/s RZ-to-NRZ format and wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(1), 32–38 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Ye, C. Yan, Y. Lu, F. Liu, and Y. Su, “All-optical regenerative NRZ-to-RZ format conversion using coupled ring-resonator optical waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15325–15331 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Xu, B. C. Wang, V. Baby, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, “All-optical data format conversion between RZ and NRZ based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometric wavelength converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 308–310 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Wang, Y. Dai, G. Lei, J. Du, and C. Shu, “All-optical RZ-to-NRZ and NRZ-to-PRZ format conversions based on delay-asymmetric nonlinear loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 368–370 (2011).
  7. A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, “Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 115–130 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Astar, C. C. Wei, Y. J. Chen, J. Chen, and G. M. Carter, “Polarization-insensitive, 40 Gb/s wavelength and RZ-OOK-to-RZ-BPSK modulation format conversion by XPM in a highly nonlinear PCF,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12039–12049 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. Hong, D. Huang, X. Zhang, and G. Zhu, “Simulation and analysis of OOK-to-BPSK format conversion based on gain-transparent SOA used as optical phase-modulator,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18357–18369 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Jiang, H. Wen, L. Han, Y. Guo, and H. Zhang, “All-optical NRZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion in an SOA-based Nonlinear polarization switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1985–1987 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, D. Liu, and D. Huang, “Proposal and simulation for all-optical format conversion between differential phase-shift keying signals based on cascaded second-order nonlinearities,” Opt. Commun. 281(19), 5019–5024 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Wu, S Fu, J. Wu, P. Shum, K. Xu, X Hong, and J. Lin and N. QNgo, “40 Gb/s multifunction optical format conversion module with wavelength multicast capability using nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(20), 4446–4454 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Ding, C. Peucheret, M. Pu, B. Zsigri, J. Seoane, L. Liu, J. Xu, H. Ou, X. Zhang, and D. Huang, “Multi-channel WDM RZ-to-NRZ format conversion at 50 Gbit/s based on single silicon microring resonator,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21121–21130 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Yu, X. Zhang, J. B. Rosas-Fernández, D. Huang, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Single SOA based 16 DWDM channels all-optical NRZ-to-RZ format conversions with different duty cycles,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16166–16171 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Nguyen Tan, M. Matsuura, T. Katafuchi, and N. Kishi, “Multiple-channel optical signal processing with wavelength-waveform conversions, pulsewidth tunability, and signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22960–22973 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Contestabile, R. Proietti, N. Calabretta, M. Presi, A. D'Errico, and E. Ciaramella, “Simultaneous Demodulation and clock-recovery of 40-Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signals using a multiwavelength Gaussian filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 791–793 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. P. Fok and C. Shu, “Multipump four-wave mixing in a photonic crystal fiber for 6*10 Gb/s wavelength multicasting of DPSK Signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1166–1168 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Ding, J. Xu, C. Peucheret, M. Pu, L. Liu, J. Seoane, H. Ou, X. Zhang, and D. Huang, “Multi-channel 40 Gbit/s NRZ-DPSK demodulation using a single silicon microring resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(5), 677–684 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

L. Wang, Y. Dai, G. Lei, J. Du, and C. Shu, “All-optical RZ-to-NRZ and NRZ-to-PRZ format conversions based on delay-asymmetric nonlinear loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 368–370 (2011).

Y. Ding, J. Xu, C. Peucheret, M. Pu, L. Liu, J. Seoane, H. Ou, X. Zhang, and D. Huang, “Multi-channel 40 Gbit/s NRZ-DPSK demodulation using a single silicon microring resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(5), 677–684 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

2008 (5)

W. Astar, C. C. Wei, Y. J. Chen, J. Chen, and G. M. Carter, “Polarization-insensitive, 40 Gb/s wavelength and RZ-OOK-to-RZ-BPSK modulation format conversion by XPM in a highly nonlinear PCF,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12039–12049 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ye, C. Yan, Y. Lu, F. Liu, and Y. Su, “All-optical regenerative NRZ-to-RZ format conversion using coupled ring-resonator optical waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15325–15331 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, X. Zhang, J. B. Rosas-Fernández, D. Huang, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Single SOA based 16 DWDM channels all-optical NRZ-to-RZ format conversions with different duty cycles,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16166–16171 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, D. Liu, and D. Huang, “Proposal and simulation for all-optical format conversion between differential phase-shift keying signals based on cascaded second-order nonlinearities,” Opt. Commun. 281(19), 5019–5024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Contestabile, R. Proietti, N. Calabretta, M. Presi, A. D'Errico, and E. Ciaramella, “Simultaneous Demodulation and clock-recovery of 40-Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signals using a multiwavelength Gaussian filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 791–793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

M. P. Fok and C. Shu, “Multipump four-wave mixing in a photonic crystal fiber for 6*10 Gb/s wavelength multicasting of DPSK Signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1166–1168 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yu, X. Zhang, D. Huang, L. Li, and W. Fu, “20-Gb/s all-optical format conversions from RZ signals with different duty cycles to NRZ signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(14), 1027–1029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, H. Wen, L. Han, Y. Guo, and H. Zhang, “All-optical NRZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion in an SOA-based Nonlinear polarization switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1985–1987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Hong, D. Huang, X. Zhang, and G. Zhu, “Simulation and analysis of OOK-to-BPSK format conversion based on gain-transparent SOA used as optical phase-modulator,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18357–18369 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

L. Xu, B. C. Wang, V. Baby, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, “All-optical data format conversion between RZ and NRZ based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometric wavelength converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 308–310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Astar, W.

Baby, V.

L. Xu, B. C. Wang, V. Baby, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, “All-optical data format conversion between RZ and NRZ based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometric wavelength converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 308–310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Banchi, L.

Calabretta, N.

G. Contestabile, R. Proietti, N. Calabretta, M. Presi, A. D'Errico, and E. Ciaramella, “Simultaneous Demodulation and clock-recovery of 40-Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signals using a multiwavelength Gaussian filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 791–793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carter, G. M.

Chen, J.

Chen, Y. J.

Ciaramella, E.

L. Banchi, M. Presi, A. D'Errico, G. Contestabile, and E. Ciaramella, “All-optical 10 and 40 Gbit/s RZ-to-NRZ format and wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(1), 32–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Contestabile, R. Proietti, N. Calabretta, M. Presi, A. D'Errico, and E. Ciaramella, “Simultaneous Demodulation and clock-recovery of 40-Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signals using a multiwavelength Gaussian filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 791–793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Contestabile, G.

L. Banchi, M. Presi, A. D'Errico, G. Contestabile, and E. Ciaramella, “All-optical 10 and 40 Gbit/s RZ-to-NRZ format and wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(1), 32–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Contestabile, R. Proietti, N. Calabretta, M. Presi, A. D'Errico, and E. Ciaramella, “Simultaneous Demodulation and clock-recovery of 40-Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signals using a multiwavelength Gaussian filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 791–793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y.

L. Wang, Y. Dai, G. Lei, J. Du, and C. Shu, “All-optical RZ-to-NRZ and NRZ-to-PRZ format conversions based on delay-asymmetric nonlinear loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 368–370 (2011).

D'Errico, A.

L. Banchi, M. Presi, A. D'Errico, G. Contestabile, and E. Ciaramella, “All-optical 10 and 40 Gbit/s RZ-to-NRZ format and wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(1), 32–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Contestabile, R. Proietti, N. Calabretta, M. Presi, A. D'Errico, and E. Ciaramella, “Simultaneous Demodulation and clock-recovery of 40-Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signals using a multiwavelength Gaussian filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 791–793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y.

Du, J.

L. Wang, Y. Dai, G. Lei, J. Du, and C. Shu, “All-optical RZ-to-NRZ and NRZ-to-PRZ format conversions based on delay-asymmetric nonlinear loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 368–370 (2011).

Fok, M. P.

M. P. Fok and C. Shu, “Multipump four-wave mixing in a photonic crystal fiber for 6*10 Gb/s wavelength multicasting of DPSK Signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1166–1168 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fu, S

Fu, W.

Y. Yu, X. Zhang, D. Huang, L. Li, and W. Fu, “20-Gb/s all-optical format conversions from RZ signals with different duty cycles to NRZ signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(14), 1027–1029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Glesk, I.

L. Xu, B. C. Wang, V. Baby, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, “All-optical data format conversion between RZ and NRZ based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometric wavelength converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 308–310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

Guo, Y.

H. Jiang, H. Wen, L. Han, Y. Guo, and H. Zhang, “All-optical NRZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion in an SOA-based Nonlinear polarization switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1985–1987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, L.

H. Jiang, H. Wen, L. Han, Y. Guo, and H. Zhang, “All-optical NRZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion in an SOA-based Nonlinear polarization switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1985–1987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hong, W.

Hong, X

Huang, D.

Jiang, H.

H. Jiang, H. Wen, L. Han, Y. Guo, and H. Zhang, “All-optical NRZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion in an SOA-based Nonlinear polarization switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1985–1987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Katafuchi, T.

Kishi, N.

Lei, G.

L. Wang, Y. Dai, G. Lei, J. Du, and C. Shu, “All-optical RZ-to-NRZ and NRZ-to-PRZ format conversions based on delay-asymmetric nonlinear loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 368–370 (2011).

Li, L.

Y. Yu, X. Zhang, D. Huang, L. Li, and W. Fu, “20-Gb/s all-optical format conversions from RZ signals with different duty cycles to NRZ signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(14), 1027–1029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

Liu, D.

J. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, D. Liu, and D. Huang, “Proposal and simulation for all-optical format conversion between differential phase-shift keying signals based on cascaded second-order nonlinearities,” Opt. Commun. 281(19), 5019–5024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

Liu, L.

Lu, Y.

Matsuura, M.

Ngo,

Nguyen Tan, H.

Ou, H.

Penty, R. V.

Peucheret, C.

Presi, M.

L. Banchi, M. Presi, A. D'Errico, G. Contestabile, and E. Ciaramella, “All-optical 10 and 40 Gbit/s RZ-to-NRZ format and wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(1), 32–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Contestabile, R. Proietti, N. Calabretta, M. Presi, A. D'Errico, and E. Ciaramella, “Simultaneous Demodulation and clock-recovery of 40-Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signals using a multiwavelength Gaussian filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 791–793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proietti, R.

G. Contestabile, R. Proietti, N. Calabretta, M. Presi, A. D'Errico, and E. Ciaramella, “Simultaneous Demodulation and clock-recovery of 40-Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signals using a multiwavelength Gaussian filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 791–793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prucnal, P. R.

L. Xu, B. C. Wang, V. Baby, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, “All-optical data format conversion between RZ and NRZ based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometric wavelength converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 308–310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pu, M.

Rosas-Fernández, J. B.

Seoane, J.

Shu, C.

L. Wang, Y. Dai, G. Lei, J. Du, and C. Shu, “All-optical RZ-to-NRZ and NRZ-to-PRZ format conversions based on delay-asymmetric nonlinear loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 368–370 (2011).

M. P. Fok and C. Shu, “Multipump four-wave mixing in a photonic crystal fiber for 6*10 Gb/s wavelength multicasting of DPSK Signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1166–1168 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

Su, Y.

Sun, J.

J. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, D. Liu, and D. Huang, “Proposal and simulation for all-optical format conversion between differential phase-shift keying signals based on cascaded second-order nonlinearities,” Opt. Commun. 281(19), 5019–5024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B. C.

L. Xu, B. C. Wang, V. Baby, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, “All-optical data format conversion between RZ and NRZ based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometric wavelength converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 308–310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, D. Liu, and D. Huang, “Proposal and simulation for all-optical format conversion between differential phase-shift keying signals based on cascaded second-order nonlinearities,” Opt. Commun. 281(19), 5019–5024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, Y. Dai, G. Lei, J. Du, and C. Shu, “All-optical RZ-to-NRZ and NRZ-to-PRZ format conversions based on delay-asymmetric nonlinear loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 368–370 (2011).

Wei, C. C.

Wen, H.

H. Jiang, H. Wen, L. Han, Y. Guo, and H. Zhang, “All-optical NRZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion in an SOA-based Nonlinear polarization switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1985–1987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

White, I. H.

Winzer, P. J.

Wu, B.

Wu, J.

Xu, J.

Xu, K.

Xu, L.

L. Xu, B. C. Wang, V. Baby, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, “All-optical data format conversion between RZ and NRZ based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometric wavelength converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 308–310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yan, C.

Ye, T.

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, X. Zhang, J. B. Rosas-Fernández, D. Huang, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Single SOA based 16 DWDM channels all-optical NRZ-to-RZ format conversions with different duty cycles,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16166–16171 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, X. Zhang, D. Huang, L. Li, and W. Fu, “20-Gb/s all-optical format conversions from RZ signals with different duty cycles to NRZ signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(14), 1027–1029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

H. Jiang, H. Wen, L. Han, Y. Guo, and H. Zhang, “All-optical NRZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion in an SOA-based Nonlinear polarization switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1985–1987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Zhu, G.

Zsigri, B.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

L. Xu, B. C. Wang, V. Baby, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, “All-optical data format conversion between RZ and NRZ based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometric wavelength converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 308–310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, Y. Dai, G. Lei, J. Du, and C. Shu, “All-optical RZ-to-NRZ and NRZ-to-PRZ format conversions based on delay-asymmetric nonlinear loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 368–370 (2011).

Y. Yu, X. Zhang, D. Huang, L. Li, and W. Fu, “20-Gb/s all-optical format conversions from RZ signals with different duty cycles to NRZ signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(14), 1027–1029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, H. Wen, L. Han, Y. Guo, and H. Zhang, “All-optical NRZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion in an SOA-based Nonlinear polarization switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1985–1987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Contestabile, R. Proietti, N. Calabretta, M. Presi, A. D'Errico, and E. Ciaramella, “Simultaneous Demodulation and clock-recovery of 40-Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signals using a multiwavelength Gaussian filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 791–793 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Fok and C. Shu, “Multipump four-wave mixing in a photonic crystal fiber for 6*10 Gb/s wavelength multicasting of DPSK Signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1166–1168 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, D. Liu, and D. Huang, “Proposal and simulation for all-optical format conversion between differential phase-shift keying signals based on cascaded second-order nonlinearities,” Opt. Commun. 281(19), 5019–5024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Other (1)

G. Rouskas and H. Perros, “A tutorial on optical networks,” in Advanced Lectures on Networking, E. Gregori, G. Anastasi, and S. Basagni, eds. (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2002), pp. 496–500.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The operation principle for the format conversion.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured spectra and eye diagrams for 6-channel RZ-DPSK processing at 20 Gb/s. (a)-(c) Spectra of the original input 6 RZ-DPSK signals, the demodulated signals and the converted multi-channel NRZ-DPSK signals; (d) to (f) the eye diagrams of the Ch.1 RZ-DPSK, the demodulated AMI and the converted NRZ-DPSK signals; (g) to (i) the eye diagrams of the Ch.2 RZ-DPSK, the demodulated AMI and the converted NRZ-DPSK signals.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured spectra and eye diagrams for 6-channel CSRZ-DPSK processing at 40Gb/s. (a)–(c) The spectra of the original input 6 CSRZ-DPSK signals, the demodulated signals and the converted multi-channel NRZ-DPSK signals; (d) to (f) the eye diagrams of the Ch.2 CSRZ-DPSK, the demodulated AMI and the converted NRZ-DPSK signals; (g) to (i) the eye diagrams of the Ch.5 CSRZ-DPSK, the demodulated AMI and the converted NRZ-DPSK signals.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured power penalty in each channel for (a) multi-channel RZ-DPSK processing at 20 Gb/s and (b) multi-channel CSRZ-DPSK processing at 40 Gb/s. Measured average BER results for the (c) multi-channel RZ-DPSK processing at 20 Gb/s and (d) multi-channel CSRZ-DPSK processing at 40 Gb/s.

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