Abstract

We present a phase locking scheme that enables the demonstration of a practical dual pump degenerate phase sensitive amplifier for 10 Gbit/s non-return to zero amplitude shift keying signals. The scheme makes use of cascaded Mach Zehnder modulators for creating the pump frequencies as well as of injection locking for extracting the signal carrier and synchronizing the local lasers. An in depth optimization study has been performed, based on measured error rate performance, and the main degradation factors have been identified.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  16. A. Takada and W. Imajuku, “In-line phase-sensitive amplifier employing pump laser injection-locked to input signal light,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 274–275 (1998).
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  17. J. Pezeshki, M. Saylors, H. Mandelberg, and J. Goldhar, “Generation of a cw local oscillator signal using a stabilized injection locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(5), 588–599 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2011

A. S. Tistomo and S. Gee, “Laser frequency fixation by multimode optical injection locking,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1081–1090 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Ibrahim, S. Sygletos, R. Weerasuriya, and A. D. Ellis, “Novel real-time homodyne coherent receiver using a feed-forward based carrier extraction scheme for phase modulated signals,” Opt Express 19(9), 8320–8326 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, P.-C. Peng, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and G.-R. Lin, “Beyond-bandwidth electrical pulse modulation of a TO-Can packaged VCSEL for 10 Gbit/s injection locked NRZ-to-RZ transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 830–841 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chen, S. Matsuo, K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, H. Sumikura, and M. Notomi, “All-optical memory based on injection-locking bistability in photonic crystal lasers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3387–3395 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

J. Pezeshki, M. Saylors, H. Mandelberg, and J. Goldhar, “Generation of a cw local oscillator signal using a stabilized injection locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(5), 588–599 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Croussore and G. Li, ““Phase and amplitude regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals using phase-sensitive amplification,” IEEE J.Sel,” Top. Quanum. Electron. 14(3), 648–658 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. K. Lau, L. J. Wong, X. Zhao, Y.-K. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, “Bandwidth enhancement by master modulation of optical injection-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(15), 2584–2593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. Healy, F. C. Gunning, A. D. Ellis, and J. D. Bull, “Multi-wavelength source using low drive-voltage amplitude modulators for optical communicaions,” Opt Express 15(6), 2981–2986 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Kim and K. Croussore, “Xiaoxu Li, Guifang Li, “All-optical carrier synchronization using a phase sensitive oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(13), 987–989 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Bogris and D. Syvridis, “RZ-DPSK Signal Regeneration Based on Dual-Pump Phase-Sensitive Amplification in Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2144–2146 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

1999

A. C. Bordonalli, C. Walton, and A. J. Seeds, “High performance locking of wide linewidth semiconductor lasers by combined use of optical injection locking and optical-phase lock loop,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(2), 328–342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Imajuku and A. Takada, “In-line optical phase-sensitive amplifier with pump light source cotrolled by optical phase locked loop,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17(4), 637–646 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Takada and W. Imajuku, “In-line phase-sensitive amplifier employing pump laser injection-locked to input signal light,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 274–275 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991

O. Lidoyne, P. Gallion, and D. Erasme, “Analysis of a homodyne receiver using an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9(5), 659–665 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

J. M. Kahn, “1 Gbit/s PSK homodyne transmission system using phase locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1(10), 340–342 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985

C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, and N. K. Dutta, “Locking range and stability of injection locked 1.54um InGaAsP semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(8), 1152–1156 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982

C. M. Caves, “Quantum limits on noise in linear amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 26(8), 1817–1839 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Amann, A.

Andrekson, P. A.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bogris, A.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Bogris and D. Syvridis, “RZ-DPSK Signal Regeneration Based on Dual-Pump Phase-Sensitive Amplification in Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2144–2146 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bordonalli, A. C.

Buckley, K.

Bull, J. D.

T. Healy, F. C. Gunning, A. D. Ellis, and J. D. Bull, “Multi-wavelength source using low drive-voltage amplitude modulators for optical communicaions,” Opt Express 15(6), 2981–2986 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caves, C. M.

C. M. Caves, “Quantum limits on noise in linear amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 26(8), 1817–1839 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

C.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, P.-C. Peng, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and G.-R. Lin, “Beyond-bandwidth electrical pulse modulation of a TO-Can packaged VCSEL for 10 Gbit/s injection locked NRZ-to-RZ transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 830–841 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. K. Lau, L. J. Wong, X. Zhao, Y.-K. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, “Bandwidth enhancement by master modulation of optical injection-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(15), 2584–2593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-H.

Chen, Y.-K.

E. K. Lau, L. J. Wong, X. Zhao, Y.-K. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, “Bandwidth enhancement by master modulation of optical injection-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(15), 2584–2593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chi, Y.-C.

C.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, P.-C. Peng, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and G.-R. Lin, “Beyond-bandwidth electrical pulse modulation of a TO-Can packaged VCSEL for 10 Gbit/s injection locked NRZ-to-RZ transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 830–841 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Croussore, K.

K. Croussore and G. Li, ““Phase and amplitude regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals using phase-sensitive amplification,” IEEE J.Sel,” Top. Quanum. Electron. 14(3), 648–658 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Kim and K. Croussore, “Xiaoxu Li, Guifang Li, “All-optical carrier synchronization using a phase sensitive oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(13), 987–989 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dasgupta, S.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, N. K.

C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, and N. K. Dutta, “Locking range and stability of injection locked 1.54um InGaAsP semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(8), 1152–1156 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, A. D.

S. K. Ibrahim, S. Sygletos, R. Weerasuriya, and A. D. Ellis, “Novel real-time homodyne coherent receiver using a feed-forward based carrier extraction scheme for phase modulated signals,” Opt Express 19(9), 8320–8326 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Healy, F. C. Gunning, A. D. Ellis, and J. D. Bull, “Multi-wavelength source using low drive-voltage amplitude modulators for optical communicaions,” Opt Express 15(6), 2981–2986 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erasme, D.

O. Lidoyne, P. Gallion, and D. Erasme, “Analysis of a homodyne receiver using an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9(5), 659–665 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gallion, P.

O. Lidoyne, P. Gallion, and D. Erasme, “Analysis of a homodyne receiver using an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9(5), 659–665 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gee, S.

Goldhar, J.

J. Pezeshki, M. Saylors, H. Mandelberg, and J. Goldhar, “Generation of a cw local oscillator signal using a stabilized injection locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(5), 588–599 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gunning, F. C.

T. Healy, F. C. Gunning, A. D. Ellis, and J. D. Bull, “Multi-wavelength source using low drive-voltage amplitude modulators for optical communicaions,” Opt Express 15(6), 2981–2986 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Healy, T.

T. Healy, F. C. Gunning, A. D. Ellis, and J. D. Bull, “Multi-wavelength source using low drive-voltage amplitude modulators for optical communicaions,” Opt Express 15(6), 2981–2986 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, and N. K. Dutta, “Locking range and stability of injection locked 1.54um InGaAsP semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(8), 1152–1156 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Herstrøm, S.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ibrahim, S. K.

S. K. Ibrahim, S. Sygletos, R. Weerasuriya, and A. D. Ellis, “Novel real-time homodyne coherent receiver using a feed-forward based carrier extraction scheme for phase modulated signals,” Opt Express 19(9), 8320–8326 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imajuku, W.

W. Imajuku and A. Takada, “In-line optical phase-sensitive amplifier with pump light source cotrolled by optical phase locked loop,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17(4), 637–646 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Takada and W. Imajuku, “In-line phase-sensitive amplifier employing pump laser injection-locked to input signal light,” Electron. Lett. 34(3), 274–275 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jakobsen, D.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, J. M.

J. M. Kahn, “1 Gbit/s PSK homodyne transmission system using phase locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1(10), 340–342 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kakande, J.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, Y.

Kim, I.

I. Kim and K. Croussore, “Xiaoxu Li, Guifang Li, “All-optical carrier synchronization using a phase sensitive oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(13), 987–989 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H.-C.

C.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, P.-C. Peng, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and G.-R. Lin, “Beyond-bandwidth electrical pulse modulation of a TO-Can packaged VCSEL for 10 Gbit/s injection locked NRZ-to-RZ transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 830–841 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lau, E. K.

E. K. Lau, L. J. Wong, X. Zhao, Y.-K. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, “Bandwidth enhancement by master modulation of optical injection-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(15), 2584–2593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

K. Croussore and G. Li, ““Phase and amplitude regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals using phase-sensitive amplification,” IEEE J.Sel,” Top. Quanum. Electron. 14(3), 648–658 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lidoyne, O.

O. Lidoyne, P. Gallion, and D. Erasme, “Analysis of a homodyne receiver using an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9(5), 659–665 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-C.

C.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, P.-C. Peng, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and G.-R. Lin, “Beyond-bandwidth electrical pulse modulation of a TO-Can packaged VCSEL for 10 Gbit/s injection locked NRZ-to-RZ transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 830–841 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G.-R.

C.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, P.-C. Peng, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and G.-R. Lin, “Beyond-bandwidth electrical pulse modulation of a TO-Can packaged VCSEL for 10 Gbit/s injection locked NRZ-to-RZ transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 830–841 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lundström, C.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mandelberg, H.

J. Pezeshki, M. Saylors, H. Mandelberg, and J. Goldhar, “Generation of a cw local oscillator signal using a stabilized injection locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(5), 588–599 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

McKinstrie, C. J.

Notomi, M.

Nozaki, K.

O’Brien, S.

O’Gorman, J.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, N. A.

C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, and N. K. Dutta, “Locking range and stability of injection locked 1.54um InGaAsP semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(8), 1152–1156 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Osborne, S.

Parmigiani, F.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peng, P.-C.

C.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, P.-C. Peng, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and G.-R. Lin, “Beyond-bandwidth electrical pulse modulation of a TO-Can packaged VCSEL for 10 Gbit/s injection locked NRZ-to-RZ transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 830–841 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Petropoulos, P.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pezeshki, J.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(i) Experimental implementation of the proposed phase locking setup. (ii) Optical spectrum of the incoming ASK signal at point A (Spectr.-A) and the generated carrier after the 1st injection locking stage at point B (Spectr.-B). (iii) Spectrum of the generated comb signal at point C. (iv) Spectrum consisting of the generated phase synchronized pumps and the 10 Gbit/s ASK signal before the PSA, taken at point D.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(i) RF spectra of the two local pump lasers, ILL-A and ILL-B, of the PSA synchronization stage when free running and injection locked by the signal carrier, respectively. (ii) Optical spectra of output signal at minimum and maximum gain of the PSA, respectively. (iii) Contrast ratio of the PSA gain as a function of the input signal power.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(i) BER vs. received power at the output of the PSA for different input power levels at its input. (ii) Receiver sensitivity penalty as a function of the input power to the PSA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(i) Receiver sensitivity penalty as a function of the injected power in the 1st injection locked laser. (ii) AM-to-AM transfer function of the 1st injection locked laser (iii) AM-to-PM transfer function of the 1st injection locked laser for different input power levels. (iv) PM-to-PM and (v) PM-to-AM transfer functions of the two pump lasers, ILL-A and ILL-B, of the synchronization scheme characterized at the operating power of −24 dBm. (vi) Receiver sensitivity penalty versus input OSNR for different injected powers to the 1st ILL.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Eye diagrams at the output of the PSA for different injected powers to the 1st injection locked laser. The input OSNR level was 24 dB

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