Abstract

We compare single- and double-sided excitation methods of adiabatic surface plasmon polariton (SPP) wave superfocusing for scattering-type metallic near-field scanning optical microscopy (s-NSOM). Using the results of full 3D finite difference time domain analyses, the differences in field enhancement factors are explained and reveal the mode selectivity of a conical NSOM tip for adiabatic SPP superfocusing. Exploiting the mode-symmetric nature of the tip further, we also show that it is possible to selectively confine either the electric or magnetic field at the NSOM tip apex, by simply adjusting the relative phase between the SPP waves in the double-sided excitation approach.

© 2011 OSA

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  2. L. Novotny and S. J. Stranick, “Near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy with pointed probes,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 57(1), 303–331 (2006).
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  7. L. Vaccaro, L. Aeschimann, U. Staufer, H. P. Herzig, and R. Dändliker, “Propagation of the electromagnetic field in fully coated near-field optical probes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 584–586 (2003).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  13. C. C. Neacsu, S. Berweger, R. L. Olmon, L. V. Saraf, C. Ropers, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field localization in plasmonic superfocusing: a nanoemitter on a tip,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 592–596 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Sadiq, J. Shirdel, J. S. Lee, E. Selishcheva, N. Park, and C. Lienau, “Adiabatic nanofocusing scattering-type optical nanoscopy of individual gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1609–1613 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  20. C. Ropers, D. R. Solli, C. P. Schulz, C. Lienau, and T. Elsaesser, “Localized multiphoton emission of femtosecond electron pulses from metal nanotips,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(4), 043907 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. Ruppin, “Effect of non-locality on nanofocusing of surface plasmon field intensity in a conical tip,” Phys. Lett. A 340(1-4), 299–302 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).
  25. S. Koo, M. S. Kumar, J. Shin, D. S. Kim, and N. K. Park, “Extraordinary magnetic field enhancement with metallic nanowire: role of surface impedance in Babinet’s principle for sub-skin-depth regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(26), 263901 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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2011 (1)

D. Sadiq, J. Shirdel, J. S. Lee, E. Selishcheva, N. Park, and C. Lienau, “Adiabatic nanofocusing scattering-type optical nanoscopy of individual gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1609–1613 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

S. Koo, M. S. Kumar, J. Shin, D. S. Kim, and N. K. Park, “Extraordinary magnetic field enhancement with metallic nanowire: role of surface impedance in Babinet’s principle for sub-skin-depth regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(26), 263901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida and A. Belkhir, “Superfocusing and light confinement by surface plasmon excitation through radially polarized beam,” Plasmonics 4(1), 51–59 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

D. K. Gramotnev, M. W. Vogel, and M. I. Stockman, “Optimized nonadiabatic nanofocusing of plasmons by tapered metal rods,’,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 034311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Shadrivov, A. B. Kozyrev, D. W. van der Weide, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear magnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20266–20271 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

C. Ropers, D. R. Solli, C. P. Schulz, C. Lienau, and T. Elsaesser, “Localized multiphoton emission of femtosecond electron pulses from metal nanotips,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(4), 043907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Issa and R. Guckenberger, “Optical nanofocusing on tapered metallic waveguides,” Plasmonics 2(1), 31–37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chen and Q. Zhan, “Numerical study of an apertureless near field scanning optical microscope probe under radial polarization illumination,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4106–4111 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, and S. A. Maier, “Internal excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (3)

A. L. Demming, F. Festy, and D. Richards, “Plasmon resonances on metal tips: understanding tip-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(18), 184716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Janunts, K. S. Baghdasaryan, Kh. V. Nerkararyan, and B. Hecht, “Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Opt. Commun. 253(1-3), 118–124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Ruppin, “Effect of non-locality on nanofocusing of surface plasmon field intensity in a conical tip,” Phys. Lett. A 340(1-4), 299–302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

L. Vaccaro, L. Aeschimann, U. Staufer, H. P. Herzig, and R. Dändliker, “Propagation of the electromagnetic field in fully coated near-field optical probes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 584–586 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Inouye, “Apertureless metallic probes for near-field microscopy,” Top. Appl. Phys. 81, 29–48 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: Fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 112(18), 7761–7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Babadjanyan, N. L. Margaryan, and Kh. V. Nerkararyan, “Superfocusing of surface polaritons in the conical structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(8), 3785–3788 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Ashino and M. Ohtsu, “Fabrication and evaluation of a localized plasmon resonance probe for near-field optical microscopy/spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(11), 1299–1301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Koglin, U. C. Fischer, and H. Fuchs, “Material contrast in scanning near-field optical microscopy at 1-10 nm resolution,” Phys. Rev. B 55(12), 7977–7984 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adams, M. M.

Aeschimann, L.

L. Vaccaro, L. Aeschimann, U. Staufer, H. P. Herzig, and R. Dändliker, “Propagation of the electromagnetic field in fully coated near-field optical probes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 584–586 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, M.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, S. R.

W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, and S. A. Maier, “Internal excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Antosiewicz, T. J.

Ashino, M.

M. Ashino and M. Ohtsu, “Fabrication and evaluation of a localized plasmon resonance probe for near-field optical microscopy/spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(11), 1299–1301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Babadjanyan, A. J.

A. J. Babadjanyan, N. L. Margaryan, and Kh. V. Nerkararyan, “Superfocusing of surface polaritons in the conical structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(8), 3785–3788 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baghdasaryan, K. S.

N. A. Janunts, K. S. Baghdasaryan, Kh. V. Nerkararyan, and B. Hecht, “Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Opt. Commun. 253(1-3), 118–124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baida, F. I.

F. I. Baida and A. Belkhir, “Superfocusing and light confinement by surface plasmon excitation through radially polarized beam,” Plasmonics 4(1), 51–59 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Belkhir, A.

F. I. Baida and A. Belkhir, “Superfocusing and light confinement by surface plasmon excitation through radially polarized beam,” Plasmonics 4(1), 51–59 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berweger, S.

C. C. Neacsu, S. Berweger, R. L. Olmon, L. V. Saraf, C. Ropers, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field localization in plasmonic superfocusing: a nanoemitter on a tip,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 592–596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

Dändliker, R.

L. Vaccaro, L. Aeschimann, U. Staufer, H. P. Herzig, and R. Dändliker, “Propagation of the electromagnetic field in fully coated near-field optical probes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 584–586 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deckert, V.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: Fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 112(18), 7761–7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Demming, A. L.

A. L. Demming, F. Festy, and D. Richards, “Plasmon resonances on metal tips: understanding tip-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(18), 184716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, W.

W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, and S. A. Maier, “Internal excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

C. Ropers, D. R. Solli, C. P. Schulz, C. Lienau, and T. Elsaesser, “Localized multiphoton emission of femtosecond electron pulses from metal nanotips,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(4), 043907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Festy, F.

A. L. Demming, F. Festy, and D. Richards, “Plasmon resonances on metal tips: understanding tip-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(18), 184716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, U. C.

J. Koglin, U. C. Fischer, and H. Fuchs, “Material contrast in scanning near-field optical microscopy at 1-10 nm resolution,” Phys. Rev. B 55(12), 7977–7984 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, H.

J. Koglin, U. C. Fischer, and H. Fuchs, “Material contrast in scanning near-field optical microscopy at 1-10 nm resolution,” Phys. Rev. B 55(12), 7977–7984 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev, M. W. Vogel, and M. I. Stockman, “Optimized nonadiabatic nanofocusing of plasmons by tapered metal rods,’,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 034311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guckenberger, R.

N. A. Issa and R. Guckenberger, “Optical nanofocusing on tapered metallic waveguides,” Plasmonics 2(1), 31–37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hafner, C.

Hecht, B.

N. A. Janunts, K. S. Baghdasaryan, Kh. V. Nerkararyan, and B. Hecht, “Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Opt. Commun. 253(1-3), 118–124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: Fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 112(18), 7761–7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

L. Vaccaro, L. Aeschimann, U. Staufer, H. P. Herzig, and R. Dändliker, “Propagation of the electromagnetic field in fully coated near-field optical probes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 584–586 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

Y. Inouye, “Apertureless metallic probes for near-field microscopy,” Top. Appl. Phys. 81, 29–48 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Issa, N. A.

N. A. Issa and R. Guckenberger, “Optical nanofocusing on tapered metallic waveguides,” Plasmonics 2(1), 31–37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Janunts, N. A.

N. A. Janunts, K. S. Baghdasaryan, Kh. V. Nerkararyan, and B. Hecht, “Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Opt. Commun. 253(1-3), 118–124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

S. Koo, M. S. Kumar, J. Shin, D. S. Kim, and N. K. Park, “Extraordinary magnetic field enhancement with metallic nanowire: role of surface impedance in Babinet’s principle for sub-skin-depth regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(26), 263901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

Koglin, J.

J. Koglin, U. C. Fischer, and H. Fuchs, “Material contrast in scanning near-field optical microscopy at 1-10 nm resolution,” Phys. Rev. B 55(12), 7977–7984 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koo, S.

S. Koo, M. S. Kumar, J. Shin, D. S. Kim, and N. K. Park, “Extraordinary magnetic field enhancement with metallic nanowire: role of surface impedance in Babinet’s principle for sub-skin-depth regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(26), 263901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kozyrev, A. B.

Kumar, M. S.

S. Koo, M. S. Kumar, J. Shin, D. S. Kim, and N. K. Park, “Extraordinary magnetic field enhancement with metallic nanowire: role of surface impedance in Babinet’s principle for sub-skin-depth regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(26), 263901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

D. Sadiq, J. Shirdel, J. S. Lee, E. Selishcheva, N. Park, and C. Lienau, “Adiabatic nanofocusing scattering-type optical nanoscopy of individual gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1609–1613 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lienau, C.

D. Sadiq, J. Shirdel, J. S. Lee, E. Selishcheva, N. Park, and C. Lienau, “Adiabatic nanofocusing scattering-type optical nanoscopy of individual gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1609–1613 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ropers, D. R. Solli, C. P. Schulz, C. Lienau, and T. Elsaesser, “Localized multiphoton emission of femtosecond electron pulses from metal nanotips,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(4), 043907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lotito, V.

Maier, S. A.

W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, and S. A. Maier, “Internal excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Margaryan, N. L.

A. J. Babadjanyan, N. L. Margaryan, and Kh. V. Nerkararyan, “Superfocusing of surface polaritons in the conical structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(8), 3785–3788 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: Fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 112(18), 7761–7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Neacsu, C. C.

C. C. Neacsu, S. Berweger, R. L. Olmon, L. V. Saraf, C. Ropers, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field localization in plasmonic superfocusing: a nanoemitter on a tip,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 592–596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Roth, N. C. Panoiu, M. M. Adams, R. M. Osgood, C. C. Neacsu, and M. B. Raschke, “Resonant-plasmon field enhancement from asymmetrically illuminated conical metallic-probe tips,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2921–2931 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nerkararyan, Kh. V.

N. A. Janunts, K. S. Baghdasaryan, Kh. V. Nerkararyan, and B. Hecht, “Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Opt. Commun. 253(1-3), 118–124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Babadjanyan, N. L. Margaryan, and Kh. V. Nerkararyan, “Superfocusing of surface polaritons in the conical structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(8), 3785–3788 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny and S. J. Stranick, “Near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy with pointed probes,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 57(1), 303–331 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohtsu, M.

M. Ashino and M. Ohtsu, “Fabrication and evaluation of a localized plasmon resonance probe for near-field optical microscopy/spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(11), 1299–1301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Olmon, R. L.

C. C. Neacsu, S. Berweger, R. L. Olmon, L. V. Saraf, C. Ropers, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field localization in plasmonic superfocusing: a nanoemitter on a tip,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 592–596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osgood, R. M.

Panoiu, N. C.

Park, N.

D. Sadiq, J. Shirdel, J. S. Lee, E. Selishcheva, N. Park, and C. Lienau, “Adiabatic nanofocusing scattering-type optical nanoscopy of individual gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1609–1613 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, N. K.

S. Koo, M. S. Kumar, J. Shin, D. S. Kim, and N. K. Park, “Extraordinary magnetic field enhancement with metallic nanowire: role of surface impedance in Babinet’s principle for sub-skin-depth regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(26), 263901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: Fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 112(18), 7761–7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Raschke, M. B.

C. C. Neacsu, S. Berweger, R. L. Olmon, L. V. Saraf, C. Ropers, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field localization in plasmonic superfocusing: a nanoemitter on a tip,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 592–596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Roth, N. C. Panoiu, M. M. Adams, R. M. Osgood, C. C. Neacsu, and M. B. Raschke, “Resonant-plasmon field enhancement from asymmetrically illuminated conical metallic-probe tips,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2921–2931 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards, D.

A. L. Demming, F. Festy, and D. Richards, “Plasmon resonances on metal tips: understanding tip-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(18), 184716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ropers, C.

C. C. Neacsu, S. Berweger, R. L. Olmon, L. V. Saraf, C. Ropers, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field localization in plasmonic superfocusing: a nanoemitter on a tip,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 592–596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ropers, D. R. Solli, C. P. Schulz, C. Lienau, and T. Elsaesser, “Localized multiphoton emission of femtosecond electron pulses from metal nanotips,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(4), 043907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, R. M.

Ruppin, R.

R. Ruppin, “Effect of non-locality on nanofocusing of surface plasmon field intensity in a conical tip,” Phys. Lett. A 340(1-4), 299–302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sadiq, D.

D. Sadiq, J. Shirdel, J. S. Lee, E. Selishcheva, N. Park, and C. Lienau, “Adiabatic nanofocusing scattering-type optical nanoscopy of individual gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1609–1613 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saraf, L. V.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. Sadiq, J. Shirdel, J. S. Lee, E. Selishcheva, N. Park, and C. Lienau, “Adiabatic nanofocusing scattering-type optical nanoscopy of individual gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1609–1613 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koo, M. S. Kumar, J. Shin, D. S. Kim, and N. K. Park, “Extraordinary magnetic field enhancement with metallic nanowire: role of surface impedance in Babinet’s principle for sub-skin-depth regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(26), 263901 (2009).
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Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: AVI (3793 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (3392 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (3438 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (3316 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SPP excitation methods for adiabatic superfocusing at the metal NSOM tip apex compared in the present study. (a) single-sided, (b) double-sided E-symmetric (E field in-phase, H field out-of-phase), and (c) double-sided E-antisymmetric (E field out-of phase, H field in-phase) excitation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a~c) Normalized electric field intensity (|E|2/|Einc|2) distribution at λ = 780 nm, in the plane 10nm away from the tip apex. The overlaid graph shows the spatial distribution of the normalized intensity along the centerline of the figure. (d~f) Normalized SPP field ( E Z /|Einc|) evolution near the NSOM tip end; for (a) and (d) single-sided, (b) and (e) double-sided E-symmetric, and (c) and (f) double-sided E- antisymmetric SPP excitation methods.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a~c) Normalized magnetic field intensity (|H|2/|Hinc|2) distribution at λ = 780 nm, in the plane, 10 nm away from the tip apex. The overlaid graph shows the spatial distribution of the normalized intensity along the centerline of the figure. (d~f) Normalized SPP field ( H X /|Hinc|) evolution near the NSOM tip end; for (a) and (d) single-sided, (b) and (e) double-sided H-antisymmetric, and (c) and (f) double-sided H-symmetric SPP excitation methods. The white arrows show the direction of the magnetic field.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized field intensity distribution for E - (upper row) and H - (lower row) field: I. Case of direct illumination method with (column 1: a,e) double-sided E-symmetric SPP excitation and (column 2: b,f) E-antisymmetric SPP excitation. II. Case of nonlocal illumination method with (column 3: c,g) double-sided E-symmetric SPP excitation and (column 4: d,h) double-sided E-antisymmetric SPP excitation. λ = 780 nm. Insets show the zoomed-in field image near the tip apex. Media 1, Media 2, Media 3, and Media 4 are provided for c, g, d, h, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Field enhancement factors at the center of the detection plane (10 nm away from the tip apex), as a function of δϕ ( = ϕ top - ϕ bottom, relative phase between top / bottom SPP excitation waves. λ = 780 nm). Plot of μ|H|2/ε|E|2 for δϕ = π (E-antisymmetric) excitation, in the (b) detection plane, and (c) x = 0 plane. The dotted lines show the μ|H|2/ε|E|2 = 1 contours forδϕ = π (white) and δϕ = 39π/40 (black), respectively.

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