Abstract

Trans-to-cis photoisomerization efficiency of azobenzene dye is artificially modified from 0.09 to 0.38 when dye molecules are placed close to gold nanoparticle films with different structures. Transient fluorescence and surface enhanced Raman scattering measurement verify that the enhancement and reduction of photoisomerization efficiency come from the competition between enhanced local optical field from surface plasmon resonance and the accelerated nonradiative decay of excited dye molecules. The photoisomerization efficiency can be further modified by controlling the distance between azobenzene dye and gold films. Our finding can be applied to improve the performance of photoisomerization effect in photochemistry and photonics.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Vogt, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, P. Nuernberger, and G. Gerber, “Optimal control of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 068305 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Frens, “Controlled nucleation for the regulation of the particle size in monodisperse gold suspensions,” Nature 241, 20–22 (1973).
  8. Y. K. Park and S. Park, “Directing close-packing of midnanosized gold nanoparticles at a water/hexane interface,” Chem. Mater. 20(6), 2388–2393 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Rau, G. Greiner, G. Gauglitz, and H. Meier, “Optimal control of photoisomerization,” J. Phys. Chem. 94(17), 6523–6524 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Fischer, “The calculation of photostationary states in systems A ⇔ B when only A is known,” J. Phys. Chem. 71(11), 3704–3706 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Futamata, Y. Maruyama, and M. Ishikawa, “Local electric field and scattering cross section of Ag nanoparticles under surface plasmon resonance by finite difference time domain method,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(31), 7607–7617 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Xu and M. Käll, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced optical forces in silver nanoaggregates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(24), 246802 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Möller, and D. I. Gittins, “Fluorescence quenching of dye molecules near gold nanoparticles: radiative and nonradiative effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(20), 203002 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Dietzek, B. Brüggemann, T. Pascher, and A. Yartsev, “Mechanisms of molecular response in the optimal control of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 258301 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. Viste, J. Plain, R. Jaffiol, A. Vial, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Enhancement and quenching regimes in metal-semiconductor hybrid optical nanosources,” ACS Nano 4(2), 759–764 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

P. Viste, J. Plain, R. Jaffiol, A. Vial, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Enhancement and quenching regimes in metal-semiconductor hybrid optical nanosources,” ACS Nano 4(2), 759–764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

D. C. Burns, F. Z. Zhang, and G. A. Woolley, “Synthesis of 3,3′-bis(sulfonato)-4,4′-bis(chloroacetamido)azobenzene and cysteine cross-linking for photo-control of protein conformation and activity,” Nat. Protoc. 2(2), 251–258 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Comstock, N. Levy, A. Kirakosian, J. Cho, F. Lauterwasser, J. H. Harvey, D. A. Strubbe, J. M. Fréchet, D. Trauner, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Reversible photomechanical switching of individual engineered molecules at a metallic surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(3), 038301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

S. Loudwig and H. Bayley, “Photoisomerization of an individual azobenzene molecule in water: an on-off switch triggered by light at a fixed wavelength,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(38), 12404–12405 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Dietzek, B. Brüggemann, T. Pascher, and A. Yartsev, “Mechanisms of molecular response in the optimal control of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 258301 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

G. Vogt, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, P. Nuernberger, and G. Gerber, “Optimal control of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 068305 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. Futamata, Y. Maruyama, and M. Ishikawa, “Local electric field and scattering cross section of Ag nanoparticles under surface plasmon resonance by finite difference time domain method,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(31), 7607–7617 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

H. Xu and M. Käll, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced optical forces in silver nanoaggregates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(24), 246802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Möller, and D. I. Gittins, “Fluorescence quenching of dye molecules near gold nanoparticles: radiative and nonradiative effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(20), 203002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

T. Ikeda and O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268(5219), 1873–1875 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

H. Rau, G. Greiner, G. Gauglitz, and H. Meier, “Optimal control of photoisomerization,” J. Phys. Chem. 94(17), 6523–6524 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

G. Frens, “Controlled nucleation for the regulation of the particle size in monodisperse gold suspensions,” Nature 241, 20–22 (1973).

1967 (1)

E. Fischer, “The calculation of photostationary states in systems A ⇔ B when only A is known,” J. Phys. Chem. 71(11), 3704–3706 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Adam, P. M.

P. Viste, J. Plain, R. Jaffiol, A. Vial, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Enhancement and quenching regimes in metal-semiconductor hybrid optical nanosources,” ACS Nano 4(2), 759–764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayley, H.

S. Loudwig and H. Bayley, “Photoisomerization of an individual azobenzene molecule in water: an on-off switch triggered by light at a fixed wavelength,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(38), 12404–12405 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brüggemann, B.

B. Dietzek, B. Brüggemann, T. Pascher, and A. Yartsev, “Mechanisms of molecular response in the optimal control of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 258301 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, D. C.

D. C. Burns, F. Z. Zhang, and G. A. Woolley, “Synthesis of 3,3′-bis(sulfonato)-4,4′-bis(chloroacetamido)azobenzene and cysteine cross-linking for photo-control of protein conformation and activity,” Nat. Protoc. 2(2), 251–258 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, J.

M. J. Comstock, N. Levy, A. Kirakosian, J. Cho, F. Lauterwasser, J. H. Harvey, D. A. Strubbe, J. M. Fréchet, D. Trauner, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Reversible photomechanical switching of individual engineered molecules at a metallic surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(3), 038301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comstock, M. J.

M. J. Comstock, N. Levy, A. Kirakosian, J. Cho, F. Lauterwasser, J. H. Harvey, D. A. Strubbe, J. M. Fréchet, D. Trauner, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Reversible photomechanical switching of individual engineered molecules at a metallic surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(3), 038301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crommie, M. F.

M. J. Comstock, N. Levy, A. Kirakosian, J. Cho, F. Lauterwasser, J. H. Harvey, D. A. Strubbe, J. M. Fréchet, D. Trauner, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Reversible photomechanical switching of individual engineered molecules at a metallic surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(3), 038301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietzek, B.

B. Dietzek, B. Brüggemann, T. Pascher, and A. Yartsev, “Mechanisms of molecular response in the optimal control of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 258301 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dulkeith, E.

E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Möller, and D. I. Gittins, “Fluorescence quenching of dye molecules near gold nanoparticles: radiative and nonradiative effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(20), 203002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldmann, J.

E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Möller, and D. I. Gittins, “Fluorescence quenching of dye molecules near gold nanoparticles: radiative and nonradiative effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(20), 203002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, E.

E. Fischer, “The calculation of photostationary states in systems A ⇔ B when only A is known,” J. Phys. Chem. 71(11), 3704–3706 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Fréchet, J. M.

M. J. Comstock, N. Levy, A. Kirakosian, J. Cho, F. Lauterwasser, J. H. Harvey, D. A. Strubbe, J. M. Fréchet, D. Trauner, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Reversible photomechanical switching of individual engineered molecules at a metallic surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(3), 038301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frens, G.

G. Frens, “Controlled nucleation for the regulation of the particle size in monodisperse gold suspensions,” Nature 241, 20–22 (1973).

Futamata, M.

M. Futamata, Y. Maruyama, and M. Ishikawa, “Local electric field and scattering cross section of Ag nanoparticles under surface plasmon resonance by finite difference time domain method,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(31), 7607–7617 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gauglitz, G.

H. Rau, G. Greiner, G. Gauglitz, and H. Meier, “Optimal control of photoisomerization,” J. Phys. Chem. 94(17), 6523–6524 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, G.

G. Vogt, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, P. Nuernberger, and G. Gerber, “Optimal control of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 068305 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gittins, D. I.

E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Möller, and D. I. Gittins, “Fluorescence quenching of dye molecules near gold nanoparticles: radiative and nonradiative effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(20), 203002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greiner, G.

H. Rau, G. Greiner, G. Gauglitz, and H. Meier, “Optimal control of photoisomerization,” J. Phys. Chem. 94(17), 6523–6524 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J. H.

M. J. Comstock, N. Levy, A. Kirakosian, J. Cho, F. Lauterwasser, J. H. Harvey, D. A. Strubbe, J. M. Fréchet, D. Trauner, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Reversible photomechanical switching of individual engineered molecules at a metallic surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(3), 038301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikeda, T.

T. Ikeda and O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268(5219), 1873–1875 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, M.

M. Futamata, Y. Maruyama, and M. Ishikawa, “Local electric field and scattering cross section of Ag nanoparticles under surface plasmon resonance by finite difference time domain method,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(31), 7607–7617 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jaffiol, R.

P. Viste, J. Plain, R. Jaffiol, A. Vial, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Enhancement and quenching regimes in metal-semiconductor hybrid optical nanosources,” ACS Nano 4(2), 759–764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Käll, M.

H. Xu and M. Käll, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced optical forces in silver nanoaggregates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(24), 246802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirakosian, A.

M. J. Comstock, N. Levy, A. Kirakosian, J. Cho, F. Lauterwasser, J. H. Harvey, D. A. Strubbe, J. M. Fréchet, D. Trauner, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Reversible photomechanical switching of individual engineered molecules at a metallic surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(3), 038301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klar, T. A.

E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Möller, and D. I. Gittins, “Fluorescence quenching of dye molecules near gold nanoparticles: radiative and nonradiative effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(20), 203002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krampert, G.

G. Vogt, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, P. Nuernberger, and G. Gerber, “Optimal control of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 068305 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lauterwasser, F.

M. J. Comstock, N. Levy, A. Kirakosian, J. Cho, F. Lauterwasser, J. H. Harvey, D. A. Strubbe, J. M. Fréchet, D. Trauner, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Reversible photomechanical switching of individual engineered molecules at a metallic surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(3), 038301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levi, S. A.

E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Möller, and D. I. Gittins, “Fluorescence quenching of dye molecules near gold nanoparticles: radiative and nonradiative effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(20), 203002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levy, N.

M. J. Comstock, N. Levy, A. Kirakosian, J. Cho, F. Lauterwasser, J. H. Harvey, D. A. Strubbe, J. M. Fréchet, D. Trauner, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Reversible photomechanical switching of individual engineered molecules at a metallic surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(3), 038301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loudwig, S.

S. Loudwig and H. Bayley, “Photoisomerization of an individual azobenzene molecule in water: an on-off switch triggered by light at a fixed wavelength,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(38), 12404–12405 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Louie, S. G.

M. J. Comstock, N. Levy, A. Kirakosian, J. Cho, F. Lauterwasser, J. H. Harvey, D. A. Strubbe, J. M. Fréchet, D. Trauner, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Reversible photomechanical switching of individual engineered molecules at a metallic surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(3), 038301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maruyama, Y.

M. Futamata, Y. Maruyama, and M. Ishikawa, “Local electric field and scattering cross section of Ag nanoparticles under surface plasmon resonance by finite difference time domain method,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(31), 7607–7617 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meier, H.

H. Rau, G. Greiner, G. Gauglitz, and H. Meier, “Optimal control of photoisomerization,” J. Phys. Chem. 94(17), 6523–6524 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Möller, M.

E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Möller, and D. I. Gittins, “Fluorescence quenching of dye molecules near gold nanoparticles: radiative and nonradiative effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(20), 203002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morteani, A. C.

E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Möller, and D. I. Gittins, “Fluorescence quenching of dye molecules near gold nanoparticles: radiative and nonradiative effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(20), 203002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niedereichholz, T.

E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Möller, and D. I. Gittins, “Fluorescence quenching of dye molecules near gold nanoparticles: radiative and nonradiative effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(20), 203002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niklaus, P.

G. Vogt, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, P. Nuernberger, and G. Gerber, “Optimal control of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 068305 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuernberger, P.

G. Vogt, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, P. Nuernberger, and G. Gerber, “Optimal control of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 068305 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, X.

Park, S.

Y. K. Park and S. Park, “Directing close-packing of midnanosized gold nanoparticles at a water/hexane interface,” Chem. Mater. 20(6), 2388–2393 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. K.

Y. K. Park and S. Park, “Directing close-packing of midnanosized gold nanoparticles at a water/hexane interface,” Chem. Mater. 20(6), 2388–2393 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pascher, T.

B. Dietzek, B. Brüggemann, T. Pascher, and A. Yartsev, “Mechanisms of molecular response in the optimal control of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 258301 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plain, J.

P. Viste, J. Plain, R. Jaffiol, A. Vial, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Enhancement and quenching regimes in metal-semiconductor hybrid optical nanosources,” ACS Nano 4(2), 759–764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rau, H.

H. Rau, G. Greiner, G. Gauglitz, and H. Meier, “Optimal control of photoisomerization,” J. Phys. Chem. 94(17), 6523–6524 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Reinhoudt, D. N.

E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Möller, and D. I. Gittins, “Fluorescence quenching of dye molecules near gold nanoparticles: radiative and nonradiative effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(20), 203002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Royer, P.

P. Viste, J. Plain, R. Jaffiol, A. Vial, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Enhancement and quenching regimes in metal-semiconductor hybrid optical nanosources,” ACS Nano 4(2), 759–764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strubbe, D. A.

M. J. Comstock, N. Levy, A. Kirakosian, J. Cho, F. Lauterwasser, J. H. Harvey, D. A. Strubbe, J. M. Fréchet, D. Trauner, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Reversible photomechanical switching of individual engineered molecules at a metallic surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(3), 038301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trauner, D.

M. J. Comstock, N. Levy, A. Kirakosian, J. Cho, F. Lauterwasser, J. H. Harvey, D. A. Strubbe, J. M. Fréchet, D. Trauner, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Reversible photomechanical switching of individual engineered molecules at a metallic surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(3), 038301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsutsumi, O.

T. Ikeda and O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268(5219), 1873–1875 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Veggel, F. C.

E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Möller, and D. I. Gittins, “Fluorescence quenching of dye molecules near gold nanoparticles: radiative and nonradiative effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(20), 203002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vial, A.

P. Viste, J. Plain, R. Jaffiol, A. Vial, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Enhancement and quenching regimes in metal-semiconductor hybrid optical nanosources,” ACS Nano 4(2), 759–764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viste, P.

P. Viste, J. Plain, R. Jaffiol, A. Vial, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Enhancement and quenching regimes in metal-semiconductor hybrid optical nanosources,” ACS Nano 4(2), 759–764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogt, G.

G. Vogt, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, P. Nuernberger, and G. Gerber, “Optimal control of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 068305 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. S.

Wang, C. Y.

Woolley, G. A.

D. C. Burns, F. Z. Zhang, and G. A. Woolley, “Synthesis of 3,3′-bis(sulfonato)-4,4′-bis(chloroacetamido)azobenzene and cysteine cross-linking for photo-control of protein conformation and activity,” Nat. Protoc. 2(2), 251–258 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

H. Xu and M. Käll, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced optical forces in silver nanoaggregates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(24), 246802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yartsev, A.

B. Dietzek, B. Brüggemann, T. Pascher, and A. Yartsev, “Mechanisms of molecular response in the optimal control of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 258301 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, F. Z.

D. C. Burns, F. Z. Zhang, and G. A. Woolley, “Synthesis of 3,3′-bis(sulfonato)-4,4′-bis(chloroacetamido)azobenzene and cysteine cross-linking for photo-control of protein conformation and activity,” Nat. Protoc. 2(2), 251–258 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. Q.

ACS Nano (1)

P. Viste, J. Plain, R. Jaffiol, A. Vial, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Enhancement and quenching regimes in metal-semiconductor hybrid optical nanosources,” ACS Nano 4(2), 759–764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Mater. (1)

Y. K. Park and S. Park, “Directing close-packing of midnanosized gold nanoparticles at a water/hexane interface,” Chem. Mater. 20(6), 2388–2393 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

S. Loudwig and H. Bayley, “Photoisomerization of an individual azobenzene molecule in water: an on-off switch triggered by light at a fixed wavelength,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(38), 12404–12405 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. (2)

H. Rau, G. Greiner, G. Gauglitz, and H. Meier, “Optimal control of photoisomerization,” J. Phys. Chem. 94(17), 6523–6524 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Fischer, “The calculation of photostationary states in systems A ⇔ B when only A is known,” J. Phys. Chem. 71(11), 3704–3706 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

M. Futamata, Y. Maruyama, and M. Ishikawa, “Local electric field and scattering cross section of Ag nanoparticles under surface plasmon resonance by finite difference time domain method,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(31), 7607–7617 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Protoc. (1)

D. C. Burns, F. Z. Zhang, and G. A. Woolley, “Synthesis of 3,3′-bis(sulfonato)-4,4′-bis(chloroacetamido)azobenzene and cysteine cross-linking for photo-control of protein conformation and activity,” Nat. Protoc. 2(2), 251–258 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

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