Abstract

Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is widely used for particle size measurement. Recovering accurate particle sizes from noisy DLS measurements (short duration and/or low count rate) is problematic. We demonstrate that denoising of the light scattering signal using wavelet packet filtering is beneficial and leads to more accurate particle sizes being recovered.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. R. Pecora, “Doppler shifts in light scattering from pure liquids and polymer solutions,” J. Chem. Phys. 40(6), 1604–1614 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Z. Cummins, N. Knable, and Y. Yeh, “Observation of diffusion broadening of Rayleigh scattered light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12(6), 150–153 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. C. Ford and G. B. Benedek, “Observation of the spectrum of light scattered from a pure fluid near it’s critical point,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15(16), 649–653 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. P. Lee, W. Tscharnuter, and B. Chu, “Calibration of an optical self-beating spectrometer by polystyrene latex spheres, and confirmation of the Stokes-Einstein formula,” Polym. Sci. 10, 2453–2459 (1972).
  5. ISO 13321: Particle size analysis–Photon correlation spectroscopy (1996).
  6. ISO 22412: Particle size analysis–Dynamic light scattering (DLS) (2008).
  7. J. C. Thomas, “Photon correlation spectroscopy: technique and instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 1430, 2–18 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. B. Lastovka, “Light mixing spectroscopy and the spectrum of light scattered by thermal fluctuations in liquids,” PhD Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1968.
  9. V. Degiorgio and J. B. Lastovka, “Intensity correlation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 4(5), 2033–2050 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Schätzel, “Noise in photon correlation and photon structure functions,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 30, 155–166 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. A. Ross and N. Dimas, “Particle sizing by dynamic light scattering: noise and distortion in correlation data,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 10(2), 62–69 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Brown, Dynamic Light Scattering: The Method and Some Applications (Oxford Science Publications, 1993), p.149.
  13. B. Lou, “The influence and corresponding solution of noise in DLS particle sizing experiment,” J. Light Scattering 20(4), 310–313 (2008).
  14. H. Yang, G. Zheng, and M. Li, “A discussion of noise in dynamic light scattering for particle sizing,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 25(5-6), 406–413 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Shen, J. C. Thomas, X. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “Wavelet noise reduction in dynamic light scattering,” The International Conference on Information Science and Technology (CSIE 2011), 2011 (to be published).
  16. D. E. Koppel, “Analysis of macromolecular polydispersity in intensity correlation spectroscopy: The method of cumulants,” J. Chem. Phys. 57(11), 4814–4820 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. N. Shaumeyer, M. E. Briggs, and R. W. Gammon, “Statistical fitting accuracy in photon correlation spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 32(21), 3871–3879 (1993).
    [PubMed]

2008

B. Lou, “The influence and corresponding solution of noise in DLS particle sizing experiment,” J. Light Scattering 20(4), 310–313 (2008).

H. Yang, G. Zheng, and M. Li, “A discussion of noise in dynamic light scattering for particle sizing,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 25(5-6), 406–413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. N. Shaumeyer, M. E. Briggs, and R. W. Gammon, “Statistical fitting accuracy in photon correlation spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 32(21), 3871–3879 (1993).
[PubMed]

D. A. Ross and N. Dimas, “Particle sizing by dynamic light scattering: noise and distortion in correlation data,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 10(2), 62–69 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. C. Thomas, “Photon correlation spectroscopy: technique and instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 1430, 2–18 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1983

K. Schätzel, “Noise in photon correlation and photon structure functions,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 30, 155–166 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1972

S. P. Lee, W. Tscharnuter, and B. Chu, “Calibration of an optical self-beating spectrometer by polystyrene latex spheres, and confirmation of the Stokes-Einstein formula,” Polym. Sci. 10, 2453–2459 (1972).

D. E. Koppel, “Analysis of macromolecular polydispersity in intensity correlation spectroscopy: The method of cumulants,” J. Chem. Phys. 57(11), 4814–4820 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971

V. Degiorgio and J. B. Lastovka, “Intensity correlation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 4(5), 2033–2050 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1965

N. C. Ford and G. B. Benedek, “Observation of the spectrum of light scattered from a pure fluid near it’s critical point,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15(16), 649–653 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964

R. Pecora, “Doppler shifts in light scattering from pure liquids and polymer solutions,” J. Chem. Phys. 40(6), 1604–1614 (1964).
[CrossRef]

H. Z. Cummins, N. Knable, and Y. Yeh, “Observation of diffusion broadening of Rayleigh scattered light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12(6), 150–153 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Benedek, G. B.

N. C. Ford and G. B. Benedek, “Observation of the spectrum of light scattered from a pure fluid near it’s critical point,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15(16), 649–653 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, M. E.

Chu, B.

S. P. Lee, W. Tscharnuter, and B. Chu, “Calibration of an optical self-beating spectrometer by polystyrene latex spheres, and confirmation of the Stokes-Einstein formula,” Polym. Sci. 10, 2453–2459 (1972).

Cummins, H. Z.

H. Z. Cummins, N. Knable, and Y. Yeh, “Observation of diffusion broadening of Rayleigh scattered light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12(6), 150–153 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Degiorgio, V.

V. Degiorgio and J. B. Lastovka, “Intensity correlation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 4(5), 2033–2050 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Dimas, N.

D. A. Ross and N. Dimas, “Particle sizing by dynamic light scattering: noise and distortion in correlation data,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 10(2), 62–69 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ford, N. C.

N. C. Ford and G. B. Benedek, “Observation of the spectrum of light scattered from a pure fluid near it’s critical point,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15(16), 649–653 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Gammon, R. W.

Knable, N.

H. Z. Cummins, N. Knable, and Y. Yeh, “Observation of diffusion broadening of Rayleigh scattered light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12(6), 150–153 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Koppel, D. E.

D. E. Koppel, “Analysis of macromolecular polydispersity in intensity correlation spectroscopy: The method of cumulants,” J. Chem. Phys. 57(11), 4814–4820 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Lastovka, J. B.

V. Degiorgio and J. B. Lastovka, “Intensity correlation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 4(5), 2033–2050 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. P.

S. P. Lee, W. Tscharnuter, and B. Chu, “Calibration of an optical self-beating spectrometer by polystyrene latex spheres, and confirmation of the Stokes-Einstein formula,” Polym. Sci. 10, 2453–2459 (1972).

Li, M.

H. Yang, G. Zheng, and M. Li, “A discussion of noise in dynamic light scattering for particle sizing,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 25(5-6), 406–413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lou, B.

B. Lou, “The influence and corresponding solution of noise in DLS particle sizing experiment,” J. Light Scattering 20(4), 310–313 (2008).

Pecora, R.

R. Pecora, “Doppler shifts in light scattering from pure liquids and polymer solutions,” J. Chem. Phys. 40(6), 1604–1614 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Ross, D. A.

D. A. Ross and N. Dimas, “Particle sizing by dynamic light scattering: noise and distortion in correlation data,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 10(2), 62–69 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schätzel, K.

K. Schätzel, “Noise in photon correlation and photon structure functions,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 30, 155–166 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Shaumeyer, J. N.

Thomas, J. C.

J. C. Thomas, “Photon correlation spectroscopy: technique and instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 1430, 2–18 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tscharnuter, W.

S. P. Lee, W. Tscharnuter, and B. Chu, “Calibration of an optical self-beating spectrometer by polystyrene latex spheres, and confirmation of the Stokes-Einstein formula,” Polym. Sci. 10, 2453–2459 (1972).

Yang, H.

H. Yang, G. Zheng, and M. Li, “A discussion of noise in dynamic light scattering for particle sizing,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 25(5-6), 406–413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, Y.

H. Z. Cummins, N. Knable, and Y. Yeh, “Observation of diffusion broadening of Rayleigh scattered light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12(6), 150–153 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, G.

H. Yang, G. Zheng, and M. Li, “A discussion of noise in dynamic light scattering for particle sizing,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 25(5-6), 406–413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Chem. Phys.

D. E. Koppel, “Analysis of macromolecular polydispersity in intensity correlation spectroscopy: The method of cumulants,” J. Chem. Phys. 57(11), 4814–4820 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. Pecora, “Doppler shifts in light scattering from pure liquids and polymer solutions,” J. Chem. Phys. 40(6), 1604–1614 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Light Scattering

B. Lou, “The influence and corresponding solution of noise in DLS particle sizing experiment,” J. Light Scattering 20(4), 310–313 (2008).

Opt. Acta (Lond.)

K. Schätzel, “Noise in photon correlation and photon structure functions,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 30, 155–166 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Part. Part. Syst. Charact.

D. A. Ross and N. Dimas, “Particle sizing by dynamic light scattering: noise and distortion in correlation data,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 10(2), 62–69 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, G. Zheng, and M. Li, “A discussion of noise in dynamic light scattering for particle sizing,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 25(5-6), 406–413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

V. Degiorgio and J. B. Lastovka, “Intensity correlation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 4(5), 2033–2050 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. Z. Cummins, N. Knable, and Y. Yeh, “Observation of diffusion broadening of Rayleigh scattered light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12(6), 150–153 (1964).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Ford and G. B. Benedek, “Observation of the spectrum of light scattered from a pure fluid near it’s critical point,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15(16), 649–653 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Polym. Sci.

S. P. Lee, W. Tscharnuter, and B. Chu, “Calibration of an optical self-beating spectrometer by polystyrene latex spheres, and confirmation of the Stokes-Einstein formula,” Polym. Sci. 10, 2453–2459 (1972).

Proc. SPIE

J. C. Thomas, “Photon correlation spectroscopy: technique and instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 1430, 2–18 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. B. Lastovka, “Light mixing spectroscopy and the spectrum of light scattered by thermal fluctuations in liquids,” PhD Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1968.

W. Brown, Dynamic Light Scattering: The Method and Some Applications (Oxford Science Publications, 1993), p.149.

ISO 13321: Particle size analysis–Photon correlation spectroscopy (1996).

ISO 22412: Particle size analysis–Dynamic light scattering (DLS) (2008).

J. Shen, J. C. Thomas, X. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “Wavelet noise reduction in dynamic light scattering,” The International Conference on Information Science and Technology (CSIE 2011), 2011 (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Three level wavelet packet decomposition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The effect of denoising on autocorrelation functions from 300nm latex spheres.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured particle size for 300nm spheres as a function of denoising threshold, (b) Root mean square (RMS) fitting error change with denoising threshold for 300nm spheres.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Particle Sizing Results from the Correlator

Tables Icon

Table 2 Mean Photon Count as a Function of Laser Power

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

g ( 2 ) ( τ ) = I ( t ) I ( t + τ ) t I ( t ) t 2
g ( 2 ) ( τ ) = 1 + | g ( 1 ) ( τ ) | 2   .
= AAA3 + DAA3 + ADA3 + DDA3 + AAD3 + DAD3 + ADD3 + DDD3 .
{ d k j , 2 n = k h l 2 k d k j + 1 , n d k j , 2 n + 1 = k g l 2 k d k j + 1 , n
d k j + 1 , n = k [ h l 2 k d k j , 2 n + g l 2 k d k j , 2 n + 1 ] ,
y ( i ) = s ( i ) + δ e ( i )

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