Abstract

An innovative, simple, compact and low cost approach for phase mapping based on the intrinsic modulation of an aperture Near Field Scanning Optical Microscope probe is analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. Several nanoscale silicon waveguides are phase-mapped using this approach, and the different modes of propagation are obtained via Fourier analysis. The obtained measured results are in good agreement with the effective indexes of the modes calculated by electromagnetic simulations. Owing to its simplicity and effectiveness, the demonstrated system is a potential candidate for integration with current near field systems for the characterization of nanophotonic components and devices.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope: I. light is efficiently transmitted through [lambda]/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–231 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(7), 651 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. E. Jackson, S. M. Lindsay, C. D. Poweleit, D. H. Naghski, G. N. De Brabander, and J. T. Boyd, “Near field measurements of optical channel waveguide structures,” Ultramicroscopy 61(1-4), 295–298 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1035–1037 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. J. P. Engelen, T. J. Karle, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, T. F. Krauss, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Local probing of Bloch mode dispersion in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4457–4464 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. U. C. Fischer and D. W. Pohl, “Observation of single-particle plasmons by near-field optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(4), 458–461 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Zentgraf, J. Dorfmuller, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved optical near fields of split-ring-resonator-based metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 848–850 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. L. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 294–297 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Nesci, R. Dändliker, and H. P. Herzig, “Quantitative amplitude and phase measurement by use of a heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscope,” Opt. Lett. 26(4), 208–210 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Tortora, M. Abashin, I. Märki, W. Nakagawa, L. Vaccaro, M. Salt, H. P. Herzig, U. Levy, and Y. Fainman, “Observation of amplitude and phase in ridge and photonic crystal waveguides operating at 1.55 microm by use of heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2885–2887 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Visualization of mode transformation in a planar waveguide splitter by near-field optical phase imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(7), 910 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Fluck, M. Hammer, A. M. Otter, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Amplitude and phase evolution of optical fields inside periodic photonic structures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(5), 1384–1393 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Jose, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, J. L. Herek, and H. L. Offerhaus, “Imaging of surface plasmon polariton interference using phase-sensitive photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Appl. Phys. A (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Spasenović, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203109 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243901 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, “Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 41113–3 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. L. Campillo and J. W. P. Hsu, “Intensity and phase mapping of guided light in LiNbO3 waveguides with an interferometric near-field scanning optical microscope,” Appl. Opt. 42(36), 7149–7156 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. W. Kihm, Q. H. Kihm, D. S. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and J. H. Kang, “Phase-sensitive imaging of diffracted light by single nanoslits: measurements from near to far field,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15725–15731 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, “Near-field scanning optical microscope with a metallic probe tip,” Opt. Lett. 19(3), 159–161 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 182(4-6), 321–328 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(14), 3029–3032 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. I. Stefanon, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, “Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5553–5564 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G. P. Wiederrecht, S.- Chang, S. K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J. A. Rogers, M. E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, “Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: a comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(5), 823–833 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. B. Deutsch, R. Hillenbrand, and L. Novotny, “Near-field amplitude and phase recovery using phase-shifting interferometry,” Opt. Express 16(2), 494–501 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. B. Desiatov, I. Goykhman, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of submicron square-like silicon waveguide using optimized LOCOS process,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18592–18597 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. T. Grosjean and D. Courjon, “Polarization filtering induced by imaging systems: effect on image structure,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(4), 046611 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

J. Jose, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, J. L. Herek, and H. L. Offerhaus, “Imaging of surface plasmon polariton interference using phase-sensitive photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Appl. Phys. A (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

M. Spasenović, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, “Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 41113–3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

2003

2001

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Visualization of mode transformation in a planar waveguide splitter by near-field optical phase imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(7), 910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Nesci, R. Dändliker, and H. P. Herzig, “Quantitative amplitude and phase measurement by use of a heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscope,” Opt. Lett. 26(4), 208–210 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. L. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 294–297 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 182(4-6), 321–328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(14), 3029–3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

H. E. Jackson, S. M. Lindsay, C. D. Poweleit, D. H. Naghski, G. N. De Brabander, and J. T. Boyd, “Near field measurements of optical channel waveguide structures,” Ultramicroscopy 61(1-4), 295–298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1989

U. C. Fischer and D. W. Pohl, “Observation of single-particle plasmons by near-field optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(4), 458–461 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope: I. light is efficiently transmitted through [lambda]/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(7), 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Abashin, M.

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, “Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 41113–3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Tortora, M. Abashin, I. Märki, W. Nakagawa, L. Vaccaro, M. Salt, H. P. Herzig, U. Levy, and Y. Fainman, “Observation of amplitude and phase in ridge and photonic crystal waveguides operating at 1.55 microm by use of heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2885–2887 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, K. J.

Allovon, M.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aubert, S.

Bachelot, R.

Balistreri, M. L.

M. L. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 294–297 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balistreri, M. L. M.

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Visualization of mode transformation in a planar waveguide splitter by near-field optical phase imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(7), 910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barthe, F.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blaize, S.

Boccara, A. C.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bouhelier, A.

Bourzeix, S.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, J. T.

H. E. Jackson, S. M. Lindsay, C. D. Poweleit, D. H. Naghski, G. N. De Brabander, and J. T. Boyd, “Near field measurements of optical channel waveguide structures,” Ultramicroscopy 61(1-4), 295–298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruno, A.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bruyant, A.

Campillo, A. L.

Castro, M. E.

Chang, S.-

Courjon, D.

T. Grosjean and D. Courjon, “Polarization filtering induced by imaging systems: effect on image structure,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(4), 046611 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, J.

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dändliker, R.

De Brabander, G. N.

H. E. Jackson, S. M. Lindsay, C. D. Poweleit, D. H. Naghski, G. N. De Brabander, and J. T. Boyd, “Near field measurements of optical channel waveguide structures,” Ultramicroscopy 61(1-4), 295–298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(7), 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Desiatov, B.

Deutsch, B.

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorfmuller, J.

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engelen, R. J. P.

Etrich, C.

Fainman, Y.

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, “Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 41113–3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Tortora, M. Abashin, I. Märki, W. Nakagawa, L. Vaccaro, M. Salt, H. P. Herzig, U. Levy, and Y. Fainman, “Observation of amplitude and phase in ridge and photonic crystal waveguides operating at 1.55 microm by use of heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2885–2887 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, U. C.

U. C. Fischer and D. W. Pohl, “Observation of single-particle plasmons by near-field optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(4), 458–461 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fluck, E.

Gersen, H.

Giessen, H.

Gomez, L.

Goykhman, I.

Gray, S. K.

Grosjean, T.

T. Grosjean and D. Courjon, “Polarization filtering induced by imaging systems: effect on image structure,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(4), 046611 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, M.

Harootunian, A.

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope: I. light is efficiently transmitted through [lambda]/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Herek, J. L.

J. Jose, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, J. L. Herek, and H. L. Offerhaus, “Imaging of surface plasmon polariton interference using phase-sensitive photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Appl. Phys. A (2011).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

Hillenbrand, R.

Hsu, J. W. P.

Hua, F.

Ikeda, K.

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inouye, Y.

Isaacson, M.

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope: I. light is efficiently transmitted through [lambda]/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, H. E.

H. E. Jackson, S. M. Lindsay, C. D. Poweleit, D. H. Naghski, G. N. De Brabander, and J. T. Boyd, “Near field measurements of optical channel waveguide structures,” Ultramicroscopy 61(1-4), 295–298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S.

Jose, J.

J. Jose, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, J. L. Herek, and H. L. Offerhaus, “Imaging of surface plasmon polariton interference using phase-sensitive photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Appl. Phys. A (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. H.

Karle, T. J.

Kawata, S.

Keilmann, F.

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(14), 3029–3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 182(4-6), 321–328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kern, K.

Kihm, H. W.

Kihm, Q. H.

Kim, D. S.

Knoll, B.

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 182(4-6), 321–328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Korterik, J. P.

J. Jose, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, J. L. Herek, and H. L. Offerhaus, “Imaging of surface plasmon polariton interference using phase-sensitive photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Appl. Phys. A (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. J. P. Engelen, T. J. Karle, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, T. F. Krauss, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Local probing of Bloch mode dispersion in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4457–4464 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Fluck, M. Hammer, A. M. Otter, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Amplitude and phase evolution of optical fields inside periodic photonic structures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(5), 1384–1393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Visualization of mode transformation in a planar waveguide splitter by near-field optical phase imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(7), 910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 294–297 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauss, T. F.

Krishnamoorthy, A.

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuipers, L.

M. Spasenović, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. J. P. Engelen, T. J. Karle, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, T. F. Krauss, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Local probing of Bloch mode dispersion in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4457–4464 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Fluck, M. Hammer, A. M. Otter, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Amplitude and phase evolution of optical fields inside periodic photonic structures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(5), 1384–1393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Visualization of mode transformation in a planar waveguide splitter by near-field optical phase imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(7), 910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 294–297 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laluet, J.-Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanz, M.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(7), 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

Lerondel, G.

Levy, U.

Lewis, A.

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope: I. light is efficiently transmitted through [lambda]/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Licoppe, C.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lindsay, S. M.

H. E. Jackson, S. M. Lindsay, C. D. Poweleit, D. H. Naghski, G. N. De Brabander, and J. T. Boyd, “Near field measurements of optical channel waveguide structures,” Ultramicroscopy 61(1-4), 295–298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Märki, I.

Mersali, B.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mignard, F.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moison, J. M.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Muray, A.

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope: I. light is efficiently transmitted through [lambda]/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Naghski, D. H.

H. E. Jackson, S. M. Lindsay, C. D. Poweleit, D. H. Naghski, G. N. De Brabander, and J. T. Boyd, “Near field measurements of optical channel waveguide structures,” Ultramicroscopy 61(1-4), 295–298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, W.

Nesci, A.

Novotny, L.

Offerhaus, H. L.

J. Jose, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, J. L. Herek, and H. L. Offerhaus, “Imaging of surface plasmon polariton interference using phase-sensitive photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Appl. Phys. A (2011).
[CrossRef]

Otter, A. M.

Park, W.

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, “Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 41113–3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pertsch, T.

Pohl, D. W.

U. C. Fischer and D. W. Pohl, “Observation of single-particle plasmons by near-field optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(4), 458–461 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(7), 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Poweleit, C. D.

H. E. Jackson, S. M. Lindsay, C. D. Poweleit, D. H. Naghski, G. N. De Brabander, and J. T. Boyd, “Near field measurements of optical channel waveguide structures,” Ultramicroscopy 61(1-4), 295–298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

Rogers, J. A.

Royer, P.

Salt, M.

Schonbrun, E.

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, “Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 41113–3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Segerink, F. B.

J. Jose, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, J. L. Herek, and H. L. Offerhaus, “Imaging of surface plasmon polariton interference using phase-sensitive photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Appl. Phys. A (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spasenovic, M.

M. Spasenović, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stefanon, I.

Summers, C. J.

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, “Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 41113–3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tortora, P.

Vaccaro, L.

van Hulst, N.

M. L. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 294–297 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Hulst, N. F.

van Oosten, D.

M. Spasenović, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

M. Spasenović, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vogelgesang, R.

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

Wu, Q.

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, “Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 41113–3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, T.

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, “Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 41113–3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A

J. Jose, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, J. L. Herek, and H. L. Offerhaus, “Imaging of surface plasmon polariton interference using phase-sensitive photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Appl. Phys. A (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Spasenović, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Visualization of mode transformation in a planar waveguide splitter by near-field optical phase imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(7), 910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, “Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 41113–3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(7), 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 182(4-6), 321–328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.

T. Grosjean and D. Courjon, “Polarization filtering induced by imaging systems: effect on image structure,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(4), 046611 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(14), 3029–3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 294–297 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. C. Fischer and D. W. Pohl, “Observation of single-particle plasmons by near-field optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(4), 458–461 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope: I. light is efficiently transmitted through [lambda]/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Jackson, S. M. Lindsay, C. D. Poweleit, D. H. Naghski, G. N. De Brabander, and J. T. Boyd, “Near field measurements of optical channel waveguide structures,” Ultramicroscopy 61(1-4), 295–298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement of the NSOM probe modulated interferometer. (BS – Beam Splitter, DUT – Device Under Test, PD – Photo Detector, LIA – Lock In Amplifier)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of the conversion of mechanical modulation into amplitude modulation of the probed electric field: The NSOM probe oscillates due to modulation of the tuning fork and probes the evanescent decaying field, resulting in a modulated electric field.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) cross section SEM of the WG (b) Superimposed PNSOM signal and topography (c) Raw PNSOM Signal (d) Cross section of the amplitude-phase signal in the direction of propagation of light (e) FFT Spectrum of the cross section, displayed in Effective index units.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) SEM of LOCOS WG with superimposed simulated profile of the fundamnetal guided mode (b) LOCOS WG PNSOM signal (c) LOCOS WG PNSOM signal cross section in the propagation direction (d) FFT Spectrum of the cross section, displayed in Effective index units.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) SEM image of Si serpentine WG (b) Superimposed PNSOM signal on AFM topography (c) PNSOM raw signal (d) FDTD simulation of the s-shaped WG field distribution, in order to improve the visibility the background of the image is amplified.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V ¯ ( x , y , t ) = | a exp ( h d cos ( ω p r o b e t ) ) exp ( i φ ( x , y ) i ω t ) + b exp ( i ω t + i φ 0 ) | 2
V ( x , y , t ) = 4 a b I 1 ( h d ) cos ( ϕ ( x , y ) ) cos ( ω p r o b e t ) 2 a b h d cos ( ϕ ( x , y ) ) cos ( ω p r o b e t )
V ( r , t ) = 2 b n a n h d n cos ( Δ ϕ n ) cos ( ω p r o b e t )

Metrics