Abstract

We propose a new scheme for achieving the complete population transfer and the optimal coherence generation between the ground state and the Rydberg state in a four-level ladder system by combining the STIRAP or fractional STIRAP technique and the π pulse technique. We consider, in particular, two different situations where spontaneous emission from the two highest states are neglected or not. Our numerical calculations show that the time width and the delay time of the π pulse are two critical parameters for attaining the maximal population transfer and coherence generation in this scheme.

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  1. H. R. Gray, R. M. Whitley, and C. R. Stroud, “Coherent trapping of atomic populations,” Opt. Lett. 3, 218–220 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. J. Boller, A. Imamoğlu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J.-Y. Gao, C. Guo, X.-Z. Guo, G.-X. Jin, Q.-W. Wang, J. Zhao, H.-Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D.-Z. Wang, and D.-M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S.-Y. Zhu and M. O. Scully, “Spectral line elimination and spontaneous emission cancellation via quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 388–391 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. J. Gauthier, Y.-F. Zhu, and T. W. Mossberg, “Observation of linewidth narrowing due to coherent stabilization of quantum fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2460–2463 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent population transfer among quantum states of atoms and molecules,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003–1025 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. A. Sautenkov, C.-Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, “Enhancement of field generation via maximal atomic coherence prepared by fast adiabatic passage in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033406 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y.-P. Niu, S.-Q. Gong, R.-X. Li, and S.-Q. Jin, “Creation of atomic coherent superposition states via the technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage using a Λ-type system with a manifold of levels,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023805 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Vewinger, M. Heinz, R. G. Fernandez, N. V. Vitanov, and K. Bergmann, “Creation and measurement of a coherent superposition of quantun states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213001 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. G. Unanyan, M. Fleischhauer, B. W. Shore, and K. Bergmann, “Robust creation and phase-sensitive probing of superposition states via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) with degenerate dark states,” Opt. Commun. 155, 144–154 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. G. Unanyan, B. W. Shore, and K. Bergmann, “Laser-driven population transfer in four-level atoms: consequences of non-Abelian geometrical adiabatic phase factors,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2910–2919 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Theuer, R. G. Unanyan, C. Habscheid, K. Klein, and K. Bergmann, “Novel laser controlled variable matter wave beamsplitter,” Opt. Express 4, 77–83 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Goto and K. Ichimura, “Observation of coherent population transfer in a four-level tripod system with a rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033404 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Saffman and T. G. Walker, “Quantum information with Rydberg atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2313–2363 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Sangouard, L. P. Yatsenko, B. W. Shore, and T. Halfmann, “Preparation of nondegenerate coherent superpositions in a three-state ladder system assisted by Stark shifts,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 043415 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. A. Camp, M. H. Shah, M. L. Trachy, O. L. Weaver, and B. D. DePaola, “Numerical exploration of coherent excitation in three-level systems,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 053401 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. G. Fernandez, A. Ekers, L. P. Yatsenko, N. V. Vitanov, and K. Bergmann, “Control of population flow in coherently driven quantum ladders,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 043001 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Schempp, G. Gunter, C. S. Hofmann, C. Giese, S. D. Saliba, B. D. DePaola, T. Amthor, and M. Weidemuller, “Coherent population trapping with controlled interparticle interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 173602 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

M. Saffman and T. G. Walker, “Quantum information with Rydberg atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2313–2363 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Schempp, G. Gunter, C. S. Hofmann, C. Giese, S. D. Saliba, B. D. DePaola, T. Amthor, and M. Weidemuller, “Coherent population trapping with controlled interparticle interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 173602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

H. Goto and K. Ichimura, “Observation of coherent population transfer in a four-level tripod system with a rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

N. Sangouard, L. P. Yatsenko, B. W. Shore, and T. Halfmann, “Preparation of nondegenerate coherent superpositions in a three-state ladder system assisted by Stark shifts,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 043415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

H. A. Camp, M. H. Shah, M. L. Trachy, O. L. Weaver, and B. D. DePaola, “Numerical exploration of coherent excitation in three-level systems,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 053401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Fernandez, A. Ekers, L. P. Yatsenko, N. V. Vitanov, and K. Bergmann, “Control of population flow in coherently driven quantum ladders,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 043001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

V. A. Sautenkov, C.-Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, “Enhancement of field generation via maximal atomic coherence prepared by fast adiabatic passage in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.-P. Niu, S.-Q. Gong, R.-X. Li, and S.-Q. Jin, “Creation of atomic coherent superposition states via the technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage using a Λ-type system with a manifold of levels,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

F. Vewinger, M. Heinz, R. G. Fernandez, N. V. Vitanov, and K. Bergmann, “Creation and measurement of a coherent superposition of quantun states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

R. G. Unanyan, B. W. Shore, and K. Bergmann, “Laser-driven population transfer in four-level atoms: consequences of non-Abelian geometrical adiabatic phase factors,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2910–2919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Theuer, R. G. Unanyan, C. Habscheid, K. Klein, and K. Bergmann, “Novel laser controlled variable matter wave beamsplitter,” Opt. Express 4, 77–83 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent population transfer among quantum states of atoms and molecules,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003–1025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Unanyan, M. Fleischhauer, B. W. Shore, and K. Bergmann, “Robust creation and phase-sensitive probing of superposition states via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) with degenerate dark states,” Opt. Commun. 155, 144–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S.-Y. Zhu and M. O. Scully, “Spectral line elimination and spontaneous emission cancellation via quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 388–391 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

J.-Y. Gao, C. Guo, X.-Z. Guo, G.-X. Jin, Q.-W. Wang, J. Zhao, H.-Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D.-Z. Wang, and D.-M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

D. J. Gauthier, Y.-F. Zhu, and T. W. Mossberg, “Observation of linewidth narrowing due to coherent stabilization of quantum fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2460–2463 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Boller, A. Imamoğlu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

Amthor, T.

H. Schempp, G. Gunter, C. S. Hofmann, C. Giese, S. D. Saliba, B. D. DePaola, T. Amthor, and M. Weidemuller, “Coherent population trapping with controlled interparticle interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 173602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergmann, K.

R. G. Fernandez, A. Ekers, L. P. Yatsenko, N. V. Vitanov, and K. Bergmann, “Control of population flow in coherently driven quantum ladders,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 043001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Vewinger, M. Heinz, R. G. Fernandez, N. V. Vitanov, and K. Bergmann, “Creation and measurement of a coherent superposition of quantun states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Unanyan, B. W. Shore, and K. Bergmann, “Laser-driven population transfer in four-level atoms: consequences of non-Abelian geometrical adiabatic phase factors,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2910–2919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Theuer, R. G. Unanyan, C. Habscheid, K. Klein, and K. Bergmann, “Novel laser controlled variable matter wave beamsplitter,” Opt. Express 4, 77–83 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Unanyan, M. Fleischhauer, B. W. Shore, and K. Bergmann, “Robust creation and phase-sensitive probing of superposition states via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) with degenerate dark states,” Opt. Commun. 155, 144–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent population transfer among quantum states of atoms and molecules,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003–1025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boller, K. J.

K. J. Boller, A. Imamoğlu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Camp, H. A.

H. A. Camp, M. H. Shah, M. L. Trachy, O. L. Weaver, and B. D. DePaola, “Numerical exploration of coherent excitation in three-level systems,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 053401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

DePaola, B. D.

H. Schempp, G. Gunter, C. S. Hofmann, C. Giese, S. D. Saliba, B. D. DePaola, T. Amthor, and M. Weidemuller, “Coherent population trapping with controlled interparticle interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 173602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Camp, M. H. Shah, M. L. Trachy, O. L. Weaver, and B. D. DePaola, “Numerical exploration of coherent excitation in three-level systems,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 053401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ekers, A.

R. G. Fernandez, A. Ekers, L. P. Yatsenko, N. V. Vitanov, and K. Bergmann, “Control of population flow in coherently driven quantum ladders,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 043001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, R. G.

R. G. Fernandez, A. Ekers, L. P. Yatsenko, N. V. Vitanov, and K. Bergmann, “Control of population flow in coherently driven quantum ladders,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 043001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Vewinger, M. Heinz, R. G. Fernandez, N. V. Vitanov, and K. Bergmann, “Creation and measurement of a coherent superposition of quantun states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleischhauer, M.

R. G. Unanyan, M. Fleischhauer, B. W. Shore, and K. Bergmann, “Robust creation and phase-sensitive probing of superposition states via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) with degenerate dark states,” Opt. Commun. 155, 144–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Gao, C. Guo, X.-Z. Guo, G.-X. Jin, Q.-W. Wang, J. Zhao, H.-Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D.-Z. Wang, and D.-M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, D. J.

D. J. Gauthier, Y.-F. Zhu, and T. W. Mossberg, “Observation of linewidth narrowing due to coherent stabilization of quantum fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2460–2463 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giese, C.

H. Schempp, G. Gunter, C. S. Hofmann, C. Giese, S. D. Saliba, B. D. DePaola, T. Amthor, and M. Weidemuller, “Coherent population trapping with controlled interparticle interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 173602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gong, S.-Q.

Y.-P. Niu, S.-Q. Gong, R.-X. Li, and S.-Q. Jin, “Creation of atomic coherent superposition states via the technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage using a Λ-type system with a manifold of levels,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goto, H.

H. Goto and K. Ichimura, “Observation of coherent population transfer in a four-level tripod system with a rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gray, H. R.

Gunter, G.

H. Schempp, G. Gunter, C. S. Hofmann, C. Giese, S. D. Saliba, B. D. DePaola, T. Amthor, and M. Weidemuller, “Coherent population trapping with controlled interparticle interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 173602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, C.

J.-Y. Gao, C. Guo, X.-Z. Guo, G.-X. Jin, Q.-W. Wang, J. Zhao, H.-Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D.-Z. Wang, and D.-M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.-Z.

J.-Y. Gao, C. Guo, X.-Z. Guo, G.-X. Jin, Q.-W. Wang, J. Zhao, H.-Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D.-Z. Wang, and D.-M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Habscheid, C.

Halfmann, T.

N. Sangouard, L. P. Yatsenko, B. W. Shore, and T. Halfmann, “Preparation of nondegenerate coherent superpositions in a three-state ladder system assisted by Stark shifts,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 043415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

K. J. Boller, A. Imamoğlu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinz, M.

F. Vewinger, M. Heinz, R. G. Fernandez, N. V. Vitanov, and K. Bergmann, “Creation and measurement of a coherent superposition of quantun states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofmann, C. S.

H. Schempp, G. Gunter, C. S. Hofmann, C. Giese, S. D. Saliba, B. D. DePaola, T. Amthor, and M. Weidemuller, “Coherent population trapping with controlled interparticle interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 173602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ichimura, K.

H. Goto and K. Ichimura, “Observation of coherent population transfer in a four-level tripod system with a rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Imamoglu, A.

K. J. Boller, A. Imamoğlu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, D.-M.

J.-Y. Gao, C. Guo, X.-Z. Guo, G.-X. Jin, Q.-W. Wang, J. Zhao, H.-Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D.-Z. Wang, and D.-M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

J.-Y. Gao, C. Guo, X.-Z. Guo, G.-X. Jin, Q.-W. Wang, J. Zhao, H.-Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D.-Z. Wang, and D.-M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jin, G.-X.

J.-Y. Gao, C. Guo, X.-Z. Guo, G.-X. Jin, Q.-W. Wang, J. Zhao, H.-Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D.-Z. Wang, and D.-M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S.-Q.

Y.-P. Niu, S.-Q. Gong, R.-X. Li, and S.-Q. Jin, “Creation of atomic coherent superposition states via the technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage using a Λ-type system with a manifold of levels,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klein, K.

Li, R.-X.

Y.-P. Niu, S.-Q. Gong, R.-X. Li, and S.-Q. Jin, “Creation of atomic coherent superposition states via the technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage using a Λ-type system with a manifold of levels,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mossberg, T. W.

D. J. Gauthier, Y.-F. Zhu, and T. W. Mossberg, “Observation of linewidth narrowing due to coherent stabilization of quantum fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2460–2463 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niu, Y.-P.

Y.-P. Niu, S.-Q. Gong, R.-X. Li, and S.-Q. Jin, “Creation of atomic coherent superposition states via the technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage using a Λ-type system with a manifold of levels,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rostovtsev, Y. V.

V. A. Sautenkov, C.-Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, “Enhancement of field generation via maximal atomic coherence prepared by fast adiabatic passage in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saffman, M.

M. Saffman and T. G. Walker, “Quantum information with Rydberg atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2313–2363 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saliba, S. D.

H. Schempp, G. Gunter, C. S. Hofmann, C. Giese, S. D. Saliba, B. D. DePaola, T. Amthor, and M. Weidemuller, “Coherent population trapping with controlled interparticle interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 173602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sangouard, N.

N. Sangouard, L. P. Yatsenko, B. W. Shore, and T. Halfmann, “Preparation of nondegenerate coherent superpositions in a three-state ladder system assisted by Stark shifts,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 043415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sautenkov, V. A.

V. A. Sautenkov, C.-Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, “Enhancement of field generation via maximal atomic coherence prepared by fast adiabatic passage in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schempp, H.

H. Schempp, G. Gunter, C. S. Hofmann, C. Giese, S. D. Saliba, B. D. DePaola, T. Amthor, and M. Weidemuller, “Coherent population trapping with controlled interparticle interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 173602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scully, M. O.

V. A. Sautenkov, C.-Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, “Enhancement of field generation via maximal atomic coherence prepared by fast adiabatic passage in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Zhu and M. O. Scully, “Spectral line elimination and spontaneous emission cancellation via quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 388–391 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, M. H.

H. A. Camp, M. H. Shah, M. L. Trachy, O. L. Weaver, and B. D. DePaola, “Numerical exploration of coherent excitation in three-level systems,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 053401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shore, B. W.

N. Sangouard, L. P. Yatsenko, B. W. Shore, and T. Halfmann, “Preparation of nondegenerate coherent superpositions in a three-state ladder system assisted by Stark shifts,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 043415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Unanyan, B. W. Shore, and K. Bergmann, “Laser-driven population transfer in four-level atoms: consequences of non-Abelian geometrical adiabatic phase factors,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2910–2919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Unanyan, M. Fleischhauer, B. W. Shore, and K. Bergmann, “Robust creation and phase-sensitive probing of superposition states via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) with degenerate dark states,” Opt. Commun. 155, 144–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent population transfer among quantum states of atoms and molecules,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003–1025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stroud, C. R.

Theuer, H.

H. Theuer, R. G. Unanyan, C. Habscheid, K. Klein, and K. Bergmann, “Novel laser controlled variable matter wave beamsplitter,” Opt. Express 4, 77–83 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent population transfer among quantum states of atoms and molecules,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003–1025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Trachy, M. L.

H. A. Camp, M. H. Shah, M. L. Trachy, O. L. Weaver, and B. D. DePaola, “Numerical exploration of coherent excitation in three-level systems,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 053401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Unanyan, R. G.

H. Theuer, R. G. Unanyan, C. Habscheid, K. Klein, and K. Bergmann, “Novel laser controlled variable matter wave beamsplitter,” Opt. Express 4, 77–83 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Unanyan, B. W. Shore, and K. Bergmann, “Laser-driven population transfer in four-level atoms: consequences of non-Abelian geometrical adiabatic phase factors,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2910–2919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Unanyan, M. Fleischhauer, B. W. Shore, and K. Bergmann, “Robust creation and phase-sensitive probing of superposition states via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) with degenerate dark states,” Opt. Commun. 155, 144–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vewinger, F.

F. Vewinger, M. Heinz, R. G. Fernandez, N. V. Vitanov, and K. Bergmann, “Creation and measurement of a coherent superposition of quantun states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitanov, N. V.

R. G. Fernandez, A. Ekers, L. P. Yatsenko, N. V. Vitanov, and K. Bergmann, “Control of population flow in coherently driven quantum ladders,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 043001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Vewinger, M. Heinz, R. G. Fernandez, N. V. Vitanov, and K. Bergmann, “Creation and measurement of a coherent superposition of quantun states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, T. G.

M. Saffman and T. G. Walker, “Quantum information with Rydberg atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2313–2363 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.-Z.

J.-Y. Gao, C. Guo, X.-Z. Guo, G.-X. Jin, Q.-W. Wang, J. Zhao, H.-Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D.-Z. Wang, and D.-M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.-W.

J.-Y. Gao, C. Guo, X.-Z. Guo, G.-X. Jin, Q.-W. Wang, J. Zhao, H.-Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D.-Z. Wang, and D.-M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, O. L.

H. A. Camp, M. H. Shah, M. L. Trachy, O. L. Weaver, and B. D. DePaola, “Numerical exploration of coherent excitation in three-level systems,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 053401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weidemuller, M.

H. Schempp, G. Gunter, C. S. Hofmann, C. Giese, S. D. Saliba, B. D. DePaola, T. Amthor, and M. Weidemuller, “Coherent population trapping with controlled interparticle interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 173602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, G. R.

V. A. Sautenkov, C.-Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, “Enhancement of field generation via maximal atomic coherence prepared by fast adiabatic passage in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Whitley, R. M.

Yatsenko, L. P.

N. Sangouard, L. P. Yatsenko, B. W. Shore, and T. Halfmann, “Preparation of nondegenerate coherent superpositions in a three-state ladder system assisted by Stark shifts,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 043415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Fernandez, A. Ekers, L. P. Yatsenko, N. V. Vitanov, and K. Bergmann, “Control of population flow in coherently driven quantum ladders,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 043001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ye, C.-Y.

V. A. Sautenkov, C.-Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, “Enhancement of field generation via maximal atomic coherence prepared by fast adiabatic passage in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.-Z.

J.-Y. Gao, C. Guo, X.-Z. Guo, G.-X. Jin, Q.-W. Wang, J. Zhao, H.-Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D.-Z. Wang, and D.-M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

J.-Y. Gao, C. Guo, X.-Z. Guo, G.-X. Jin, Q.-W. Wang, J. Zhao, H.-Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D.-Z. Wang, and D.-M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Zhu and M. O. Scully, “Spectral line elimination and spontaneous emission cancellation via quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 388–391 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.-F.

D. J. Gauthier, Y.-F. Zhu, and T. W. Mossberg, “Observation of linewidth narrowing due to coherent stabilization of quantum fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2460–2463 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

J.-Y. Gao, C. Guo, X.-Z. Guo, G.-X. Jin, Q.-W. Wang, J. Zhao, H.-Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D.-Z. Wang, and D.-M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Unanyan, M. Fleischhauer, B. W. Shore, and K. Bergmann, “Robust creation and phase-sensitive probing of superposition states via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) with degenerate dark states,” Opt. Commun. 155, 144–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (6)

V. A. Sautenkov, C.-Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, “Enhancement of field generation via maximal atomic coherence prepared by fast adiabatic passage in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 033406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.-P. Niu, S.-Q. Gong, R.-X. Li, and S.-Q. Jin, “Creation of atomic coherent superposition states via the technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage using a Λ-type system with a manifold of levels,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Goto and K. Ichimura, “Observation of coherent population transfer in a four-level tripod system with a rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 033404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Unanyan, B. W. Shore, and K. Bergmann, “Laser-driven population transfer in four-level atoms: consequences of non-Abelian geometrical adiabatic phase factors,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2910–2919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Sangouard, L. P. Yatsenko, B. W. Shore, and T. Halfmann, “Preparation of nondegenerate coherent superpositions in a three-state ladder system assisted by Stark shifts,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 043415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Camp, M. H. Shah, M. L. Trachy, O. L. Weaver, and B. D. DePaola, “Numerical exploration of coherent excitation in three-level systems,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 053401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

R. G. Fernandez, A. Ekers, L. P. Yatsenko, N. V. Vitanov, and K. Bergmann, “Control of population flow in coherently driven quantum ladders,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 043001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Schempp, G. Gunter, C. S. Hofmann, C. Giese, S. D. Saliba, B. D. DePaola, T. Amthor, and M. Weidemuller, “Coherent population trapping with controlled interparticle interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 173602 (2010).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Gauthier, Y.-F. Zhu, and T. W. Mossberg, “Observation of linewidth narrowing due to coherent stabilization of quantum fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2460–2463 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent population transfer among quantum states of atoms and molecules,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003–1025 (1998).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level diagram of a four-level ladder-type atomic system with Ω p , Ω s , and Ω π being, respectively, Rabi frequencies of the applied pump, Stokes, and π pulses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) (a) Time sequence of the Stokes, pump, and π pulses. The pump and π pulses are delayed from the Stokes pulse by τp and τπ , respectively. (b) Time evolution of atomic populations ρ 11, ρ 33, and ρ 44. Dashed curves are plotted for an ideal four-level ladder system with Γ32 = Γ41 = Γ43 = 0; solid curves are plotted for a realistic four-level ladder system with Γ32 = 200 kHz, Γ41 = 10 kHz, and Γ43 = 50 kHz. Other parameters are set as Δ2 = Δ3 = 0, Γ21 = 38 MHz, Ω p 0 = Ω s 0 = 400 MHz, Ω π 0 = 40 MHz, Ts = Tp = 80 ns, Tπ = 22.15 ns, τp = 94 ns, and τπ = 77 ns.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Atomic population ρ 44 as a function of the delay time τπ . for an ideal four-level ladder system in (a); for a realistic four-level ladder system in (b). Dashed, solid, and dash-dotted curves correspond to Ω π 0 = 4 MHz, 40 MHz, and 400 MHz, respectively. Other parameters are the same as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) (a) Time sequence of the Stokes, pump, and π pulses. The pump and Stokes pulses have the same falling edge while the π pulse is delayed from the pump pulse by τπ . (b) Time evolution of atomic population and coherence ρ 11, ρ 33, ρ 44, and ρ 14 for an ideal four-level ladder system with Γ32 = Γ41 = Γ43 = 0. Other parameters are set as Δ2 = Δ3 = 0, Γ21 = 38 MHz, Ω p 0 = Ω s 0 = 400 MHz, Ω π 0 = 40 MHz, Ts = Tp = 80 ns, Tπ = 22.15 ns, τp = 0, and τπ = 125 ns.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Atomic coherence ρ 14 as a function of the delay time τπ for an ideal four-level ladder system in (a); for a realistic four-level ladder system in (b). Dashed, solid, and dash-dotted curves correspond to Ω π 0 = 4 MHz, 40 MHz, and 400 MHz, respectively. Other parameters are the same as in Fig. 4.

Equations (6)

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A ( t ) = Ω π 0 e ( t τ π ) 2 T π 2 dt = π ,
Ω π 0 T π = π
H I = ( 0 Ω s ( t ) 0 0 Ω s * ( t ) Δ 2 Ω p ( t ) 0 0 Ω p * ( t ) Δ 2 + Δ 3 Ω π ( t ) 0 0 Ω π * ( t ) Δ 2 + Δ 3 )
i h ¯ ρ t = [ H I , ρ ] 1 2 i h ¯ [ Γ , ρ ]
ρ ˙ 11 = i Ω p ρ 12 + i Ω p * ρ 21 + Γ 21 ρ 22 + Γ 41 ρ 44 , ρ ˙ 22 = i Ω p ρ 12 i Ω p * ρ 21 i Ω s ρ 23 + i Ω s * ρ 32 Γ 21 ρ 22 + Γ 32 ρ 33 , ρ ˙ 33 = i Ω s ρ 23 i Ω s * ρ 32 i Ω π ρ 34 + i Ω π * ρ 43 Γ 32 ρ 33 + Γ 43 ρ 44 , ρ ˙ 44 = i Ω π ρ 34 i Ω π * ρ 43 ( Γ 41 + Γ 43 ) ρ 44 , ρ ˙ 12 = i Ω p * ( ρ 11 ρ 22 ) i Ω s ρ 13 + i Δ 2 ρ 12 γ 21 ρ 12 , ρ ˙ 13 = i Ω p * ρ 23 i Ω s * ρ 12 i Ω π ρ 14 + i ( Δ 2 + Δ 3 ) ρ 13 γ 31 ρ 13 , ρ ˙ 14 = i Ω p * ρ 24 i Ω π * ρ 13 + i ( Δ 2 + Δ 3 ) ρ 14 γ 41 ρ 14 , ρ ˙ 23 = i Ω p ρ 13 + i Ω s * ( ρ 33 ρ 22 ) i Ω π ρ 24 + i Δ 2 ρ 23 γ 32 ρ 23 .
Ω p z + 1 c Ω p t = i κ 12 ρ 21 , Ω s z + 1 c Ω s t = i κ 23 ρ 32 , Ω π z + 1 c Ω π t = i κ 34 ρ 43 .

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