Abstract

We have demonstrated the electroluminescence (EL) of Ga:ZnO/i-ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite/p-GaN n-i-p heterostructure light-emitting devices (LEDs). ZnO nano-clusters with sizes distributing from 2 to 7nm were found inside the co-sputtered i-ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite layer under the observation of high-resolution transparent electron microscope. A clear UV EL at 376 nm from i-ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite in these p-i-n heterostructure LEDs was observed under the forward current of 9 mA. The EL emission peak at 376 and 427nm of the Ga:ZnO/i-ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite/p-GaN n-i-p heterostructure LEDs were attributed to the radiative recombination from the ZnO clusters and the Mg acceptor levels in the p-GaN layer, respectively.

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2011

2010

M. J. Chen, Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, H. C. Chen, H. L. Tsai, W. C. Li, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “Structure and Ultraviolet Electroluminescence of n-ZnO/SiO2-ZnO Nanocomposite/p-GaN Heterostructure Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(9), 2195–2202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. Kuan, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Amplified spontaneous emission from ZnO in n-ZnO/ZnO nanodots–SiO2 composite/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 20(16), 1–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Wu, Y. T. Shih, M. J. Chen, J. R. Yang, and M. Shiojiri, “ZnO quantum dots embedded in a SiO2 nanoparticle layer grown by atomic layer deposition,” P hys,” Status Solidi RRL 3(2-3), 88–90 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. Kim, F. Lugo, S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, Y.-L. Wang, and F. Ren, “Phosphorus doped ZnO light emitting diodes fabricated via pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 112108-112110(2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Musat, E. Fortunato, S. Petrescu, and A. M. Botelho do Rego, “ZnO/SiO2 nanocomposite thin films by sol–gel method,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(8), 2075–2079 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

I. Martil, E. Redondo, and A. Ojeda, “Influence of defects on the electrical and optical characteristics of blue light-emitting diodes on III-V nitrides,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(5), 2442–2444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, W. Liu, S. M. Liu, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. D. Zheng, “Electroluminescent and transport mechanisms of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182112-182114(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. Hong, H. Qi, J. Huang, H. He, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, “Influence of oxygen partial pressure on the structure and photoluminescence of direct current reactive magnetron sputtering ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 473(1), 58–62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light- emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, C. S. Xu, Y. X. Liu, C. L. Shao, H. Y. Xu, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of ZnO particles embedded in SiO2 matrix by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

V. A. L. Roy, A. B. Djurišić, W. K. Chan, J. Gao, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “Luminescent and structural properties of ZnO nanorods prepared under different conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(1), 141–143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6HSiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Alivov, J. E. V. Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. C. Look, D. C. Reynolds, C. W. Litton, R. L. Jones, D. B. Eason, and G. Cantwell, “Characterization of homoepitaxial p-type ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1830–1832 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Mädler, W. J. Stark, and S. E. Pratsinis, “Rapid synthesis of stable ZnO quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6537–6540 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dai, Y. Zhang, Q. K. Li, and C. W. Nan, “Synthesis and optical properties of tetrapod-like zinc oxide nanorods,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 358(1-2), 83–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Wang, L. D. Zhang, G. Z. Wang, X. S. Peng, Z. Q. Chu, and C. H. Liang, “Catalytic growth of semiconducting zinc oxide nanowires and their photoluminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 234(1), 171–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

X. L. Wu, G. G. Siu, C. L. Fu, and H. C. Ong, “Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(16), 2285–2287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Pan, Z. R. Dai, and Z. L. Wang, “Electrostatic Deflections and Electromechanical Resonances of Carbon Nanotubes,” Science 291, 1947–1949 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Zhang, S. H. Wei, and A. Zunger, “Intrinsic n-type versus p-type doping asymmetry and the defect physics of ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 63(7), 075205–075205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. Ohta, K. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p –n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2 /n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 475–477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Monticone, R. Tufeu, and A. V. Kanaev, “Complex nature of the UV and visible fluorescence of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102(16), 2854–2862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

K. Vanheusden, C. H. Seager, W. L. Warren, D. R. Tallant, and J. A. Voigt, “Correlation between photoluminescence and oxygen vacancies in ZnO phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(3), 403–405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, H. S.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alivov, Y. I.

Y. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6HSiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Alivov, J. E. V. Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ataev, B. M.

Y. I. Alivov, J. E. V. Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6HSiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bagnall, D. M.

Y. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6HSiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Botelho do Rego, A. M.

V. Musat, E. Fortunato, S. Petrescu, and A. M. Botelho do Rego, “ZnO/SiO2 nanocomposite thin films by sol–gel method,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(8), 2075–2079 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bratschitsch, R.

Cantwell, G.

D. C. Look, D. C. Reynolds, C. W. Litton, R. L. Jones, D. B. Eason, and G. Cantwell, “Characterization of homoepitaxial p-type ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1830–1832 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. K.

V. A. L. Roy, A. B. Djurišić, W. K. Chan, J. Gao, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “Luminescent and structural properties of ZnO nanorods prepared under different conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(1), 141–143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. C.

M. J. Chen, Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, H. C. Chen, H. L. Tsai, W. C. Li, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “Structure and Ultraviolet Electroluminescence of n-ZnO/SiO2-ZnO Nanocomposite/p-GaN Heterostructure Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(9), 2195–2202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M. J.

M. J. Chen, Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, H. C. Chen, H. L. Tsai, W. C. Li, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “Structure and Ultraviolet Electroluminescence of n-ZnO/SiO2-ZnO Nanocomposite/p-GaN Heterostructure Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(9), 2195–2202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Wu, Y. T. Shih, M. J. Chen, J. R. Yang, and M. Shiojiri, “ZnO quantum dots embedded in a SiO2 nanoparticle layer grown by atomic layer deposition,” P hys,” Status Solidi RRL 3(2-3), 88–90 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. Kuan, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Amplified spontaneous emission from ZnO in n-ZnO/ZnO nanodots–SiO2 composite/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 20(16), 1–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cherenkov, A. E.

Y. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6HSiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S. F.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light- emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H. K.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chu, Z. Q.

Y. W. Wang, L. D. Zhang, G. Z. Wang, X. S. Peng, Z. Q. Chu, and C. H. Liang, “Catalytic growth of semiconducting zinc oxide nanowires and their photoluminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 234(1), 171–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chukichev, M. V.

Y. I. Alivov, J. E. V. Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6HSiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y.

Y. Dai, Y. Zhang, Q. K. Li, and C. W. Nan, “Synthesis and optical properties of tetrapod-like zinc oxide nanorods,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 358(1-2), 83–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Z. R.

Z. W. Pan, Z. R. Dai, and Z. L. Wang, “Electrostatic Deflections and Electromechanical Resonances of Carbon Nanotubes,” Science 291, 1947–1949 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Djurišic, A. B.

V. A. L. Roy, A. B. Djurišić, W. K. Chan, J. Gao, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “Luminescent and structural properties of ZnO nanorods prepared under different conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(1), 141–143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eason, D. B.

D. C. Look, D. C. Reynolds, C. W. Litton, R. L. Jones, D. B. Eason, and G. Cantwell, “Characterization of homoepitaxial p-type ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1830–1832 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X. W.

J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, C. S. Xu, Y. X. Liu, C. L. Shao, H. Y. Xu, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of ZnO particles embedded in SiO2 matrix by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z.

R. Hong, H. Qi, J. Huang, H. He, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, “Influence of oxygen partial pressure on the structure and photoluminescence of direct current reactive magnetron sputtering ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 473(1), 58–62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fonin, M.

Fortunato, E.

V. Musat, E. Fortunato, S. Petrescu, and A. M. Botelho do Rego, “ZnO/SiO2 nanocomposite thin films by sol–gel method,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(8), 2075–2079 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fu, C. L.

X. L. Wu, G. G. Siu, C. L. Fu, and H. C. Ong, “Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(16), 2285–2287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fuke, S.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light- emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.

V. A. L. Roy, A. B. Djurišić, W. K. Chan, J. Gao, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “Luminescent and structural properties of ZnO nanorods prepared under different conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(1), 141–143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gerthsen, D.

Goto, T.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gu, S. L.

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, W. Liu, S. M. Liu, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. D. Zheng, “Electroluminescent and transport mechanisms of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182112-182114(2006).
[CrossRef]

He, H.

R. Hong, H. Qi, J. Huang, H. He, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, “Influence of oxygen partial pressure on the structure and photoluminescence of direct current reactive magnetron sputtering ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 473(1), 58–62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, M.

H. Ohta, K. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p –n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2 /n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 475–477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hong, R.

R. Hong, H. Qi, J. Huang, H. He, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, “Influence of oxygen partial pressure on the structure and photoluminescence of direct current reactive magnetron sputtering ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 473(1), 58–62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hosono, H.

H. Ohta, K. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p –n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2 /n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 475–477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

R. Hong, H. Qi, J. Huang, H. He, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, “Influence of oxygen partial pressure on the structure and photoluminescence of direct current reactive magnetron sputtering ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 473(1), 58–62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. L.

D. C. Look, D. C. Reynolds, C. W. Litton, R. L. Jones, D. B. Eason, and G. Cantwell, “Characterization of homoepitaxial p-type ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1830–1832 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kalinina, E. V.

Y. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6HSiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kanaev, A. V.

S. Monticone, R. Tufeu, and A. V. Kanaev, “Complex nature of the UV and visible fluorescence of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102(16), 2854–2862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, K.

H. Ohta, K. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p –n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2 /n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 475–477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, M.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light- emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kiliani, G.

Kim, H. S.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, F. Lugo, S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, Y.-L. Wang, and F. Ren, “Phosphorus doped ZnO light emitting diodes fabricated via pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 112108-112110(2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. Y.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koinuma, H.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light- emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kong, B. H.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuan, H.

M. J. Chen, Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, H. C. Chen, H. L. Tsai, W. C. Li, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “Structure and Ultraviolet Electroluminescence of n-ZnO/SiO2-ZnO Nanocomposite/p-GaN Heterostructure Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(9), 2195–2202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. Kuan, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Amplified spontaneous emission from ZnO in n-ZnO/ZnO nanodots–SiO2 composite/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 20(16), 1–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. S.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

Li, Q. K.

Y. Dai, Y. Zhang, Q. K. Li, and C. W. Nan, “Synthesis and optical properties of tetrapod-like zinc oxide nanorods,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 358(1-2), 83–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, W. C.

M. J. Chen, Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, H. C. Chen, H. L. Tsai, W. C. Li, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “Structure and Ultraviolet Electroluminescence of n-ZnO/SiO2-ZnO Nanocomposite/p-GaN Heterostructure Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(9), 2195–2202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. Kuan, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Amplified spontaneous emission from ZnO in n-ZnO/ZnO nanodots–SiO2 composite/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 20(16), 1–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liang, C. H.

Y. W. Wang, L. D. Zhang, G. Z. Wang, X. S. Peng, Z. Q. Chu, and C. H. Liang, “Catalytic growth of semiconducting zinc oxide nanowires and their photoluminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 234(1), 171–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Litton, C. W.

D. C. Look, D. C. Reynolds, C. W. Litton, R. L. Jones, D. B. Eason, and G. Cantwell, “Characterization of homoepitaxial p-type ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1830–1832 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Litvinov, D.

Liu, S. M.

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, W. Liu, S. M. Liu, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. D. Zheng, “Electroluminescent and transport mechanisms of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182112-182114(2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, W. Liu, S. M. Liu, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. D. Zheng, “Electroluminescent and transport mechanisms of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182112-182114(2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. C.

J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, C. S. Xu, Y. X. Liu, C. L. Shao, H. Y. Xu, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of ZnO particles embedded in SiO2 matrix by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. X.

J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, C. S. Xu, Y. X. Liu, C. L. Shao, H. Y. Xu, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of ZnO particles embedded in SiO2 matrix by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Look, D. C.

Y. I. Alivov, J. E. V. Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6HSiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Look, D. C. Reynolds, C. W. Litton, R. L. Jones, D. B. Eason, and G. Cantwell, “Characterization of homoepitaxial p-type ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1830–1832 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. M.

J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, C. S. Xu, Y. X. Liu, C. L. Shao, H. Y. Xu, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of ZnO particles embedded in SiO2 matrix by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lugo, F.

S. Kim, F. Lugo, S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, Y.-L. Wang, and F. Ren, “Phosphorus doped ZnO light emitting diodes fabricated via pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 112108-112110(2008).
[CrossRef]

Lui, H. F.

V. A. L. Roy, A. B. Djurišić, W. K. Chan, J. Gao, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “Luminescent and structural properties of ZnO nanorods prepared under different conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(1), 141–143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J. G.

J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, C. S. Xu, Y. X. Liu, C. L. Shao, H. Y. Xu, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of ZnO particles embedded in SiO2 matrix by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mädler, L.

L. Mädler, W. J. Stark, and S. E. Pratsinis, “Rapid synthesis of stable ZnO quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6537–6540 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Makino, T.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light- emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martil, I.

I. Martil, E. Redondo, and A. Ojeda, “Influence of defects on the electrical and optical characteristics of blue light-emitting diodes on III-V nitrides,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(5), 2442–2444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Monticone, S.

S. Monticone, R. Tufeu, and A. V. Kanaev, “Complex nature of the UV and visible fluorescence of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102(16), 2854–2862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Musat, V.

V. Musat, E. Fortunato, S. Petrescu, and A. M. Botelho do Rego, “ZnO/SiO2 nanocomposite thin films by sol–gel method,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(8), 2075–2079 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nan, C. W.

Y. Dai, Y. Zhang, Q. K. Li, and C. W. Nan, “Synthesis and optical properties of tetrapod-like zinc oxide nanorods,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 358(1-2), 83–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Norton, D. P.

S. Kim, F. Lugo, S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, Y.-L. Wang, and F. Ren, “Phosphorus doped ZnO light emitting diodes fabricated via pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 112108-112110(2008).
[CrossRef]

Nostrand, J. E. V.

Y. I. Alivov, J. E. V. Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, H.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light- emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, H.

H. Ohta, K. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p –n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2 /n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 475–477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ohtani, K.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light- emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohtani, M.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light- emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohtomo, A.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light- emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ojeda, A.

I. Martil, E. Redondo, and A. Ojeda, “Influence of defects on the electrical and optical characteristics of blue light-emitting diodes on III-V nitrides,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(5), 2442–2444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Omaev, A. K.

Y. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6HSiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ong, H. C.

X. L. Wu, G. G. Siu, C. L. Fu, and H. C. Ong, “Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(16), 2285–2287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Onuma, T.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light- emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Orita, M.

H. Ohta, K. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p –n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2 /n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 475–477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Z. W.

Z. W. Pan, Z. R. Dai, and Z. L. Wang, “Electrostatic Deflections and Electromechanical Resonances of Carbon Nanotubes,” Science 291, 1947–1949 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearton, S. J.

S. Kim, F. Lugo, S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, Y.-L. Wang, and F. Ren, “Phosphorus doped ZnO light emitting diodes fabricated via pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 112108-112110(2008).
[CrossRef]

Peng, X. S.

Y. W. Wang, L. D. Zhang, G. Z. Wang, X. S. Peng, Z. Q. Chu, and C. H. Liang, “Catalytic growth of semiconducting zinc oxide nanowires and their photoluminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 234(1), 171–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Petrescu, S.

V. Musat, E. Fortunato, S. Petrescu, and A. M. Botelho do Rego, “ZnO/SiO2 nanocomposite thin films by sol–gel method,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(8), 2075–2079 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pratsinis, S. E.

L. Mädler, W. J. Stark, and S. E. Pratsinis, “Rapid synthesis of stable ZnO quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6537–6540 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qi, H.

R. Hong, H. Qi, J. Huang, H. He, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, “Influence of oxygen partial pressure on the structure and photoluminescence of direct current reactive magnetron sputtering ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 473(1), 58–62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Redondo, E.

I. Martil, E. Redondo, and A. Ojeda, “Influence of defects on the electrical and optical characteristics of blue light-emitting diodes on III-V nitrides,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(5), 2442–2444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ren, F.

S. Kim, F. Lugo, S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, Y.-L. Wang, and F. Ren, “Phosphorus doped ZnO light emitting diodes fabricated via pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 112108-112110(2008).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, D. C.

D. C. Look, D. C. Reynolds, C. W. Litton, R. L. Jones, D. B. Eason, and G. Cantwell, “Characterization of homoepitaxial p-type ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1830–1832 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roy, V. A. L.

V. A. L. Roy, A. B. Djurišić, W. K. Chan, J. Gao, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “Luminescent and structural properties of ZnO nanorods prepared under different conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(1), 141–143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rudiger, U.

Sarukura, N.

H. Ohta, K. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p –n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2 /n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 475–477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, R.

Seager, C. H.

K. Vanheusden, C. H. Seager, W. L. Warren, D. R. Tallant, and J. A. Voigt, “Correlation between photoluminescence and oxygen vacancies in ZnO phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(3), 403–405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Segawa, Y.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light- emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shao, C. L.

J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, C. S. Xu, Y. X. Liu, C. L. Shao, H. Y. Xu, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of ZnO particles embedded in SiO2 matrix by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shao, J.

R. Hong, H. Qi, J. Huang, H. He, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, “Influence of oxygen partial pressure on the structure and photoluminescence of direct current reactive magnetron sputtering ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 473(1), 58–62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D. Z.

J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, C. S. Xu, Y. X. Liu, C. L. Shao, H. Y. Xu, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of ZnO particles embedded in SiO2 matrix by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, M. Y.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, W. Liu, S. M. Liu, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. D. Zheng, “Electroluminescent and transport mechanisms of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182112-182114(2006).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y. T.

M. J. Chen, Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, H. C. Chen, H. L. Tsai, W. C. Li, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “Structure and Ultraviolet Electroluminescence of n-ZnO/SiO2-ZnO Nanocomposite/p-GaN Heterostructure Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(9), 2195–2202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Wu, Y. T. Shih, M. J. Chen, J. R. Yang, and M. Shiojiri, “ZnO quantum dots embedded in a SiO2 nanoparticle layer grown by atomic layer deposition,” P hys,” Status Solidi RRL 3(2-3), 88–90 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. Kuan, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Amplified spontaneous emission from ZnO in n-ZnO/ZnO nanodots–SiO2 composite/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 20(16), 1–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shiojiri, M.

M. J. Chen, Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, H. C. Chen, H. L. Tsai, W. C. Li, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “Structure and Ultraviolet Electroluminescence of n-ZnO/SiO2-ZnO Nanocomposite/p-GaN Heterostructure Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(9), 2195–2202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Wu, Y. T. Shih, M. J. Chen, J. R. Yang, and M. Shiojiri, “ZnO quantum dots embedded in a SiO2 nanoparticle layer grown by atomic layer deposition,” P hys,” Status Solidi RRL 3(2-3), 88–90 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. Kuan, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Amplified spontaneous emission from ZnO in n-ZnO/ZnO nanodots–SiO2 composite/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 20(16), 1–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Siu, G. G.

X. L. Wu, G. G. Siu, C. L. Fu, and H. C. Ong, “Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(16), 2285–2287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stark, W. J.

L. Mädler, W. J. Stark, and S. E. Pratsinis, “Rapid synthesis of stable ZnO quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6537–6540 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sumiya, M.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light- emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Surya, C.

V. A. L. Roy, A. B. Djurišić, W. K. Chan, J. Gao, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “Luminescent and structural properties of ZnO nanorods prepared under different conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(1), 141–143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tallant, D. R.

K. Vanheusden, C. H. Seager, W. L. Warren, D. R. Tallant, and J. A. Voigt, “Correlation between photoluminescence and oxygen vacancies in ZnO phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(3), 403–405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, H. L.

M. J. Chen, Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, H. C. Chen, H. L. Tsai, W. C. Li, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “Structure and Ultraviolet Electroluminescence of n-ZnO/SiO2-ZnO Nanocomposite/p-GaN Heterostructure Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(9), 2195–2202 (2010).
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A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light- emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tufeu, R.

S. Monticone, R. Tufeu, and A. V. Kanaev, “Complex nature of the UV and visible fluorescence of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102(16), 2854–2862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vanheusden, K.

K. Vanheusden, C. H. Seager, W. L. Warren, D. R. Tallant, and J. A. Voigt, “Correlation between photoluminescence and oxygen vacancies in ZnO phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(3), 403–405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Voigt, J. A.

K. Vanheusden, C. H. Seager, W. L. Warren, D. R. Tallant, and J. A. Voigt, “Correlation between photoluminescence and oxygen vacancies in ZnO phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(3), 403–405 (1996).
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Y. W. Wang, L. D. Zhang, G. Z. Wang, X. S. Peng, Z. Q. Chu, and C. H. Liang, “Catalytic growth of semiconducting zinc oxide nanowires and their photoluminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 234(1), 171–175 (2002).
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Wang, Y. W.

Y. W. Wang, L. D. Zhang, G. Z. Wang, X. S. Peng, Z. Q. Chu, and C. H. Liang, “Catalytic growth of semiconducting zinc oxide nanowires and their photoluminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 234(1), 171–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.-L.

S. Kim, F. Lugo, S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, Y.-L. Wang, and F. Ren, “Phosphorus doped ZnO light emitting diodes fabricated via pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 112108-112110(2008).
[CrossRef]

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Z. W. Pan, Z. R. Dai, and Z. L. Wang, “Electrostatic Deflections and Electromechanical Resonances of Carbon Nanotubes,” Science 291, 1947–1949 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warren, W. L.

K. Vanheusden, C. H. Seager, W. L. Warren, D. R. Tallant, and J. A. Voigt, “Correlation between photoluminescence and oxygen vacancies in ZnO phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(3), 403–405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wei, S. H.

S. B. Zhang, S. H. Wei, and A. Zunger, “Intrinsic n-type versus p-type doping asymmetry and the defect physics of ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 63(7), 075205–075205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. K.

M. J. Chen, Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, H. C. Chen, H. L. Tsai, W. C. Li, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “Structure and Ultraviolet Electroluminescence of n-ZnO/SiO2-ZnO Nanocomposite/p-GaN Heterostructure Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(9), 2195–2202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Wu, Y. T. Shih, M. J. Chen, J. R. Yang, and M. Shiojiri, “ZnO quantum dots embedded in a SiO2 nanoparticle layer grown by atomic layer deposition,” P hys,” Status Solidi RRL 3(2-3), 88–90 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. Kuan, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Amplified spontaneous emission from ZnO in n-ZnO/ZnO nanodots–SiO2 composite/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 20(16), 1–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. L.

X. L. Wu, G. G. Siu, C. L. Fu, and H. C. Ong, “Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(16), 2285–2287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C. S.

J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, C. S. Xu, Y. X. Liu, C. L. Shao, H. Y. Xu, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of ZnO particles embedded in SiO2 matrix by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H. Y.

J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, C. S. Xu, Y. X. Liu, C. L. Shao, H. Y. Xu, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of ZnO particles embedded in SiO2 matrix by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. R.

M. J. Chen, Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, H. C. Chen, H. L. Tsai, W. C. Li, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “Structure and Ultraviolet Electroluminescence of n-ZnO/SiO2-ZnO Nanocomposite/p-GaN Heterostructure Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(9), 2195–2202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Wu, Y. T. Shih, M. J. Chen, J. R. Yang, and M. Shiojiri, “ZnO quantum dots embedded in a SiO2 nanoparticle layer grown by atomic layer deposition,” P hys,” Status Solidi RRL 3(2-3), 88–90 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. Kuan, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Amplified spontaneous emission from ZnO in n-ZnO/ZnO nanodots–SiO2 composite/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 20(16), 1–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yao, T.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J. D.

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, W. Liu, S. M. Liu, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. D. Zheng, “Electroluminescent and transport mechanisms of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182112-182114(2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. Y.

J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, C. S. Xu, Y. X. Liu, C. L. Shao, H. Y. Xu, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of ZnO particles embedded in SiO2 matrix by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L. D.

Y. W. Wang, L. D. Zhang, G. Z. Wang, X. S. Peng, Z. Q. Chu, and C. H. Liang, “Catalytic growth of semiconducting zinc oxide nanowires and their photoluminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 234(1), 171–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, W. Liu, S. M. Liu, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. D. Zheng, “Electroluminescent and transport mechanisms of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182112-182114(2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. B.

S. B. Zhang, S. H. Wei, and A. Zunger, “Intrinsic n-type versus p-type doping asymmetry and the defect physics of ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 63(7), 075205–075205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Dai, Y. Zhang, Q. K. Li, and C. W. Nan, “Synthesis and optical properties of tetrapod-like zinc oxide nanorods,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 358(1-2), 83–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y. D.

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, W. Liu, S. M. Liu, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. D. Zheng, “Electroluminescent and transport mechanisms of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182112-182114(2006).
[CrossRef]

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J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, W. Liu, S. M. Liu, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. D. Zheng, “Electroluminescent and transport mechanisms of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182112-182114(2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zunger, A.

S. B. Zhang, S. H. Wei, and A. Zunger, “Intrinsic n-type versus p-type doping asymmetry and the defect physics of ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 63(7), 075205–075205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, F. Lugo, S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, Y.-L. Wang, and F. Ren, “Phosphorus doped ZnO light emitting diodes fabricated via pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 112108-112110(2008).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Look, D. C. Reynolds, C. W. Litton, R. L. Jones, D. B. Eason, and G. Cantwell, “Characterization of homoepitaxial p-type ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1830–1832 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, W. Liu, S. M. Liu, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. D. Zheng, “Electroluminescent and transport mechanisms of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182112-182114(2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6HSiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ohta, K. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p –n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2 /n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 475–477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Alivov, J. E. V. Nostrand, D. C. Look, M. V. Chukichev, and B. M. Ataev, “Observation of 430 nm electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2943–2945 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Vanheusden, C. H. Seager, W. L. Warren, D. R. Tallant, and J. A. Voigt, “Correlation between photoluminescence and oxygen vacancies in ZnO phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(3), 403–405 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Wu, G. G. Siu, C. L. Fu, and H. C. Ong, “Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(16), 2285–2287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. A. L. Roy, A. B. Djurišić, W. K. Chan, J. Gao, H. F. Lui, and C. Surya, “Luminescent and structural properties of ZnO nanorods prepared under different conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(1), 141–143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

Y. Dai, Y. Zhang, Q. K. Li, and C. W. Nan, “Synthesis and optical properties of tetrapod-like zinc oxide nanorods,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 358(1-2), 83–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

M. J. Chen, Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, H. C. Chen, H. L. Tsai, W. C. Li, J. R. Yang, H. Kuan, and M. Shiojiri, “Structure and Ultraviolet Electroluminescence of n-ZnO/SiO2-ZnO Nanocomposite/p-GaN Heterostructure Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(9), 2195–2202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

I. Martil, E. Redondo, and A. Ojeda, “Influence of defects on the electrical and optical characteristics of blue light-emitting diodes on III-V nitrides,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(5), 2442–2444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, C. S. Xu, Y. X. Liu, C. L. Shao, H. Y. Xu, J. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of ZnO particles embedded in SiO2 matrix by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

Y. W. Wang, L. D. Zhang, G. Z. Wang, X. S. Peng, Z. Q. Chu, and C. H. Liang, “Catalytic growth of semiconducting zinc oxide nanowires and their photoluminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 234(1), 171–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

S. Monticone, R. Tufeu, and A. V. Kanaev, “Complex nature of the UV and visible fluorescence of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102(16), 2854–2862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

Y. T. Shih, M. K. Wu, W. C. Li, H. Kuan, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Amplified spontaneous emission from ZnO in n-ZnO/ZnO nanodots–SiO2 composite/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 20(16), 1–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light- emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 42–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

S. B. Zhang, S. H. Wei, and A. Zunger, “Intrinsic n-type versus p-type doping asymmetry and the defect physics of ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 63(7), 075205–075205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Science

Z. W. Pan, Z. R. Dai, and Z. L. Wang, “Electrostatic Deflections and Electromechanical Resonances of Carbon Nanotubes,” Science 291, 1947–1949 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Status Solidi RRL

M. K. Wu, Y. T. Shih, M. J. Chen, J. R. Yang, and M. Shiojiri, “ZnO quantum dots embedded in a SiO2 nanoparticle layer grown by atomic layer deposition,” P hys,” Status Solidi RRL 3(2-3), 88–90 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Hong, H. Qi, J. Huang, H. He, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, “Influence of oxygen partial pressure on the structure and photoluminescence of direct current reactive magnetron sputtering ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 473(1), 58–62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. C. Look, “Doping and defects in ZnO, in ZnO bulk,” in Thin Films and Nanostructures, C. Jagadish and S. J. Pearton, (Elsevier, Oxford, 2006).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of three structures (a) LED I (Ga:ZnO/i-ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite/p-GaN LEDs), (b) LED II (Ga:ZnO/ZnO/p-GaN LEDs), and (c) LED III (Ga:ZnO/p-GaN LEDs).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

I–V characteristics of LED I (Ga:ZnO/i-ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite/p-GaN), LED II(Ga:ZnO /ZnO/p-GaN), and LED III (Ga:ZnO/p-GaN).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Room temperature EL spectra of LED I, LED II, and LED III at 9mA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

EL spectra for LED I (Ga:ZnO/i-ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite/p-GaN LEDs) at room temperature for various forward drive currents. The inset displays the L-I characteristics of the Ga:ZnO/i-ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite/p-GaN LEDs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

HRTEM images of the sputtered ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite layer. The inset of (b) displays TEM electron diffraction pattern of the ZnO nanocluster in ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite layer

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