Abstract

Cladding-pumped solid-core photonic bandgap Raman fiber amplifiers are analyzed theoretically as possible candidates for power scaling. An example fiber design with a mode field diameter of 46 µm and a cladding diameter of 250 µm is calculated to exhibit 0.12 dB/km of confinement loss at the first Stokes wavelength and >10 dB/m at the second Stokes wavelength for a pump wavelength of 1.567 µm while maintaining low loss and large mode area in realistic coiling configurations. A Raman amplifier based on this fiber with 85 kW of output power, 78% optical conversion efficiency, a maximum heat load of 130 W/m, and a length of 235 m is simulated.

© 2011 OSA

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2011

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-4-3258 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Muendel, R. Farrow, K. Liao, D. Woll, J. Luu, C. Zhang, J. J. Morehead, J. Segall, J. Gregg, K. Tai, B. Kharlamov, H. Yu, and L. Myers, “Fused fiber pump and signal combiners for a 4-kW ytterbium fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791431, 791431-7 (2011), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.877572 .
[CrossRef]

2010

E. Coscelli, F. Poli, T. T. Alkeskjold, D. Passaro, A. Cucinotta, L. Leick, J. Broeng, and S. Selleri, “Single-mode analysis of Yb-doped double-cladding distributed spectral filtering photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27197–27204 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-26-27197 .
[CrossRef]

B. Ward and M. Mermelstein, “Modeling of inter-modal Brillouin gain in higher-order-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1952–1958 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-3-1952 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Semjonov, O. N. Egorova, A. F. Kosolapov, A. E. Levchenko, V. V. Velmiskin, A. D. Pryamikov, M. Y. Salganskiy, V. F. Khopin, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “LMA fibers based on two-dimensional solid-core photonic bandgap fiber design,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758018, 758018-9 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.841265 .
[CrossRef]

T. Kokki, J. Koponen, M. Laurila, and C. Ye, “Fiber amplifier utilizing an Yb-doped large-mode-area fiber with confined doping and tailored refractive index profile,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758016, 758016-9 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.842404 .
[CrossRef]

J. E. Heebner, A. K. Sridharan, J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, P. H. Pax, M. Y. Shverdin, R. J. Beach, and C. P. J. Barty, “High brightness, quantum-defect-limited conversion efficiency in cladding-pumped Raman fiber amplifiers and oscillators,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14705–14716 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-14-14705 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ji, C. A. Codemard, and J. Nilsson, “Analysis of spectral bendloss filtering in a cladding-pumped W-type fiber Raman amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(15), 2179–2186 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JLT.2010.2052786 .
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

2007

R. T. Schermer and J. H. Cole, “Improved bend loss formula verified for Optical Fiber by simulation and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(10), 899–909 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JQE.2007.903364 .
[CrossRef]

Y. Jeong, S. Yoo, C. A. Codemard, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, P. W. Turner, L. Hickey, A. Harker, M. Lovelady, and A. Piper, “Erbium:ytterbium codoped large-core fiber laser with 297-W continuous-wave output power,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 573–579 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2007.897178 .
[CrossRef]

B. G. Ward, C. Robin, and M. Culpepper, “Photonic crystal fiber designs for power scaling of single-polarization amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 645307, 645307-9 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.717326 .
[CrossRef]

A. Bétourné, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, M. Perrin, and M. Douay, “Improvements of solid-core photonic bandgap fibers by means of interstitial air holes,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1719–1721 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-12-1719 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

C. Brooks and F. Di Teodoro, “1-mJ energy, 1-MW peak-power, 10-W average-power, spectrally narrow, diffraction-limited pulses from a photonic-crystal fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8999–9002 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-22-8999 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Hernandez, J. E. Roman, and V. Vidal, “SLEPc: A scalable and flexible toolkit for the solution of Eigenvalue problems,” ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 31(3), 351–362 (2005), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/75.678571 .
[CrossRef]

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2005.850249 .
[CrossRef]

G. Bouwmans, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, F. Lopez, L. Provino, and M. Douay, “Fabrication and characterization of an all-solid 2D photonic bandgap fiber with a low-loss region (< 20 dB/km) around 1550 nm,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8452–8459 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-21-8452 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zenteno, J. Wang, D. Walton, B. Ruffin, M. Li, S. Gray, A. Crowley, and X. Chen, “Suppression of Raman gain in single-transverse-mode dual-hole-assisted fiber,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8921–8926 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-22-8921 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Argyros, T. Birks, S. Leon-Saval, C. M. B. Cordeiro, and P. St J Russell, “Guidance properties of low-contrast photonic bandgap fibres,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2503–2511 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-7-2503 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2002

J. Bromage, K. Rottwitt, and M. E. Lines, “A method to predict the Raman gain spectra of germanosilicate fibers with arbitrary index profiles,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(1), 24–26 (2002), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/68.974149 .
[CrossRef]

L. B. Glebov, “Intrinsic laser-induced breakdown of silicate glasses,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 321–331 (2002), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.461727 .
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

1986

K. Petermann and R. Kühne, “Upper and lower limits for the microbending loss in arbitrary single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(1), 2–7 (1986), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JLT.1986.1074620 .
[CrossRef]

1981

N. Shibata, M. Horigudhi, and T. Edahiro, “Raman spectra of binary high-silica glasses and fibers containing GeO2, P2O5 and B2O3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 45(1), 115–126 (1981), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3093(81)90096-X .
[CrossRef]

1979

T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, and T. Miyashita, “Ultimate low-loss single-mode fibre at 1.55 µm,” Electron. Lett. 15(4), 106–108 (1979), http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/el:19790077 .
[CrossRef]

Alkeskjold, T. T.

Argyros, A.

Barty, C. P. J.

Beach, R. J.

Bétourné, A.

Bigot, L.

Birks, T.

Bouwmans, G.

Broeng, J.

Bromage, J.

J. Bromage, K. Rottwitt, and M. E. Lines, “A method to predict the Raman gain spectra of germanosilicate fibers with arbitrary index profiles,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(1), 24–26 (2002), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/68.974149 .
[CrossRef]

Brooks, C.

Chen, X.

Chicklis, E. P.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2005.850249 .
[CrossRef]

Codemard, C. A.

J. Ji, C. A. Codemard, and J. Nilsson, “Analysis of spectral bendloss filtering in a cladding-pumped W-type fiber Raman amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(15), 2179–2186 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JLT.2010.2052786 .
[CrossRef]

J. Ji, C. A. Codemard, M. Ibsen, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “Analysis of the conversion to the first Stokes in cladding-pumped fiber Raman amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 129–139 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2008.2010229 .
[CrossRef]

Y. Jeong, S. Yoo, C. A. Codemard, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, P. W. Turner, L. Hickey, A. Harker, M. Lovelady, and A. Piper, “Erbium:ytterbium codoped large-core fiber laser with 297-W continuous-wave output power,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 573–579 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2007.897178 .
[CrossRef]

Cole, J. H.

R. T. Schermer and J. H. Cole, “Improved bend loss formula verified for Optical Fiber by simulation and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(10), 899–909 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JQE.2007.903364 .
[CrossRef]

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

Coscelli, E.

Crowley, A.

Cucinotta, A.

Culpepper, M.

B. G. Ward, C. Robin, and M. Culpepper, “Photonic crystal fiber designs for power scaling of single-polarization amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 645307, 645307-9 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.717326 .
[CrossRef]

Cumberland, B. A.

Dawson, J. W.

Di Teodoro, F.

Dianov, E. M.

S. L. Semjonov, O. N. Egorova, A. F. Kosolapov, A. E. Levchenko, V. V. Velmiskin, A. D. Pryamikov, M. Y. Salganskiy, V. F. Khopin, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “LMA fibers based on two-dimensional solid-core photonic bandgap fiber design,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758018, 758018-9 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.841265 .
[CrossRef]

Do, B. T.

Douay, M.

Edahiro, T.

N. Shibata, M. Horigudhi, and T. Edahiro, “Raman spectra of binary high-silica glasses and fibers containing GeO2, P2O5 and B2O3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 45(1), 115–126 (1981), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3093(81)90096-X .
[CrossRef]

Egorova, O. N.

S. L. Semjonov, O. N. Egorova, A. F. Kosolapov, A. E. Levchenko, V. V. Velmiskin, A. D. Pryamikov, M. Y. Salganskiy, V. F. Khopin, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “LMA fibers based on two-dimensional solid-core photonic bandgap fiber design,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758018, 758018-9 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.841265 .
[CrossRef]

Eidam, T.

Farrow, R.

M. H. Muendel, R. Farrow, K. Liao, D. Woll, J. Luu, C. Zhang, J. J. Morehead, J. Segall, J. Gregg, K. Tai, B. Kharlamov, H. Yu, and L. Myers, “Fused fiber pump and signal combiners for a 4-kW ytterbium fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791431, 791431-7 (2011), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.877572 .
[CrossRef]

Fini, J. M.

Francis, M. P.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2005.850249 .
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Glebov, L. B.

L. B. Glebov, “Intrinsic laser-induced breakdown of silicate glasses,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 321–331 (2002), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.461727 .
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Gray, S.

Gregg, J.

M. H. Muendel, R. Farrow, K. Liao, D. Woll, J. Luu, C. Zhang, J. J. Morehead, J. Segall, J. Gregg, K. Tai, B. Kharlamov, H. Yu, and L. Myers, “Fused fiber pump and signal combiners for a 4-kW ytterbium fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791431, 791431-7 (2011), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.877572 .
[CrossRef]

Guryanov, A. N.

S. L. Semjonov, O. N. Egorova, A. F. Kosolapov, A. E. Levchenko, V. V. Velmiskin, A. D. Pryamikov, M. Y. Salganskiy, V. F. Khopin, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “LMA fibers based on two-dimensional solid-core photonic bandgap fiber design,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758018, 758018-9 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.841265 .
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Harker, A.

Y. Jeong, S. Yoo, C. A. Codemard, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, P. W. Turner, L. Hickey, A. Harker, M. Lovelady, and A. Piper, “Erbium:ytterbium codoped large-core fiber laser with 297-W continuous-wave output power,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 573–579 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2007.897178 .
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Heebner, J. E.

Hernandez, V.

V. Hernandez, J. E. Roman, and V. Vidal, “SLEPc: A scalable and flexible toolkit for the solution of Eigenvalue problems,” ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 31(3), 351–362 (2005), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/75.678571 .
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Hickey, L.

Y. Jeong, S. Yoo, C. A. Codemard, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, P. W. Turner, L. Hickey, A. Harker, M. Lovelady, and A. Piper, “Erbium:ytterbium codoped large-core fiber laser with 297-W continuous-wave output power,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 573–579 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2007.897178 .
[CrossRef]

Horigudhi, M.

N. Shibata, M. Horigudhi, and T. Edahiro, “Raman spectra of binary high-silica glasses and fibers containing GeO2, P2O5 and B2O3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 45(1), 115–126 (1981), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3093(81)90096-X .
[CrossRef]

Horley, R.

Y. Jeong, S. Yoo, C. A. Codemard, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, P. W. Turner, L. Hickey, A. Harker, M. Lovelady, and A. Piper, “Erbium:ytterbium codoped large-core fiber laser with 297-W continuous-wave output power,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 573–579 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2007.897178 .
[CrossRef]

Hosaka, T.

T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, and T. Miyashita, “Ultimate low-loss single-mode fibre at 1.55 µm,” Electron. Lett. 15(4), 106–108 (1979), http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/el:19790077 .
[CrossRef]

Ibsen, M.

J. Ji, C. A. Codemard, M. Ibsen, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “Analysis of the conversion to the first Stokes in cladding-pumped fiber Raman amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 129–139 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2008.2010229 .
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Jauregui, C.

Jeong, Y.

Y. Jeong, S. Yoo, C. A. Codemard, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, P. W. Turner, L. Hickey, A. Harker, M. Lovelady, and A. Piper, “Erbium:ytterbium codoped large-core fiber laser with 297-W continuous-wave output power,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 573–579 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2007.897178 .
[CrossRef]

Ji, J.

J. Ji, C. A. Codemard, and J. Nilsson, “Analysis of spectral bendloss filtering in a cladding-pumped W-type fiber Raman amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(15), 2179–2186 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JLT.2010.2052786 .
[CrossRef]

J. Ji, C. A. Codemard, M. Ibsen, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “Analysis of the conversion to the first Stokes in cladding-pumped fiber Raman amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 129–139 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2008.2010229 .
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Joannopoulos, J.

Johnson, S.

Kharlamov, B.

M. H. Muendel, R. Farrow, K. Liao, D. Woll, J. Luu, C. Zhang, J. J. Morehead, J. Segall, J. Gregg, K. Tai, B. Kharlamov, H. Yu, and L. Myers, “Fused fiber pump and signal combiners for a 4-kW ytterbium fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791431, 791431-7 (2011), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.877572 .
[CrossRef]

Khopin, V. F.

S. L. Semjonov, O. N. Egorova, A. F. Kosolapov, A. E. Levchenko, V. V. Velmiskin, A. D. Pryamikov, M. Y. Salganskiy, V. F. Khopin, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “LMA fibers based on two-dimensional solid-core photonic bandgap fiber design,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758018, 758018-9 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.841265 .
[CrossRef]

Kokki, T.

T. Kokki, J. Koponen, M. Laurila, and C. Ye, “Fiber amplifier utilizing an Yb-doped large-mode-area fiber with confined doping and tailored refractive index profile,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758016, 758016-9 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.842404 .
[CrossRef]

Konves, J. R.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2005.850249 .
[CrossRef]

Koponen, J.

T. Kokki, J. Koponen, M. Laurila, and C. Ye, “Fiber amplifier utilizing an Yb-doped large-mode-area fiber with confined doping and tailored refractive index profile,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758016, 758016-9 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.842404 .
[CrossRef]

Koshiba, M.

Kosolapov, A. F.

S. L. Semjonov, O. N. Egorova, A. F. Kosolapov, A. E. Levchenko, V. V. Velmiskin, A. D. Pryamikov, M. Y. Salganskiy, V. F. Khopin, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “LMA fibers based on two-dimensional solid-core photonic bandgap fiber design,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758018, 758018-9 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.841265 .
[CrossRef]

Kühne, R.

K. Petermann and R. Kühne, “Upper and lower limits for the microbending loss in arbitrary single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(1), 2–7 (1986), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JLT.1986.1074620 .
[CrossRef]

Laurila, M.

T. Kokki, J. Koponen, M. Laurila, and C. Ye, “Fiber amplifier utilizing an Yb-doped large-mode-area fiber with confined doping and tailored refractive index profile,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758016, 758016-9 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.842404 .
[CrossRef]

Leick, L.

Leon-Saval, S.

Levchenko, A. E.

S. L. Semjonov, O. N. Egorova, A. F. Kosolapov, A. E. Levchenko, V. V. Velmiskin, A. D. Pryamikov, M. Y. Salganskiy, V. F. Khopin, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “LMA fibers based on two-dimensional solid-core photonic bandgap fiber design,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758018, 758018-9 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.841265 .
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Li, M.

Liao, K.

M. H. Muendel, R. Farrow, K. Liao, D. Woll, J. Luu, C. Zhang, J. J. Morehead, J. Segall, J. Gregg, K. Tai, B. Kharlamov, H. Yu, and L. Myers, “Fused fiber pump and signal combiners for a 4-kW ytterbium fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791431, 791431-7 (2011), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.877572 .
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Limpert, J.

Lines, M. E.

J. Bromage, K. Rottwitt, and M. E. Lines, “A method to predict the Raman gain spectra of germanosilicate fibers with arbitrary index profiles,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(1), 24–26 (2002), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/68.974149 .
[CrossRef]

Lopez, F.

Lovelady, M.

Y. Jeong, S. Yoo, C. A. Codemard, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, P. W. Turner, L. Hickey, A. Harker, M. Lovelady, and A. Piper, “Erbium:ytterbium codoped large-core fiber laser with 297-W continuous-wave output power,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 573–579 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2007.897178 .
[CrossRef]

Luu, J.

M. H. Muendel, R. Farrow, K. Liao, D. Woll, J. Luu, C. Zhang, J. J. Morehead, J. Segall, J. Gregg, K. Tai, B. Kharlamov, H. Yu, and L. Myers, “Fused fiber pump and signal combiners for a 4-kW ytterbium fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791431, 791431-7 (2011), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.877572 .
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Lyngsø, J. K.

Maruyama, H.

Mermelstein, M.

Messerly, M. J.

Miya, T.

T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, and T. Miyashita, “Ultimate low-loss single-mode fibre at 1.55 µm,” Electron. Lett. 15(4), 106–108 (1979), http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/el:19790077 .
[CrossRef]

Miyashita, T.

T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, and T. Miyashita, “Ultimate low-loss single-mode fibre at 1.55 µm,” Electron. Lett. 15(4), 106–108 (1979), http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/el:19790077 .
[CrossRef]

Morehead, J. J.

M. H. Muendel, R. Farrow, K. Liao, D. Woll, J. Luu, C. Zhang, J. J. Morehead, J. Segall, J. Gregg, K. Tai, B. Kharlamov, H. Yu, and L. Myers, “Fused fiber pump and signal combiners for a 4-kW ytterbium fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791431, 791431-7 (2011), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.877572 .
[CrossRef]

Muendel, M. H.

M. H. Muendel, R. Farrow, K. Liao, D. Woll, J. Luu, C. Zhang, J. J. Morehead, J. Segall, J. Gregg, K. Tai, B. Kharlamov, H. Yu, and L. Myers, “Fused fiber pump and signal combiners for a 4-kW ytterbium fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791431, 791431-7 (2011), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.877572 .
[CrossRef]

Murao, T.

Myers, L.

M. H. Muendel, R. Farrow, K. Liao, D. Woll, J. Luu, C. Zhang, J. J. Morehead, J. Segall, J. Gregg, K. Tai, B. Kharlamov, H. Yu, and L. Myers, “Fused fiber pump and signal combiners for a 4-kW ytterbium fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791431, 791431-7 (2011), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.877572 .
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, K.

Nilsson, J.

J. Ji, C. A. Codemard, and J. Nilsson, “Analysis of spectral bendloss filtering in a cladding-pumped W-type fiber Raman amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(15), 2179–2186 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JLT.2010.2052786 .
[CrossRef]

J. Ji, C. A. Codemard, M. Ibsen, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “Analysis of the conversion to the first Stokes in cladding-pumped fiber Raman amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 129–139 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2008.2010229 .
[CrossRef]

Y. Jeong, S. Yoo, C. A. Codemard, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, P. W. Turner, L. Hickey, A. Harker, M. Lovelady, and A. Piper, “Erbium:ytterbium codoped large-core fiber laser with 297-W continuous-wave output power,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 573–579 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2007.897178 .
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Olausson, C. B.

Passaro, D.

Pax, P. H.

Payne, D. N.

Y. Jeong, S. Yoo, C. A. Codemard, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, P. W. Turner, L. Hickey, A. Harker, M. Lovelady, and A. Piper, “Erbium:ytterbium codoped large-core fiber laser with 297-W continuous-wave output power,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 573–579 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2007.897178 .
[CrossRef]

Perrin, M.

Petermann, K.

K. Petermann and R. Kühne, “Upper and lower limits for the microbending loss in arbitrary single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(1), 2–7 (1986), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JLT.1986.1074620 .
[CrossRef]

Piper, A.

Y. Jeong, S. Yoo, C. A. Codemard, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, P. W. Turner, L. Hickey, A. Harker, M. Lovelady, and A. Piper, “Erbium:ytterbium codoped large-core fiber laser with 297-W continuous-wave output power,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 573–579 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2007.897178 .
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Poli, F.

Popov, S. V.

Provino, L.

Pryamikov, A. D.

S. L. Semjonov, O. N. Egorova, A. F. Kosolapov, A. E. Levchenko, V. V. Velmiskin, A. D. Pryamikov, M. Y. Salganskiy, V. F. Khopin, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “LMA fibers based on two-dimensional solid-core photonic bandgap fiber design,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758018, 758018-9 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.841265 .
[CrossRef]

Quiquempois, Y.

Robin, C.

B. G. Ward, C. Robin, and M. Culpepper, “Photonic crystal fiber designs for power scaling of single-polarization amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 645307, 645307-9 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.717326 .
[CrossRef]

Roman, J. E.

V. Hernandez, J. E. Roman, and V. Vidal, “SLEPc: A scalable and flexible toolkit for the solution of Eigenvalue problems,” ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 31(3), 351–362 (2005), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/75.678571 .
[CrossRef]

Rottwitt, K.

J. Bromage, K. Rottwitt, and M. E. Lines, “A method to predict the Raman gain spectra of germanosilicate fibers with arbitrary index profiles,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(1), 24–26 (2002), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/68.974149 .
[CrossRef]

Ruffin, B.

Rulkov, A. B.

Sahu, J. K.

J. Ji, C. A. Codemard, M. Ibsen, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “Analysis of the conversion to the first Stokes in cladding-pumped fiber Raman amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 129–139 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2008.2010229 .
[CrossRef]

Y. Jeong, S. Yoo, C. A. Codemard, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, P. W. Turner, L. Hickey, A. Harker, M. Lovelady, and A. Piper, “Erbium:ytterbium codoped large-core fiber laser with 297-W continuous-wave output power,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 573–579 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2007.897178 .
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, K.

Salganskiy, M. Y.

S. L. Semjonov, O. N. Egorova, A. F. Kosolapov, A. E. Levchenko, V. V. Velmiskin, A. D. Pryamikov, M. Y. Salganskiy, V. F. Khopin, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “LMA fibers based on two-dimensional solid-core photonic bandgap fiber design,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758018, 758018-9 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.841265 .
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Sato, K.

Schermer, R. T.

R. T. Schermer and J. H. Cole, “Improved bend loss formula verified for Optical Fiber by simulation and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(10), 899–909 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JQE.2007.903364 .
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Segall, J.

M. H. Muendel, R. Farrow, K. Liao, D. Woll, J. Luu, C. Zhang, J. J. Morehead, J. Segall, J. Gregg, K. Tai, B. Kharlamov, H. Yu, and L. Myers, “Fused fiber pump and signal combiners for a 4-kW ytterbium fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791431, 791431-7 (2011), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.877572 .
[CrossRef]

Selleri, S.

Semjonov, S. L.

S. L. Semjonov, O. N. Egorova, A. F. Kosolapov, A. E. Levchenko, V. V. Velmiskin, A. D. Pryamikov, M. Y. Salganskiy, V. F. Khopin, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “LMA fibers based on two-dimensional solid-core photonic bandgap fiber design,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758018, 758018-9 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.841265 .
[CrossRef]

Setzler, S. D.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2005.850249 .
[CrossRef]

Shibata, N.

N. Shibata, M. Horigudhi, and T. Edahiro, “Raman spectra of binary high-silica glasses and fibers containing GeO2, P2O5 and B2O3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 45(1), 115–126 (1981), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3093(81)90096-X .
[CrossRef]

Shirakawa, A.

Shverdin, M. Y.

Siders, C. W.

Smith, A. V.

Sridharan, A. K.

St J Russell, P.

Stappaerts, E. A.

Tai, K.

M. H. Muendel, R. Farrow, K. Liao, D. Woll, J. Luu, C. Zhang, J. J. Morehead, J. Segall, J. Gregg, K. Tai, B. Kharlamov, H. Yu, and L. Myers, “Fused fiber pump and signal combiners for a 4-kW ytterbium fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791431, 791431-7 (2011), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.877572 .
[CrossRef]

Tajima, K.

Taylor, J. R.

Terunuma, Y.

T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, and T. Miyashita, “Ultimate low-loss single-mode fibre at 1.55 µm,” Electron. Lett. 15(4), 106–108 (1979), http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/el:19790077 .
[CrossRef]

Travers, J. C.

Tsuji, Y.

Tünnermann, A.

Turner, P. W.

Y. Jeong, S. Yoo, C. A. Codemard, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, P. W. Turner, L. Hickey, A. Harker, M. Lovelady, and A. Piper, “Erbium:ytterbium codoped large-core fiber laser with 297-W continuous-wave output power,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 573–579 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2007.897178 .
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

Velmiskin, V. V.

S. L. Semjonov, O. N. Egorova, A. F. Kosolapov, A. E. Levchenko, V. V. Velmiskin, A. D. Pryamikov, M. Y. Salganskiy, V. F. Khopin, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “LMA fibers based on two-dimensional solid-core photonic bandgap fiber design,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758018, 758018-9 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.841265 .
[CrossRef]

Vidal, V.

V. Hernandez, J. E. Roman, and V. Vidal, “SLEPc: A scalable and flexible toolkit for the solution of Eigenvalue problems,” ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 31(3), 351–362 (2005), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/75.678571 .
[CrossRef]

Walton, D.

Wang, J.

Ward, B.

Ward, B. G.

B. G. Ward, C. Robin, and M. Culpepper, “Photonic crystal fiber designs for power scaling of single-polarization amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 645307, 645307-9 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.717326 .
[CrossRef]

Woll, D.

M. H. Muendel, R. Farrow, K. Liao, D. Woll, J. Luu, C. Zhang, J. J. Morehead, J. Segall, J. Gregg, K. Tai, B. Kharlamov, H. Yu, and L. Myers, “Fused fiber pump and signal combiners for a 4-kW ytterbium fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791431, 791431-7 (2011), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.877572 .
[CrossRef]

Yashkov, M. V.

S. L. Semjonov, O. N. Egorova, A. F. Kosolapov, A. E. Levchenko, V. V. Velmiskin, A. D. Pryamikov, M. Y. Salganskiy, V. F. Khopin, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “LMA fibers based on two-dimensional solid-core photonic bandgap fiber design,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758018, 758018-9 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.841265 .
[CrossRef]

Ye, C.

T. Kokki, J. Koponen, M. Laurila, and C. Ye, “Fiber amplifier utilizing an Yb-doped large-mode-area fiber with confined doping and tailored refractive index profile,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 758016, 758016-9 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.842404 .
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S.

Y. Jeong, S. Yoo, C. A. Codemard, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, P. W. Turner, L. Hickey, A. Harker, M. Lovelady, and A. Piper, “Erbium:ytterbium codoped large-core fiber laser with 297-W continuous-wave output power,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 573–579 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2007.897178 .
[CrossRef]

Young, Y. E.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2005.850249 .
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Solid-core photonic bandgap fiber incorporating parabolic graded-index inclusions. Darker regions represent higher refractive index. The inset shows the index profile of each inclusion.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plots of the calculated effective index and confinement loss of the fundamental mode of the fiber as a function of wavelength. Insets depict the logarithmic intensity profile at the signal wavelength of 1.683 µm and the wavelengths 1.814 µm and 1.826 µm near the upper band edge.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photonic band structure of the candidate fiber design sampled at a discrete set of wave vectors describing the Bloch states of the periodic lattice. The blue line represents the index of the silica background at 1.683 µm and the red line represents the index of the fundamental guided core mode at wavelengths spanning 1.6 µm - 1.86 µm. The insets depict the intensity profiles of the cladding modes bounding the guided mode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated band structure for triangular lattices of parabolic GRIN inclusions (a) and step-index inclusions (b). The properties of the GRIN inclusions match those of the SCPBGF described above. The properties of the step-index inclusions were chosen to place the red edge of the third band-gap at approximately the same place as the GRIN-based fiber.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Confinement loss and effective area as a function of inverse bending radius at 1.683 µm wavelength.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulation results for a SCPBGF CPRFA including the evolution of pump and signal over the length of the fiber (a), peak first Stokes power (b), optimum fiber length (c), maximum heat load (d), location along the fiber of the maximum heat load (e), and optical conversion efficiency (f). All results take into account the trapping of 8% of the pump power within the cladding structure.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated material and total dispersion for the fundamental core mode of the fiber.

Equations (17)

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P cl ( π d cl N A cl 2 λ ) 2 P p ,
η p 1 N i A i A cl N A i 2 N A cl 2 = 1 π 3 ( d Λ ) 2 n Δ n N A cl 2 ,
i ψ z = 1 2 β [ t 2 + ( n ( x , y ) 2 k 0 2 β 2 ) ] ψ = 1 2 β [ t 2 + ( ( n 0 ( x , y ) + Δ n ( x , y ) ) 2 k 0 2 β 2 ) ] ψ ,
| β i ( β i β j ) 2 ϕ i | x | ϕ j d d z ( 1 R ) | 1 ,
n ( x , y ) = n 0 ( x , y ) ( 1 + x R )
δ H ( x , y , z ) ( n 0 2 ( x , y ) k 0 2 β ) ( x R ( z ) ) β x R ( z ) .
| d d z ( 1 R ) | 2 π Δ n eff 2 n eff a λ .
Δ n ( x , y , z ) = Δ n 0 A c ϕ i ( x , y ) ϕ j ( x , y ) sin [ ( β i β j ) z ] ,
1 A c max ( x , y ) [ ϕ i ( x , y ) ϕ j ( x , y ) ] .
L T = 2 π β T = 2 λ A ij Δ n 0 A c ,
( K β 2 M ) ϕ = 0.
E ( x , y , z , t ) = f ( x , y ) exp [ i ( β [ 1 + x R ] z ω t ) ]
d P p d z = α p P p g 0 A cl λ s1 λ p P p P s1 g 1 A cl λ s1c λ p P p P s1c ,
d P s1 d z = α s1 P s1 + g 0 A cl P s1 P p g 0 A co λ s2 λ s1 P s1 P s2 ,
d P s1c d z = α s1c P s1c + g 1 A cl P s1c P p ,
d P s2 d z = α s2 P s2 + g 0 A co P s2 P s1 .
α s2 > g 0 P s1 ( L ) A co .

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