Abstract

CMOS-compatible optical modulators are key components for future silicon-based photonic transceivers. However, achieving low modulation voltage and high speed operation still remains a challenge. As a possible solution, the silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) platform has been proposed. In the SOH approach the optical signal is guided by a silicon waveguide while the electro-optic effect is provided by an organic cladding with a high χ(2)-nonlinearity. In these modulators the optical nonlinear region needs to be connected to the modulating electrical source. This requires electrodes, which are both optically transparent and electrically highly conductive. To this end we introduce a highly conductive electron accumulation layer which is induced by an external DC “gate” voltage. As opposed to doping, the electron mobility is not impaired by impurity scattering. This way we demonstrate for the first time data encoding with an SOH electro-optic modulator. Using a first-generation device at a data-rate of 42.7 Gbit/s, widely open eye diagrams were recorded. The measured frequency response suggests that significantly larger data rates are feasible.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (7)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16902–16928 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Wülbern, S. Prorok, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, M. Jenett, and A. Jacob, “40 GHz electro-optic modulation in hybrid silicon-organic slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2753–2755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J. M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and M. Hochberg, “Demonstration of a low V π L modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15618–15623 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Feng, S. R. Liao, D. Z. Feng, P. Dong, D. W. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. L. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm V(π)L integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jin, H. Chen, A. Barklund, J. Mallari, G. M. Yu, E. Miller, and R. Dinu, “EO polymer modulators reliability study,” Proc. SPIE 7599, 75990H, 75990H-8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Z. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. L. Li, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low-energy all-CMOS modulator integrated with driver,” Opt. Express 18(3), 3059–3070 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

J. H. Wülbern, A. Petrov, and M. Eich, “Electro-optical modulator in a polymerinfiltrated silicon slotted photonic crystal waveguide heterostructure resonator,” Opt. Express 17(1), 304–313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J. M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology-A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, S. R. Liao, D. Z. Feng, H. Liang, D. W. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C. C. Kung, W. Qian, G. L. Li, X. Z. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Baehr-Jones and M. J. Hochberg, “Polymer silicon hybrid systems: A platform for practical nonlinear optics,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 8085–8090 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Q. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. D. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and applications,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16604–16644 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Towards a millivolt optical modulator with nano-slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8401–8410 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gunn, “CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects,” IEEE Micro 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. S. Suehle and P. Chaparala, “Low electric field breakdown of thin SiO2 films under static and dynamic stress,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(5), 801–808 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

S. S. Li and W. R. Thurber, “Dopant density and temperature-dependence of electron-mobility and resistivity in n-type silicon,” Solid-State Electron. 20(7), 609–616 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

D. M. Caughey and R. E. Thomas, “Carrier Mobilities In Silicon Empirically Related To Doping and Field,” Proc. IEEE 55(12), 2192–2193 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

W. Spitzer and H. Y. Fan, “Infrared absorption in n-type silicon,” Phys. Rev. 108(2), 268–271 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Amberg, P.

Andersen, K. N.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreani, L. C.

Asghari, M.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baehr-Jones, T. W.

T. W. Baehr-Jones and M. J. Hochberg, “Polymer silicon hybrid systems: A platform for practical nonlinear optics,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 8085–8090 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J. M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology-A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barklund, A.

D. Jin, H. Chen, A. Barklund, J. Mallari, G. M. Yu, E. Miller, and R. Dinu, “EO polymer modulators reliability study,” Proc. SPIE 7599, 75990H, 75990H-8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Basak, J.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benight, S.

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J. M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology-A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bojko, R.

Borel, P. I.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brosi, J. M.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J. M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology-A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caughey, D. M.

D. M. Caughey and R. E. Thomas, “Carrier Mobilities In Silicon Empirically Related To Doping and Field,” Proc. IEEE 55(12), 2192–2193 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Chaparala, P.

J. S. Suehle and P. Chaparala, “Low electric field breakdown of thin SiO2 films under static and dynamic stress,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(5), 801–808 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

D. Jin, H. Chen, A. Barklund, J. Mallari, G. M. Yu, E. Miller, and R. Dinu, “EO polymer modulators reliability study,” Proc. SPIE 7599, 75990H, 75990H-8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

Dalton, L.

Davies, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Q. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. D. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Derose, C. T.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diederich, F.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J. M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology-A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ding, R.

Dinu, R.

D. Jin, H. Chen, A. Barklund, J. Mallari, G. M. Yu, E. Miller, and R. Dinu, “EO polymer modulators reliability study,” Proc. SPIE 7599, 75990H, 75990H-8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J. M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology-A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eich, M.

Enami, Y.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Esembeson, B.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fage-Pedersen, J.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, H. Y.

W. Spitzer and H. Y. Fan, “Infrared absorption in n-type silicon,” Phys. Rev. 108(2), 268–271 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J. M.

Feng, D. Z.

Feng, N. N.

Fournier, M.

Frandsen, L. H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frank, B.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J. M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology-A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J. M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology-A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

Greenlee, C.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
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C. Gunn, “CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects,” IEEE Micro 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hampe, J.

Hansen, O.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
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Ho, R.

Hochberg, M.

Hochberg, M. J.

T. W. Baehr-Jones and M. J. Hochberg, “Polymer silicon hybrid systems: A platform for practical nonlinear optics,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 8085–8090 (2008).
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Huang, J.

Huang, J. Q.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Q. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. D. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

Izhaky, N.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, A.

Jacobsen, R. S.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jen, A.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J. M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and M. Hochberg, “Demonstration of a low V π L modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15618–15623 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Q. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. D. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K. Y.

J. H. Wülbern, S. Prorok, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, M. Jenett, and A. Jacob, “40 GHz electro-optic modulation in hybrid silicon-organic slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2753–2755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jenett, M.

Jin, D.

D. Jin, H. Chen, A. Barklund, J. Mallari, G. M. Yu, E. Miller, and R. Dinu, “EO polymer modulators reliability study,” Proc. SPIE 7599, 75990H, 75990H-8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. D.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Q. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. D. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koos, C.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J. M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology-A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kristensen, M.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kung, C. C.

Lavrinenko, A. V.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leuthold, J.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J. M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology-A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lexau, J.

Li, G. L.

Li, S. S.

S. S. Li and W. R. Thurber, “Dopant density and temperature-dependence of electron-mobility and resistivity in n-type silicon,” Solid-State Electron. 20(7), 609–616 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, S. R.

Lin, Q.

Liu, A.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Loychik, C.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J. M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and M. Hochberg, “Demonstration of a low V π L modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15618–15623 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J. D.

J. H. Wülbern, S. Prorok, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, M. Jenett, and A. Jacob, “40 GHz electro-optic modulation in hybrid silicon-organic slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2753–2755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Q. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. D. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Mallari, J.

D. Jin, H. Chen, A. Barklund, J. Mallari, G. M. Yu, E. Miller, and R. Dinu, “EO polymer modulators reliability study,” Proc. SPIE 7599, 75990H, 75990H-8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mathine, D.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mekis, A.

Michinobu, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, E.

D. Jin, H. Chen, A. Barklund, J. Mallari, G. M. Yu, E. Miller, and R. Dinu, “EO polymer modulators reliability study,” Proc. SPIE 7599, 75990H, 75990H-8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moulin, G.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, H.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ou, H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Painter, O. J.

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Penkov, B.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Q. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. D. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, A.

Peucheret, C.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
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Peyghambarian, N.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
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Pinckney, N.

Pinguet, T.

Prorok, S.

Qian, W.

Raj, K.

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
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Rooks, M. J.

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
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L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
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Scherer, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Q. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. D. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
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M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Towards a millivolt optical modulator with nano-slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8401–8410 (2007).
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J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J. M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology-A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
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Shafiiha, R.

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R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
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W. Spitzer and H. Y. Fan, “Infrared absorption in n-type silicon,” Phys. Rev. 108(2), 268–271 (1957).
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J. S. Suehle and P. Chaparala, “Low electric field breakdown of thin SiO2 films under static and dynamic stress,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(5), 801–808 (1997).
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Sullivan, P.

Takayesu, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Q. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. D. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
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Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thurber, W. R.

S. S. Li and W. R. Thurber, “Dopant density and temperature-dependence of electron-mobility and resistivity in n-type silicon,” Solid-State Electron. 20(7), 609–616 (1977).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Vision for a future SOH-modulator. (a) The optical active region is connected to the metal electrodes by means of thin silicon strips. On top of the silicon strips an SiO2 film is deposited and covered with the gate electrode. (b) Cross-section of the waveguide and electric field distribution of the optical mode; the light is concentrated in the slot. Lower inset: Equivalent RC circuit for the transfer of the voltage between metallic electrodes to the voltage dropping across the slot (slot capacitance C, strip resistance R). (c) When a positive gate voltage is applied across the gate oxide, a highly conductive electron accumulation layer is formed in the silicon strips. Under the effect of the gate voltage V gate the energy bands in the strip are bent. EF,C,V are Fermi energy, conduction and valence band energy, respectively; q is the elementary charge.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The SOH modulator used in this work. (a) The slightly conductive silicon substrate is used as a gate. (b) SEM picture of the cross section of the fabricated device. The SiO2 mask was used as a protection layer during fabrication and lies on top of the strips. In the center the silicon optical waveguide is visible. The slot extends for about 1 µm into the SiO2 substrate for fabrication issues. (c) When a positive gate voltage is applied across the 2 µm thick SiO2 substrate a highly conductive electron accumulation layer forms in the strips. The thickness of the strips is 60 nm; for clarity they are not drawn to scale. The gate voltage V gate bends the energy bands in the strips [23]. EF,C,V are Fermi energy, conduction and valence band energy, respectively; q is the elementary charge.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Response of the DUT vs. frequency and gate field for 1 V modulation amplitude. (a) Phase modulation index η vs. frequency for selected electrical gate fields. The measured modulation frequency range is 1 kHz to 60 GHz. When varying the gate field from −0.025 V/nm to 0.135 V/nm the silicon strips become more conductive, and the modulation index increases accordingly. The gray curve is the S 21 electrical transmission of the metallic electrical waveguide (voltage ratio); the decrease to 0.3 is an undesired effect of the electrical losses of our test device. (b) Modulation index vs. gate field for selected modulation frequencies. Each curve reaches a plateau at high gate fields. For a gate field strength of Egate = −0.025 V/nm the silicon strips become highly insulating, therefore a minimum is observed. At more negative fields the modulation increases again because of the formation of a conductive hole inversion layer in the silicon strips.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Setup of the modulation experiment. A pulse pattern generator (PPG) creates a 42.7 Gbit/s electrical signal. Light from a 1550 nm laser is launched into the slot-waveguide. The device is electrically terminated with an external 50 Ω resistor. A gate voltage is applied between the silicon substrate and the silicon strips. The 50 Ω resistance is responsible of keeping both strips at the same electrical DC potential. On the receiver side a delay-interferometer converts the phase modulation into intensity modulation for detection. By increasing the gate voltage to Vgate = 270 V (gate field Egate = 0.135 V/nm) clear and open eyes are found.

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