Abstract

We propose an efficient scheme for the robust and controlled generation of beating signals in a sample of stationary atoms driven into the tripod configuration. This scheme relies on an asymmetric procedure of light storage and retrieval where the two classical coupling fields have equal detunings in the storage stage but opposite detunings in the retrieval stage. A quantum probe field, incident upon such an atomic sample, is first transformed into two spin coherence wave-packets and then retrieved with two optical components characterized by different time-dependent phases. Therefore the retrieved quantum probe field exhibits a series of maxima and minima (beating signals) in intensity due to the alternative constructive and destructive interference. This interesting phenomenon involves in fact the coherent manipulation of two dark-state polaritons and may be explored to achieve the fast quantum limited measurement.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. M. D. Lukin, “Colloquium: trapping and manipulating photon states in atomic ensembles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 457–472 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent population transfer among quantum states of atoms and molecules,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003–1025 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Low-light-level nonlinear optics with slow light,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Kang and Y. Zhu, “Observation of large Kerr nonlinearity at low light intensities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093601 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C.-Y. Wang, Y.-F. Chen, S.-C. Lin, W.-H. Lin, P.-C. Kuan, and I. A. Yu, “Low-light-level all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2350–2352 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Hang and G.-X. Huang, “Giant Kerr nonlinearity and weak-light superluminal optical solitons in a four-state atomic system with gain doublet,” Opt. Express 18, 2952–2966 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Atomic memory for correlated photon states,” Science 301, 196–200 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H.-H. Wang, X.-G. Wei, L. Wang, Y.-J. Li, D.-M. Du, J.-H. Wu, Z.-H. Kang, Y. Jiang, and J.-Y. Gao, “Optical information transfer between two light channels in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5crystal,” Opt. Express 15, 16044–16050 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, “Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory,” Nature (London) 452, 67–71 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature (London) 409, 490–493 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Fleischhauer and M. D. Lukin, “Dark-State Polaritons in Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094–5097 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. Unanyan, M. Fleischhauer, B. W. Shore, and K. Bergmann, “Robust creation and phase-sensitive probing of superposition states via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) with degenerate dark states,” Opt. Commun. 155, 144–154 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J.-H. Wu, C.-L. Cui, N. Ba, Q.-R. Ma, and J.-Y. Gao, “Dynamical evolution and analytical solutions for multiple degenerate dark states in the tripod-type atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 043819 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Raczynski, M. Rzepecka, J. Zaremba, and S. Zielinska–Kaniasty, “Polariton picture of light propagation and storing in a tripod system,” Opt. Commun. 260, 73–80 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Raczynski, J. Zaremba, and S. Zielinska–Kaniasty, “Beam splitting and Hong-Ou-Mandel interference for stored light,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 013810 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C.-L. Cui, J.-K. Jia, J.-W. Gao, Y. Xue, G. Wang, and J.-H. Wu, “Ultraslow and superluminal light propagation in a four-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033815 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Petrosyan and Y. P. Malakyan, “Magneto-optical rotation and cross-phase modulation via coherently driven four-level atomsin a tripod configuration,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023822 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Rebic, D. Vitali, C. Ottaviani, P. Tombesi, M. Artoni, F. Cataliotti, and R. Corbalan, “Polarization phase gate with a tripod atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 032317 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y.-X. Han, J.-T. Xiao, Y.-H. Liu, C.-H. Zhang, H. Wang, M. Xiao, and K.-C. Peng, “Interacting dark states with enhanced nonlinearity in an ideal four-level tripod atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 023824 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S.-J. Li, X.-D. Yang, X.-M. Cao, C.-H. Zhang, C.-D. Xie, and H. Wang, “Enhanced Cross-Phase Modulation Based on a Double Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in a Four-Level Tripod Atomic System,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073602 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. L. Karpa, F. Vewinger, and M. Weitz, “Resonance beating of light stored using atomic spinor polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 170406 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. Mair, J. Hager, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Phase coherence and control of stored photonic information,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 031802(R) (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. L. Karpa, G. Nikoghosyan, F. Vewinger, M. Fleischhauer, and M. Weitz, “Frequency matching in light-storage spectroscopy of atomic Raman transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093601 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. G. Heinze, A. Rudolf, F. Beil, and T. Halfmann, “Storage of images in atomic coherences in a rare-earth-ion-doped solid,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 011401(R) (2010).
  27. E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and controlled group velocity in a multilevel system,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 015802 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  28. E. Kuznetsova, O. Kocharovskaya, P. Hemmer, and M. O. Scully, “Atomic interference phenomena in solids with a long-lived spin coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 063802 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  29. B. S. Ham, “Reversible quantum optical data storage based on resonant Raman optical field excited spin coherence,” Opt. Express 16, 14304–14313 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. H. Wang, S.-J. Li, Z.-X. Xu, X.-B. Zhao, L.-J. Zhang, J.-H. Li, Y.-L. Wu, C.-D. Xie, K.-C. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Quantum interference of stored dual-channel spin-wave excitations in a single tripod system,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043815 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

H. Wang, S.-J. Li, Z.-X. Xu, X.-B. Zhao, L.-J. Zhang, J.-H. Li, Y.-L. Wu, C.-D. Xie, K.-C. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Quantum interference of stored dual-channel spin-wave excitations in a single tripod system,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043815 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

C. Hang and G.-X. Huang, “Giant Kerr nonlinearity and weak-light superluminal optical solitons in a four-state atomic system with gain doublet,” Opt. Express 18, 2952–2966 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Heinze, A. Rudolf, F. Beil, and T. Halfmann, “Storage of images in atomic coherences in a rare-earth-ion-doped solid,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 011401(R) (2010).

2009 (1)

L. Karpa, G. Nikoghosyan, F. Vewinger, M. Fleischhauer, and M. Weitz, “Frequency matching in light-storage spectroscopy of atomic Raman transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

B. S. Ham, “Reversible quantum optical data storage based on resonant Raman optical field excited spin coherence,” Opt. Express 16, 14304–14313 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-X. Han, J.-T. Xiao, Y.-H. Liu, C.-H. Zhang, H. Wang, M. Xiao, and K.-C. Peng, “Interacting dark states with enhanced nonlinearity in an ideal four-level tripod atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 023824 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Li, X.-D. Yang, X.-M. Cao, C.-H. Zhang, C.-D. Xie, and H. Wang, “Enhanced Cross-Phase Modulation Based on a Double Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in a Four-Level Tripod Atomic System,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Karpa, F. Vewinger, and M. Weitz, “Resonance beating of light stored using atomic spinor polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 170406 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, “Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory,” Nature (London) 452, 67–71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

A. Raczynski, J. Zaremba, and S. Zielinska–Kaniasty, “Beam splitting and Hong-Ou-Mandel interference for stored light,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 013810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Cui, J.-K. Jia, J.-W. Gao, Y. Xue, G. Wang, and J.-H. Wu, “Ultraslow and superluminal light propagation in a four-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Wu, C.-L. Cui, N. Ba, Q.-R. Ma, and J.-Y. Gao, “Dynamical evolution and analytical solutions for multiple degenerate dark states in the tripod-type atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 043819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Wang, X.-G. Wei, L. Wang, Y.-J. Li, D.-M. Du, J.-H. Wu, Z.-H. Kang, Y. Jiang, and J.-Y. Gao, “Optical information transfer between two light channels in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5crystal,” Opt. Express 15, 16044–16050 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

C.-Y. Wang, Y.-F. Chen, S.-C. Lin, W.-H. Lin, P.-C. Kuan, and I. A. Yu, “Low-light-level all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2350–2352 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Raczynski, M. Rzepecka, J. Zaremba, and S. Zielinska–Kaniasty, “Polariton picture of light propagation and storing in a tripod system,” Opt. Commun. 260, 73–80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

D. Petrosyan and Y. P. Malakyan, “Magneto-optical rotation and cross-phase modulation via coherently driven four-level atomsin a tripod configuration,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023822 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Rebic, D. Vitali, C. Ottaviani, P. Tombesi, M. Artoni, F. Cataliotti, and R. Corbalan, “Polarization phase gate with a tripod atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 032317 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

M. D. Lukin, “Colloquium: trapping and manipulating photon states in atomic ensembles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 457–472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Low-light-level nonlinear optics with slow light,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Kang and Y. Zhu, “Observation of large Kerr nonlinearity at low light intensities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Atomic memory for correlated photon states,” Science 301, 196–200 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and controlled group velocity in a multilevel system,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 015802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Kuznetsova, O. Kocharovskaya, P. Hemmer, and M. O. Scully, “Atomic interference phenomena in solids with a long-lived spin coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 063802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Mair, J. Hager, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Phase coherence and control of stored photonic information,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 031802(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature (London) 409, 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Fleischhauer and M. D. Lukin, “Dark-State Polaritons in Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094–5097 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

R. Unanyan, M. Fleischhauer, B. W. Shore, and K. Bergmann, “Robust creation and phase-sensitive probing of superposition states via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) with degenerate dark states,” Opt. Commun. 155, 144–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent population transfer among quantum states of atoms and molecules,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003–1025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Andre, A.

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Atomic memory for correlated photon states,” Science 301, 196–200 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appel, J.

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artoni, M.

S. Rebic, D. Vitali, C. Ottaviani, P. Tombesi, M. Artoni, F. Cataliotti, and R. Corbalan, “Polarization phase gate with a tripod atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 032317 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ba, N.

J.-H. Wu, C.-L. Cui, N. Ba, Q.-R. Ma, and J.-Y. Gao, “Dynamical evolution and analytical solutions for multiple degenerate dark states in the tripod-type atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 043819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Balic, V.

D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Low-light-level nonlinear optics with slow light,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Behroozi, C. H.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature (London) 409, 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beil, F.

G. Heinze, A. Rudolf, F. Beil, and T. Halfmann, “Storage of images in atomic coherences in a rare-earth-ion-doped solid,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 011401(R) (2010).

Bergmann, K.

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent population transfer among quantum states of atoms and molecules,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003–1025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Unanyan, M. Fleischhauer, B. W. Shore, and K. Bergmann, “Robust creation and phase-sensitive probing of superposition states via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) with degenerate dark states,” Opt. Commun. 155, 144–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Braje, D. A.

D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Low-light-level nonlinear optics with slow light,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X.-M.

S.-J. Li, X.-D. Yang, X.-M. Cao, C.-H. Zhang, C.-D. Xie, and H. Wang, “Enhanced Cross-Phase Modulation Based on a Double Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in a Four-Level Tripod Atomic System,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cataliotti, F.

S. Rebic, D. Vitali, C. Ottaviani, P. Tombesi, M. Artoni, F. Cataliotti, and R. Corbalan, “Polarization phase gate with a tripod atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 032317 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-F.

Choi, K. S.

K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, “Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory,” Nature (London) 452, 67–71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Corbalan, R.

S. Rebic, D. Vitali, C. Ottaviani, P. Tombesi, M. Artoni, F. Cataliotti, and R. Corbalan, “Polarization phase gate with a tripod atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 032317 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cui, C.-L.

C.-L. Cui, J.-K. Jia, J.-W. Gao, Y. Xue, G. Wang, and J.-H. Wu, “Ultraslow and superluminal light propagation in a four-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Wu, C.-L. Cui, N. Ba, Q.-R. Ma, and J.-Y. Gao, “Dynamical evolution and analytical solutions for multiple degenerate dark states in the tripod-type atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 043819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deng, H.

K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, “Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory,” Nature (London) 452, 67–71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Du, D.-M.

Dutton, Z.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature (London) 409, 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eisaman, M. D.

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Atomic memory for correlated photon states,” Science 301, 196–200 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figueroa, E.

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleischhauer, M.

L. Karpa, G. Nikoghosyan, F. Vewinger, M. Fleischhauer, and M. Weitz, “Frequency matching in light-storage spectroscopy of atomic Raman transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer and M. D. Lukin, “Dark-State Polaritons in Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094–5097 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Unanyan, M. Fleischhauer, B. W. Shore, and K. Bergmann, “Robust creation and phase-sensitive probing of superposition states via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) with degenerate dark states,” Opt. Commun. 155, 144–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.-W.

C.-L. Cui, J.-K. Jia, J.-W. Gao, Y. Xue, G. Wang, and J.-H. Wu, “Ultraslow and superluminal light propagation in a four-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.-Y.

J.-H. Wu, C.-L. Cui, N. Ba, Q.-R. Ma, and J.-Y. Gao, “Dynamical evolution and analytical solutions for multiple degenerate dark states in the tripod-type atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 043819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Wang, X.-G. Wei, L. Wang, Y.-J. Li, D.-M. Du, J.-H. Wu, Z.-H. Kang, Y. Jiang, and J.-Y. Gao, “Optical information transfer between two light channels in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5crystal,” Opt. Express 15, 16044–16050 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hager, J.

A. Mair, J. Hager, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Phase coherence and control of stored photonic information,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 031802(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Halfmann, T.

G. Heinze, A. Rudolf, F. Beil, and T. Halfmann, “Storage of images in atomic coherences in a rare-earth-ion-doped solid,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 011401(R) (2010).

Ham, B. S.

Han, Y.-X.

Y.-X. Han, J.-T. Xiao, Y.-H. Liu, C.-H. Zhang, H. Wang, M. Xiao, and K.-C. Peng, “Interacting dark states with enhanced nonlinearity in an ideal four-level tripod atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 023824 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hang, C.

Harris, S. E.

D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Low-light-level nonlinear optics with slow light,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hau, L. V.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature (London) 409, 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Heinze, G.

G. Heinze, A. Rudolf, F. Beil, and T. Halfmann, “Storage of images in atomic coherences in a rare-earth-ion-doped solid,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 011401(R) (2010).

Hemmer, P.

E. Kuznetsova, O. Kocharovskaya, P. Hemmer, and M. O. Scully, “Atomic interference phenomena in solids with a long-lived spin coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 063802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G.-X.

Imamoglu, A.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jia, J.-K.

C.-L. Cui, J.-K. Jia, J.-W. Gao, Y. Xue, G. Wang, and J.-H. Wu, “Ultraslow and superluminal light propagation in a four-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Kang, H.

H. Kang and Y. Zhu, “Observation of large Kerr nonlinearity at low light intensities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, Z.-H.

Karpa, L.

L. Karpa, G. Nikoghosyan, F. Vewinger, M. Fleischhauer, and M. Weitz, “Frequency matching in light-storage spectroscopy of atomic Raman transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Karpa, F. Vewinger, and M. Weitz, “Resonance beating of light stored using atomic spinor polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 170406 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimble, H. J.

K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, “Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory,” Nature (London) 452, 67–71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Knight, P. L.

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and controlled group velocity in a multilevel system,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 015802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kocharovskaya, O.

E. Kuznetsova, O. Kocharovskaya, P. Hemmer, and M. O. Scully, “Atomic interference phenomena in solids with a long-lived spin coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 063802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Korystov, D.

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuan, P.-C.

Kuznetsova, E.

E. Kuznetsova, O. Kocharovskaya, P. Hemmer, and M. O. Scully, “Atomic interference phenomena in solids with a long-lived spin coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 063802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laurat, J.

K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, “Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory,” Nature (London) 452, 67–71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.-H.

H. Wang, S.-J. Li, Z.-X. Xu, X.-B. Zhao, L.-J. Zhang, J.-H. Li, Y.-L. Wu, C.-D. Xie, K.-C. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Quantum interference of stored dual-channel spin-wave excitations in a single tripod system,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043815 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.-J.

H. Wang, S.-J. Li, Z.-X. Xu, X.-B. Zhao, L.-J. Zhang, J.-H. Li, Y.-L. Wu, C.-D. Xie, K.-C. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Quantum interference of stored dual-channel spin-wave excitations in a single tripod system,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043815 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Li, X.-D. Yang, X.-M. Cao, C.-H. Zhang, C.-D. Xie, and H. Wang, “Enhanced Cross-Phase Modulation Based on a Double Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in a Four-Level Tripod Atomic System,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.-J.

Lin, S.-C.

Lin, W.-H.

Liu, C.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature (London) 409, 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.-H.

Y.-X. Han, J.-T. Xiao, Y.-H. Liu, C.-H. Zhang, H. Wang, M. Xiao, and K.-C. Peng, “Interacting dark states with enhanced nonlinearity in an ideal four-level tripod atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 023824 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lobino, M.

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukin, M. D.

M. D. Lukin, “Colloquium: trapping and manipulating photon states in atomic ensembles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 457–472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Atomic memory for correlated photon states,” Science 301, 196–200 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mair, J. Hager, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Phase coherence and control of stored photonic information,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 031802(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer and M. D. Lukin, “Dark-State Polaritons in Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094–5097 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lvovsky, A. I.

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Q.-R.

J.-H. Wu, C.-L. Cui, N. Ba, Q.-R. Ma, and J.-Y. Gao, “Dynamical evolution and analytical solutions for multiple degenerate dark states in the tripod-type atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 043819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mair, A.

A. Mair, J. Hager, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Phase coherence and control of stored photonic information,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 031802(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Malakyan, Y. P.

D. Petrosyan and Y. P. Malakyan, “Magneto-optical rotation and cross-phase modulation via coherently driven four-level atomsin a tripod configuration,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023822 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marangos, J. P.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nikoghosyan, G.

L. Karpa, G. Nikoghosyan, F. Vewinger, M. Fleischhauer, and M. Weitz, “Frequency matching in light-storage spectroscopy of atomic Raman transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ottaviani, C.

S. Rebic, D. Vitali, C. Ottaviani, P. Tombesi, M. Artoni, F. Cataliotti, and R. Corbalan, “Polarization phase gate with a tripod atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 032317 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paspalakis, E.

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and controlled group velocity in a multilevel system,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 015802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peng, K.-C.

H. Wang, S.-J. Li, Z.-X. Xu, X.-B. Zhao, L.-J. Zhang, J.-H. Li, Y.-L. Wu, C.-D. Xie, K.-C. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Quantum interference of stored dual-channel spin-wave excitations in a single tripod system,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043815 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-X. Han, J.-T. Xiao, Y.-H. Liu, C.-H. Zhang, H. Wang, M. Xiao, and K.-C. Peng, “Interacting dark states with enhanced nonlinearity in an ideal four-level tripod atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 023824 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petrosyan, D.

D. Petrosyan and Y. P. Malakyan, “Magneto-optical rotation and cross-phase modulation via coherently driven four-level atomsin a tripod configuration,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023822 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, D. F.

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Atomic memory for correlated photon states,” Science 301, 196–200 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mair, J. Hager, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Phase coherence and control of stored photonic information,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 031802(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Raczynski, A.

A. Raczynski, J. Zaremba, and S. Zielinska–Kaniasty, “Beam splitting and Hong-Ou-Mandel interference for stored light,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 013810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Raczynski, M. Rzepecka, J. Zaremba, and S. Zielinska–Kaniasty, “Polariton picture of light propagation and storing in a tripod system,” Opt. Commun. 260, 73–80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rebic, S.

S. Rebic, D. Vitali, C. Ottaviani, P. Tombesi, M. Artoni, F. Cataliotti, and R. Corbalan, “Polarization phase gate with a tripod atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 032317 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rudolf, A.

G. Heinze, A. Rudolf, F. Beil, and T. Halfmann, “Storage of images in atomic coherences in a rare-earth-ion-doped solid,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 011401(R) (2010).

Rzepecka, M.

A. Raczynski, M. Rzepecka, J. Zaremba, and S. Zielinska–Kaniasty, “Polariton picture of light propagation and storing in a tripod system,” Opt. Commun. 260, 73–80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scully, M. O.

E. Kuznetsova, O. Kocharovskaya, P. Hemmer, and M. O. Scully, “Atomic interference phenomena in solids with a long-lived spin coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 063802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shore, B. W.

R. Unanyan, M. Fleischhauer, B. W. Shore, and K. Bergmann, “Robust creation and phase-sensitive probing of superposition states via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) with degenerate dark states,” Opt. Commun. 155, 144–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent population transfer among quantum states of atoms and molecules,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003–1025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Theuer, H.

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent population transfer among quantum states of atoms and molecules,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003–1025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tombesi, P.

S. Rebic, D. Vitali, C. Ottaviani, P. Tombesi, M. Artoni, F. Cataliotti, and R. Corbalan, “Polarization phase gate with a tripod atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 032317 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Unanyan, R.

R. Unanyan, M. Fleischhauer, B. W. Shore, and K. Bergmann, “Robust creation and phase-sensitive probing of superposition states via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) with degenerate dark states,” Opt. Commun. 155, 144–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van der Wal, C. H.

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Atomic memory for correlated photon states,” Science 301, 196–200 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vewinger, F.

L. Karpa, G. Nikoghosyan, F. Vewinger, M. Fleischhauer, and M. Weitz, “Frequency matching in light-storage spectroscopy of atomic Raman transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Karpa, F. Vewinger, and M. Weitz, “Resonance beating of light stored using atomic spinor polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 170406 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitali, D.

S. Rebic, D. Vitali, C. Ottaviani, P. Tombesi, M. Artoni, F. Cataliotti, and R. Corbalan, “Polarization phase gate with a tripod atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 032317 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Walsworth, R. L.

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Atomic memory for correlated photon states,” Science 301, 196–200 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mair, J. Hager, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Phase coherence and control of stored photonic information,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 031802(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.-Y.

Wang, G.

C.-L. Cui, J.-K. Jia, J.-W. Gao, Y. Xue, G. Wang, and J.-H. Wu, “Ultraslow and superluminal light propagation in a four-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, S.-J. Li, Z.-X. Xu, X.-B. Zhao, L.-J. Zhang, J.-H. Li, Y.-L. Wu, C.-D. Xie, K.-C. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Quantum interference of stored dual-channel spin-wave excitations in a single tripod system,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043815 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Li, X.-D. Yang, X.-M. Cao, C.-H. Zhang, C.-D. Xie, and H. Wang, “Enhanced Cross-Phase Modulation Based on a Double Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in a Four-Level Tripod Atomic System,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-X. Han, J.-T. Xiao, Y.-H. Liu, C.-H. Zhang, H. Wang, M. Xiao, and K.-C. Peng, “Interacting dark states with enhanced nonlinearity in an ideal four-level tripod atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 023824 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.-H.

Wang, L.

Wei, X.-G.

Weitz, M.

L. Karpa, G. Nikoghosyan, F. Vewinger, M. Fleischhauer, and M. Weitz, “Frequency matching in light-storage spectroscopy of atomic Raman transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Karpa, F. Vewinger, and M. Weitz, “Resonance beating of light stored using atomic spinor polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 170406 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.-H.

H.-H. Wang, X.-G. Wei, L. Wang, Y.-J. Li, D.-M. Du, J.-H. Wu, Z.-H. Kang, Y. Jiang, and J.-Y. Gao, “Optical information transfer between two light channels in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5crystal,” Opt. Express 15, 16044–16050 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Wu, C.-L. Cui, N. Ba, Q.-R. Ma, and J.-Y. Gao, “Dynamical evolution and analytical solutions for multiple degenerate dark states in the tripod-type atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 043819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Cui, J.-K. Jia, J.-W. Gao, Y. Xue, G. Wang, and J.-H. Wu, “Ultraslow and superluminal light propagation in a four-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.-L.

H. Wang, S.-J. Li, Z.-X. Xu, X.-B. Zhao, L.-J. Zhang, J.-H. Li, Y.-L. Wu, C.-D. Xie, K.-C. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Quantum interference of stored dual-channel spin-wave excitations in a single tripod system,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043815 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, J.-T.

Y.-X. Han, J.-T. Xiao, Y.-H. Liu, C.-H. Zhang, H. Wang, M. Xiao, and K.-C. Peng, “Interacting dark states with enhanced nonlinearity in an ideal four-level tripod atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 023824 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, M.

H. Wang, S.-J. Li, Z.-X. Xu, X.-B. Zhao, L.-J. Zhang, J.-H. Li, Y.-L. Wu, C.-D. Xie, K.-C. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Quantum interference of stored dual-channel spin-wave excitations in a single tripod system,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043815 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-X. Han, J.-T. Xiao, Y.-H. Liu, C.-H. Zhang, H. Wang, M. Xiao, and K.-C. Peng, “Interacting dark states with enhanced nonlinearity in an ideal four-level tripod atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 023824 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xie, C.-D.

H. Wang, S.-J. Li, Z.-X. Xu, X.-B. Zhao, L.-J. Zhang, J.-H. Li, Y.-L. Wu, C.-D. Xie, K.-C. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Quantum interference of stored dual-channel spin-wave excitations in a single tripod system,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043815 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Li, X.-D. Yang, X.-M. Cao, C.-H. Zhang, C.-D. Xie, and H. Wang, “Enhanced Cross-Phase Modulation Based on a Double Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in a Four-Level Tripod Atomic System,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.-X.

H. Wang, S.-J. Li, Z.-X. Xu, X.-B. Zhao, L.-J. Zhang, J.-H. Li, Y.-L. Wu, C.-D. Xie, K.-C. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Quantum interference of stored dual-channel spin-wave excitations in a single tripod system,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043815 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xue, Y.

C.-L. Cui, J.-K. Jia, J.-W. Gao, Y. Xue, G. Wang, and J.-H. Wu, “Ultraslow and superluminal light propagation in a four-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.-D.

S.-J. Li, X.-D. Yang, X.-M. Cao, C.-H. Zhang, C.-D. Xie, and H. Wang, “Enhanced Cross-Phase Modulation Based on a Double Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in a Four-Level Tripod Atomic System,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, G. Y.

D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Low-light-level nonlinear optics with slow light,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, I. A.

Zaremba, J.

A. Raczynski, J. Zaremba, and S. Zielinska–Kaniasty, “Beam splitting and Hong-Ou-Mandel interference for stored light,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 013810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Raczynski, M. Rzepecka, J. Zaremba, and S. Zielinska–Kaniasty, “Polariton picture of light propagation and storing in a tripod system,” Opt. Commun. 260, 73–80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.-H.

S.-J. Li, X.-D. Yang, X.-M. Cao, C.-H. Zhang, C.-D. Xie, and H. Wang, “Enhanced Cross-Phase Modulation Based on a Double Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in a Four-Level Tripod Atomic System,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-X. Han, J.-T. Xiao, Y.-H. Liu, C.-H. Zhang, H. Wang, M. Xiao, and K.-C. Peng, “Interacting dark states with enhanced nonlinearity in an ideal four-level tripod atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 023824 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.-J.

H. Wang, S.-J. Li, Z.-X. Xu, X.-B. Zhao, L.-J. Zhang, J.-H. Li, Y.-L. Wu, C.-D. Xie, K.-C. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Quantum interference of stored dual-channel spin-wave excitations in a single tripod system,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043815 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.-B.

H. Wang, S.-J. Li, Z.-X. Xu, X.-B. Zhao, L.-J. Zhang, J.-H. Li, Y.-L. Wu, C.-D. Xie, K.-C. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Quantum interference of stored dual-channel spin-wave excitations in a single tripod system,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043815 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

H. Kang and Y. Zhu, “Observation of large Kerr nonlinearity at low light intensities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zibrov, A. S.

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Atomic memory for correlated photon states,” Science 301, 196–200 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zielinska–Kaniasty, S.

A. Raczynski, J. Zaremba, and S. Zielinska–Kaniasty, “Beam splitting and Hong-Ou-Mandel interference for stored light,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 013810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Raczynski, M. Rzepecka, J. Zaremba, and S. Zielinska–Kaniasty, “Polariton picture of light propagation and storing in a tripod system,” Opt. Commun. 260, 73–80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (2)

K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, “Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory,” Nature (London) 452, 67–71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature (London) 409, 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

R. Unanyan, M. Fleischhauer, B. W. Shore, and K. Bergmann, “Robust creation and phase-sensitive probing of superposition states via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) with degenerate dark states,” Opt. Commun. 155, 144–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Raczynski, M. Rzepecka, J. Zaremba, and S. Zielinska–Kaniasty, “Polariton picture of light propagation and storing in a tripod system,” Opt. Commun. 260, 73–80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (12)

H. Wang, S.-J. Li, Z.-X. Xu, X.-B. Zhao, L.-J. Zhang, J.-H. Li, Y.-L. Wu, C.-D. Xie, K.-C. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Quantum interference of stored dual-channel spin-wave excitations in a single tripod system,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043815 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Mair, J. Hager, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Phase coherence and control of stored photonic information,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 031802(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Low-light-level nonlinear optics with slow light,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Raczynski, J. Zaremba, and S. Zielinska–Kaniasty, “Beam splitting and Hong-Ou-Mandel interference for stored light,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 013810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Cui, J.-K. Jia, J.-W. Gao, Y. Xue, G. Wang, and J.-H. Wu, “Ultraslow and superluminal light propagation in a four-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Petrosyan and Y. P. Malakyan, “Magneto-optical rotation and cross-phase modulation via coherently driven four-level atomsin a tripod configuration,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 023822 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Rebic, D. Vitali, C. Ottaviani, P. Tombesi, M. Artoni, F. Cataliotti, and R. Corbalan, “Polarization phase gate with a tripod atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 032317 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.-X. Han, J.-T. Xiao, Y.-H. Liu, C.-H. Zhang, H. Wang, M. Xiao, and K.-C. Peng, “Interacting dark states with enhanced nonlinearity in an ideal four-level tripod atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 023824 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Wu, C.-L. Cui, N. Ba, Q.-R. Ma, and J.-Y. Gao, “Dynamical evolution and analytical solutions for multiple degenerate dark states in the tripod-type atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 043819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinze, A. Rudolf, F. Beil, and T. Halfmann, “Storage of images in atomic coherences in a rare-earth-ion-doped solid,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 011401(R) (2010).

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and controlled group velocity in a multilevel system,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 015802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Kuznetsova, O. Kocharovskaya, P. Hemmer, and M. O. Scully, “Atomic interference phenomena in solids with a long-lived spin coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 063802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

M. Fleischhauer and M. D. Lukin, “Dark-State Polaritons in Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094–5097 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-J. Li, X.-D. Yang, X.-M. Cao, C.-H. Zhang, C.-D. Xie, and H. Wang, “Enhanced Cross-Phase Modulation Based on a Double Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in a Four-Level Tripod Atomic System,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Karpa, F. Vewinger, and M. Weitz, “Resonance beating of light stored using atomic spinor polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 170406 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kang and Y. Zhu, “Observation of large Kerr nonlinearity at low light intensities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Karpa, G. Nikoghosyan, F. Vewinger, M. Fleischhauer, and M. Weitz, “Frequency matching in light-storage spectroscopy of atomic Raman transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (3)

M. D. Lukin, “Colloquium: trapping and manipulating photon states in atomic ensembles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 457–472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent population transfer among quantum states of atoms and molecules,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003–1025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Atomic memory for correlated photon states,” Science 301, 196–200 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic of a four-level tripod system driven by a weak (quantum) probe field of frequency ωp and two strong (classical) coupling fields of frequencies ωc 1 and ωc 2, respectively. All stationary atoms under consideration are initially distributed at level |c〉 as denoted by the pink circles.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Dynamic evolution of a quantum probe field inside a cold atomic sample (a, c, e) and the quantum probe field at the sample exit as a function of time t (b, d, f). The two classical coupling fields are turned off at t = 48.0t 0 with Δ c 1 = Δ c 2 = 0.0γ but turned on at t = 72.0t 0 with Δ c 1 = −Δ c 2 = 0.02γ (a, b); 0.05γ (c, d); 0.08γ (e, f). Other parameters are set as Δ p = 0.0γ, γca = γcb = 0.3 × 10−4 γ, g p N = 310.0 γ , Gc 1 = Gc 2 = 0.50γ, and Φ c 1 = Φ c 2 = 0.0. In (b), (d), and (f), thin grey curves denote the quantum probe field at the sample entrance while thick red curves represent the quantum probe field at the sample exit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) The quantum probe field at the sample exit as a function of time t with Δ c 1 = −Δ c 2 = 0.0γ (black-solid), 0.0015γ (red-dashed), 0.003γ (blue-dotted) in (a) and Δ c 1 = −Δ c 2 = 0.005γ (black-solid), 0.0065γ (red-dashed), 0.008γ (blue-dotted) in (b). Other parameters are the same as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) The quantum probe field at the sample exit as a function of time t with ΔΦ = 0.0 (black-solid), π (red-dashed) in (a) and ΔΦ = π/2 (black-solid), 3π/2 (red-dashed) in (b). Other parameters are the same as in Fig. 2 except Δ c 1 = −Δ c 2 = 0.03γ.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ^ p ( z , t ) = ɛ p h ¯ ω p 2 ɛ 0 V E p ( z , t ) e i ω p t + i k p z
σ ^ μ ν ( z , t ) = 1 N z j = 1 N z σ ^ μ ν j ( z , t )
σ ^ ce ( z , t ) = σ ce ( z , t ) e i ω p t σ ^ cb ( z , t ) = σ cb ( z , t ) e i ( ω p ω c 2 ) t σ ^ ca ( z , t ) = σ ca ( z , t ) e i ( ω p ω c 1 ) t
t σ ca = [ γ ca + i ( Δ p Δ c 1 ) ] σ ca i Ω c 1 * σ ce t σ cb = [ γ cb + i ( Δ p Δ c 2 ) ] σ cb i Ω c 2 * σ ce t σ ce = ( γ ce + i Δ p ) σ ce i Ω c 1 σ ca i Ω c 2 σ cb i g p E p
( t + c z ) E p ( z , t ) = i g p N σ ce ( z , t )
( t + c cos 2 θ z ) Ψ ( z , t ) = 0
Ψ a ( z , t ) = cos θ 2 E p ( z , t ) e i ( Φ c 1 Δ c 1 t ) sin θ N / 2 σ ca ( z , t ) ] Ψ b ( z , t ) = cos θ 2 E p ( z , t ) e i ( Φ c 2 Δ c 2 t ) sin θ N / 2 σ cb ( z , t ) ]
Ψ a ( z , t ) = e i ( Δ c 1 t Φ c 1 ) cos θ 2 E p ( z , t ) sin θ N / 2 σ ca ( z , t ) ] Ψ b ( z , t ) = e i ( Δ c 2 t Φ c 2 ) cos θ 2 E p ( z , t ) sin θ N / 2 σ cb ( z , t ) ]

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