Abstract

Electronically tunable optical true-time delay lines are proposed. The devices utilize the combination of apodised gratings and the free-carrier plasma effect to tune the enhanced delay of silicon waveguides at a fixed wavelength. Three variations of the proposed scheme are studied and compared. The compact and integrable devices can achieve tuning ranges as high as ~660 ps with a loss of < 2.2 dB when operated in the reflection mode of the gratings. A delay of ~40 ps with a loss of < 10 dB and an estimated operation bit rate of ~20 Gb/s can be achieved.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Choi, J. Na, S. Ryu, G. Mudhana, and B. Lee, “All-fiber variable optical delay line for applications in optical coherence tomography: feasibility study for a novel delay line,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1334–1345 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. V. Italia, M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, A. Cusano, and A. Cutolo, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for electrically tunable delay lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 408–416 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (2)

G. Jiang, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, J. Yang, M. Wang, and X. Jiang, “Slab-modulated sidewall Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 6–8 (2011).

X. Wang, W. Shi, R. Vafaei, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Uniform and sampled Bragg gratings in SOI strip waveguides with sidewall corrugations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 290–292 (2011).

2010 (4)

J. Cardenas, M. A. Foster, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. B. Poitras, H. L. R. Lira, B. Zhang, A. L. Gaeta, J. B. Khurgin, P. Morton, and M. Lipson, “Wide-bandwidth continuously tunable optical delay line using silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26525–26534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 192–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Grego, A. Huffman, M. Lueck, B. R. Stoner, and J. Lannon, “Nanoimprint lithography fabrication of waveguide-integrated optical gratings with inexpensive stamps,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(10), 1846–1851 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

J. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, Z. Pan, A. O. Karalar, S. S. Djordjevic, C. Yang, W. Chen, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Continuously tunable, wavelength-selective buffering in optical packet switching networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1030–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Lucas, J.-S. Kim, C. Chin, and L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography based approach for the fabrication of large-area, uniformly oriented plasmonic arrays,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(6), 1129–1134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, C. Ferrari, and M. Martinelli, “Error-free continuously-tunable delay at 10 Gbit/s in a reconfigurable on-chip delay-line,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8395–8405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, X. Chen, A. C. Turner-Foster, R. Salem, M. Lipson, C. Xu, and A. L. Gaeta, “Large tunable delays using parametric mixing and phase conjugation in Si nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10349–10357 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, C. Ferrari, and M. Martinelli, “Continuously tunable 1 byte delay in coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(20), 2389–2391 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Yurii, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Fathpour, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Two-photon photovoltaic effect in silicon,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 1211–1217 (2007).

2006 (1)

M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and A. Cusano, “Continuously variable optical delay line based on a chirped fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2551–2553 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

V. Italia, M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, A. Cusano, and A. Cutolo, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for electrically tunable delay lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 408–416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Jiang, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Gu, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Nano-photonic crystal waveguides for ultra-compact tunable true time delay lines,” Proc. SPIE 5733, 166–175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rasras, C. K. Madsen, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. T. Gomez, E. J. Laskowski, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, A. Gasparyan, A. Kasper, J. Le Grange, and S. S. Patel, “Integrated resonance-enhanced variable optical delay lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 834–836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Ahn, J. Lee, J. Kim, S. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. Park, and P. Yoon, “Fabrication of subwavelength aluminum wire grating using nanoimprint lithography and reactive ion etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 314–318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Choi, J. Na, S. Ryu, G. Mudhana, and B. Lee, “All-fiber variable optical delay line for applications in optical coherence tomography: feasibility study for a novel delay line,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1334–1345 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Slow-light, band-edge waveguides for tunable time delays,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7145–7159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

1997 (3)

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, and R. I. Laming, “True time-delay scheme for feeding optically controlled phased-array antennas using chirped-fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(11), 1529–1531 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(5), 634–635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

J. Hong, W. Huang, and T. Makino, “On the transfer matrix method for distributed-feedback waveguide devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(12), 1860–1868 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Makino, “Effective-index matrix analysis of distributed feedback semiconductor lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 434–440 (1992).

1987 (1)

G. Bjork and O. Nilsson, “A new exact and efficient numerical matrix theory of complicated laser structures: properties of asymmetric phase-shifted DFB lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5(1), 140–146 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Kramers-Kronig analysis of E-O switching in silicon,” Proc. SPIE 704, 32–37 (1986).

Adachi, J.

J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 192–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S.

S. Ahn, J. Lee, J. Kim, S. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. Park, and P. Yoon, “Fabrication of subwavelength aluminum wire grating using nanoimprint lithography and reactive ion etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 314–318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Andrés, M. V.

Arain, M. A.

Baba, T.

J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 192–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Kramers-Kronig analysis of E-O switching in silicon,” Proc. SPIE 704, 32–37 (1986).

Bjork, G.

G. Bjork and O. Nilsson, “A new exact and efficient numerical matrix theory of complicated laser structures: properties of asymmetric phase-shifted DFB lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5(1), 140–146 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Campopiano, S.

M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and A. Cusano, “Continuously variable optical delay line based on a chirped fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2551–2553 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Italia, M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, A. Cusano, and A. Cutolo, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for electrically tunable delay lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 408–416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Canciamilla, A.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J.

Cappuzzo, M. A.

M. S. Rasras, C. K. Madsen, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. T. Gomez, E. J. Laskowski, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, A. Gasparyan, A. Kasper, J. Le Grange, and S. S. Patel, “Integrated resonance-enhanced variable optical delay lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 834–836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cardenas, J.

Chen, E.

M. S. Rasras, C. K. Madsen, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. T. Gomez, E. J. Laskowski, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, A. Gasparyan, A. Kasper, J. Le Grange, and S. S. Patel, “Integrated resonance-enhanced variable optical delay lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 834–836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R.

G. Jiang, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, J. Yang, M. Wang, and X. Jiang, “Slab-modulated sidewall Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 6–8 (2011).

Chen, R. T.

Y. Q. Jiang, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Gu, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Nano-photonic crystal waveguides for ultra-compact tunable true time delay lines,” Proc. SPIE 5733, 166–175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

J. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, Z. Pan, A. O. Karalar, S. S. Djordjevic, C. Yang, W. Chen, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Continuously tunable, wavelength-selective buffering in optical packet switching networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1030–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, X. Chen, A. C. Turner-Foster, R. Salem, M. Lipson, C. Xu, and A. L. Gaeta, “Large tunable delays using parametric mixing and phase conjugation in Si nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10349–10357 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Q. Jiang, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Gu, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Nano-photonic crystal waveguides for ultra-compact tunable true time delay lines,” Proc. SPIE 5733, 166–175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chin, C.

B. D. Lucas, J.-S. Kim, C. Chin, and L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography based approach for the fabrication of large-area, uniformly oriented plasmonic arrays,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(6), 1129–1134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, E.

Chrostowski, L.

X. Wang, W. Shi, R. Vafaei, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Uniform and sampled Bragg gratings in SOI strip waveguides with sidewall corrugations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 290–292 (2011).

Chu, S.

J. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, Z. Pan, A. O. Karalar, S. S. Djordjevic, C. Yang, W. Chen, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Continuously tunable, wavelength-selective buffering in optical packet switching networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1030–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Coppinger, F.

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(5), 634–635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Corral, J. L.

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, and R. I. Laming, “True time-delay scheme for feeding optically controlled phased-array antennas using chirped-fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(11), 1529–1531 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, J. L.

Cusano, A.

M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and A. Cusano, “Continuously variable optical delay line based on a chirped fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2551–2553 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Italia, M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, A. Cusano, and A. Cutolo, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for electrically tunable delay lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 408–416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, A.

M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and A. Cusano, “Continuously variable optical delay line based on a chirped fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2551–2553 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Italia, M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, A. Cusano, and A. Cutolo, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for electrically tunable delay lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 408–416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Djordjevic, S. S.

J. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, Z. Pan, A. O. Karalar, S. S. Djordjevic, C. Yang, W. Chen, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Continuously tunable, wavelength-selective buffering in optical packet switching networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1030–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fathpour, S.

S. Fathpour, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Two-photon photovoltaic effect in silicon,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 1211–1217 (2007).

Ferrari, C.

Fontaine, N. K.

J. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, Z. Pan, A. O. Karalar, S. S. Djordjevic, C. Yang, W. Chen, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Continuously tunable, wavelength-selective buffering in optical packet switching networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1030–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. A.

Fuster, J. M.

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, and R. I. Laming, “True time-delay scheme for feeding optically controlled phased-array antennas using chirped-fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(11), 1529–1531 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

Gasparyan, A.

M. S. Rasras, C. K. Madsen, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. T. Gomez, E. J. Laskowski, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, A. Gasparyan, A. Kasper, J. Le Grange, and S. S. Patel, “Integrated resonance-enhanced variable optical delay lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 834–836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gomez, L. T.

M. S. Rasras, C. K. Madsen, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. T. Gomez, E. J. Laskowski, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, A. Gasparyan, A. Kasper, J. Le Grange, and S. S. Patel, “Integrated resonance-enhanced variable optical delay lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 834–836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grego, S.

S. Grego, A. Huffman, M. Lueck, B. R. Stoner, and J. Lannon, “Nanoimprint lithography fabrication of waveguide-integrated optical gratings with inexpensive stamps,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(10), 1846–1851 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, A.

M. S. Rasras, C. K. Madsen, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. T. Gomez, E. J. Laskowski, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, A. Gasparyan, A. Kasper, J. Le Grange, and S. S. Patel, “Integrated resonance-enhanced variable optical delay lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 834–836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gu, L.

Y. Q. Jiang, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Gu, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Nano-photonic crystal waveguides for ultra-compact tunable true time delay lines,” Proc. SPIE 5733, 166–175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

B. D. Lucas, J.-S. Kim, C. Chin, and L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography based approach for the fabrication of large-area, uniformly oriented plasmonic arrays,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(6), 1129–1134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hong, J.

J. Hong, W. Huang, and T. Makino, “On the transfer matrix method for distributed-feedback waveguide devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(12), 1860–1868 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Howley, B.

Y. Q. Jiang, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Gu, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Nano-photonic crystal waveguides for ultra-compact tunable true time delay lines,” Proc. SPIE 5733, 166–175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

J. Hong, W. Huang, and T. Makino, “On the transfer matrix method for distributed-feedback waveguide devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(12), 1860–1868 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, A.

S. Grego, A. Huffman, M. Lueck, B. R. Stoner, and J. Lannon, “Nanoimprint lithography fabrication of waveguide-integrated optical gratings with inexpensive stamps,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(10), 1846–1851 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ishikura, N.

J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 192–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Italia, V.

V. Italia, M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, A. Cusano, and A. Cutolo, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for electrically tunable delay lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 408–416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jaeger, N. A. F.

X. Wang, W. Shi, R. Vafaei, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Uniform and sampled Bragg gratings in SOI strip waveguides with sidewall corrugations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 290–292 (2011).

Jalali, B.

S. Fathpour, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Two-photon photovoltaic effect in silicon,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 1211–1217 (2007).

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(5), 634–635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, G.

G. Jiang, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, J. Yang, M. Wang, and X. Jiang, “Slab-modulated sidewall Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 6–8 (2011).

Jiang, W.

Y. Q. Jiang, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Gu, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Nano-photonic crystal waveguides for ultra-compact tunable true time delay lines,” Proc. SPIE 5733, 166–175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

G. Jiang, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, J. Yang, M. Wang, and X. Jiang, “Slab-modulated sidewall Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 6–8 (2011).

Jiang, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Jiang, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Gu, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Nano-photonic crystal waveguides for ultra-compact tunable true time delay lines,” Proc. SPIE 5733, 166–175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Karalar, A. O.

J. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, Z. Pan, A. O. Karalar, S. S. Djordjevic, C. Yang, W. Chen, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Continuously tunable, wavelength-selective buffering in optical packet switching networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1030–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, A.

M. S. Rasras, C. K. Madsen, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. T. Gomez, E. J. Laskowski, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, A. Gasparyan, A. Kasper, J. Le Grange, and S. S. Patel, “Integrated resonance-enhanced variable optical delay lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 834–836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khan, S. A.

Khurgin, J. B.

Kim, J.

S. Ahn, J. Lee, J. Kim, S. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. Park, and P. Yoon, “Fabrication of subwavelength aluminum wire grating using nanoimprint lithography and reactive ion etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 314–318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-S.

B. D. Lucas, J.-S. Kim, C. Chin, and L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography based approach for the fabrication of large-area, uniformly oriented plasmonic arrays,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(6), 1129–1134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

S. Ahn, J. Lee, J. Kim, S. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. Park, and P. Yoon, “Fabrication of subwavelength aluminum wire grating using nanoimprint lithography and reactive ion etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 314–318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R. I.

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, and R. I. Laming, “True time-delay scheme for feeding optically controlled phased-array antennas using chirped-fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(11), 1529–1531 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lannon, J.

S. Grego, A. Huffman, M. Lueck, B. R. Stoner, and J. Lannon, “Nanoimprint lithography fabrication of waveguide-integrated optical gratings with inexpensive stamps,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(10), 1846–1851 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laskowski, E. J.

M. S. Rasras, C. K. Madsen, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. T. Gomez, E. J. Laskowski, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, A. Gasparyan, A. Kasper, J. Le Grange, and S. S. Patel, “Integrated resonance-enhanced variable optical delay lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 834–836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Le Grange, J.

M. S. Rasras, C. K. Madsen, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. T. Gomez, E. J. Laskowski, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, A. Gasparyan, A. Kasper, J. Le Grange, and S. S. Patel, “Integrated resonance-enhanced variable optical delay lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 834–836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

Lee, J.

S. Ahn, J. Lee, J. Kim, S. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. Park, and P. Yoon, “Fabrication of subwavelength aluminum wire grating using nanoimprint lithography and reactive ion etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 314–318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

S. Ahn, J. Lee, J. Kim, S. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. Park, and P. Yoon, “Fabrication of subwavelength aluminum wire grating using nanoimprint lithography and reactive ion etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 314–318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Lira, H. L. R.

Little, B. E.

J. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, Z. Pan, A. O. Karalar, S. S. Djordjevic, C. Yang, W. Chen, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Continuously tunable, wavelength-selective buffering in optical packet switching networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1030–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, B. D.

B. D. Lucas, J.-S. Kim, C. Chin, and L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography based approach for the fabrication of large-area, uniformly oriented plasmonic arrays,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(6), 1129–1134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lueck, M.

S. Grego, A. Huffman, M. Lueck, B. R. Stoner, and J. Lannon, “Nanoimprint lithography fabrication of waveguide-integrated optical gratings with inexpensive stamps,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(10), 1846–1851 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, C. K.

M. S. Rasras, C. K. Madsen, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. T. Gomez, E. J. Laskowski, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, A. Gasparyan, A. Kasper, J. Le Grange, and S. S. Patel, “Integrated resonance-enhanced variable optical delay lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 834–836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Makino, T.

J. Hong, W. Huang, and T. Makino, “On the transfer matrix method for distributed-feedback waveguide devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(12), 1860–1868 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Makino, “Effective-index matrix analysis of distributed feedback semiconductor lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 434–440 (1992).

Marti, J.

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, and R. I. Laming, “True time-delay scheme for feeding optically controlled phased-array antennas using chirped-fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(11), 1529–1531 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, M.

Melloni, A.

Morichetti, F.

Morton, P.

Mudhana, G.

Na, J.

Nilsson, O.

G. Bjork and O. Nilsson, “A new exact and efficient numerical matrix theory of complicated laser structures: properties of asymmetric phase-shifted DFB lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5(1), 140–146 (1987).
[CrossRef]

O’Faolain, L.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Okawachi, Y.

Ortega, B.

Pan, Z.

J. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, Z. Pan, A. O. Karalar, S. S. Djordjevic, C. Yang, W. Chen, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Continuously tunable, wavelength-selective buffering in optical packet switching networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1030–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

S. Ahn, J. Lee, J. Kim, S. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. Park, and P. Yoon, “Fabrication of subwavelength aluminum wire grating using nanoimprint lithography and reactive ion etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 314–318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pastor, D.

Patel, S. S.

M. S. Rasras, C. K. Madsen, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. T. Gomez, E. J. Laskowski, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, A. Gasparyan, A. Kasper, J. Le Grange, and S. S. Patel, “Integrated resonance-enhanced variable optical delay lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 834–836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pisco, M.

M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and A. Cusano, “Continuously variable optical delay line based on a chirped fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2551–2553 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Italia, M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, A. Cusano, and A. Cutolo, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for electrically tunable delay lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 408–416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, C. B.

Povinelli, M. L.

Rasras, M. S.

M. S. Rasras, C. K. Madsen, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. T. Gomez, E. J. Laskowski, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, A. Gasparyan, A. Kasper, J. Le Grange, and S. S. Patel, “Integrated resonance-enhanced variable optical delay lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 834–836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riza, N. A.

Ryu, S.

Salem, R.

Samarelli, A.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, H.

J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 192–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sekaric, L.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Yurii, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sherwood-Droz, N.

Shi, W.

X. Wang, W. Shi, R. Vafaei, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Uniform and sampled Bragg gratings in SOI strip waveguides with sidewall corrugations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 290–292 (2011).

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Kramers-Kronig analysis of E-O switching in silicon,” Proc. SPIE 704, 32–37 (1986).

Sorel, M.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stoner, B. R.

S. Grego, A. Huffman, M. Lueck, B. R. Stoner, and J. Lannon, “Nanoimprint lithography fabrication of waveguide-integrated optical gratings with inexpensive stamps,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(10), 1846–1851 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trinh, P. D.

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(5), 634–635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsia, K. K.

S. Fathpour, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Two-photon photovoltaic effect in silicon,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 1211–1217 (2007).

Turner-Foster, A. C.

Vafaei, R.

X. Wang, W. Shi, R. Vafaei, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Uniform and sampled Bragg gratings in SOI strip waveguides with sidewall corrugations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 290–292 (2011).

Wang, M.

G. Jiang, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, J. Yang, M. Wang, and X. Jiang, “Slab-modulated sidewall Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 6–8 (2011).

Wang, X.

X. Wang, W. Shi, R. Vafaei, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Uniform and sampled Bragg gratings in SOI strip waveguides with sidewall corrugations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 290–292 (2011).

Wong-Foy, A.

M. S. Rasras, C. K. Madsen, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. T. Gomez, E. J. Laskowski, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, A. Gasparyan, A. Kasper, J. Le Grange, and S. S. Patel, “Integrated resonance-enhanced variable optical delay lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 834–836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Yurii, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

Yang, C.

J. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, Z. Pan, A. O. Karalar, S. S. Djordjevic, C. Yang, W. Chen, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Continuously tunable, wavelength-selective buffering in optical packet switching networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1030–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

G. Jiang, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, J. Yang, M. Wang, and X. Jiang, “Slab-modulated sidewall Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 6–8 (2011).

J. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, Z. Pan, A. O. Karalar, S. S. Djordjevic, C. Yang, W. Chen, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Continuously tunable, wavelength-selective buffering in optical packet switching networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1030–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yegnanarayanan, S.

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(5), 634–635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. J. B.

J. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, Z. Pan, A. O. Karalar, S. S. Djordjevic, C. Yang, W. Chen, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Continuously tunable, wavelength-selective buffering in optical packet switching networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1030–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, P.

S. Ahn, J. Lee, J. Kim, S. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. Park, and P. Yoon, “Fabrication of subwavelength aluminum wire grating using nanoimprint lithography and reactive ion etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 314–318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yurii, Y.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Yurii, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

Zhou, Q.

G. Jiang, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, J. Yang, M. Wang, and X. Jiang, “Slab-modulated sidewall Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 6–8 (2011).

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

B. D. Lucas, J.-S. Kim, C. Chin, and L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography based approach for the fabrication of large-area, uniformly oriented plasmonic arrays,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(6), 1129–1134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

V. Italia, M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, A. Cusano, and A. Cutolo, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for electrically tunable delay lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 408–416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 192–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (7)

M. S. Rasras, C. K. Madsen, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. T. Gomez, E. J. Laskowski, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, A. Gasparyan, A. Kasper, J. Le Grange, and S. S. Patel, “Integrated resonance-enhanced variable optical delay lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 834–836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and A. Cusano, “Continuously variable optical delay line based on a chirped fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2551–2553 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Compact silicon-based integrated optic time delays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(5), 634–635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, Z. Pan, A. O. Karalar, S. S. Djordjevic, C. Yang, W. Chen, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Continuously tunable, wavelength-selective buffering in optical packet switching networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1030–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, and R. I. Laming, “True time-delay scheme for feeding optically controlled phased-array antennas using chirped-fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(11), 1529–1531 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Jiang, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, J. Yang, M. Wang, and X. Jiang, “Slab-modulated sidewall Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 6–8 (2011).

X. Wang, W. Shi, R. Vafaei, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Uniform and sampled Bragg gratings in SOI strip waveguides with sidewall corrugations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 290–292 (2011).

J. Lightwave Technol. (7)

S. Fathpour, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Two-photon photovoltaic effect in silicon,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 1211–1217 (2007).

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Bjork and O. Nilsson, “A new exact and efficient numerical matrix theory of complicated laser structures: properties of asymmetric phase-shifted DFB lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5(1), 140–146 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Hong, W. Huang, and T. Makino, “On the transfer matrix method for distributed-feedback waveguide devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(12), 1860–1868 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Ortega, J. L. Cruz, J. Capmany, M. V. Andrés, and D. Pastor, “Analysis of a microwave time delay based on a perturbed uniform fiber Bragg grating operating at constant wavelength,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18(3), 430–436 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Riza, M. A. Arain, and S. A. Khan, “Hybrid analog–digital variable fiber-optic delay line,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(2), 619–624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Makino, “Effective-index matrix analysis of distributed feedback semiconductor lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 434–440 (1992).

Microelectron. Eng. (2)

S. Grego, A. Huffman, M. Lueck, B. R. Stoner, and J. Lannon, “Nanoimprint lithography fabrication of waveguide-integrated optical gratings with inexpensive stamps,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(10), 1846–1851 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ahn, J. Lee, J. Kim, S. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. Park, and P. Yoon, “Fabrication of subwavelength aluminum wire grating using nanoimprint lithography and reactive ion etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 314–318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Yurii, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Kramers-Kronig analysis of E-O switching in silicon,” Proc. SPIE 704, 32–37 (1986).

Y. Q. Jiang, W. Jiang, X. Chen, L. Gu, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Nano-photonic crystal waveguides for ultra-compact tunable true time delay lines,” Proc. SPIE 5733, 166–175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988), p. 102.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-optic communication systems (Wiley, New York, 2002), p. 26.

A. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to fiber optics (Cambridge, UK, 1898), p. 257.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delage, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “Subwavelength grating structures in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” in Advances in Optical Technologies 2008, Article ID 685489, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2008.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structures of (a) mesa-type (b) grooved-type and (c) chirped raised-cosine-type tunable optical delay lines on SOI. The varying widths of the gratings emphasize the corresponding apodised profiles used. None of the schematics are in scale. In all devices L = 2 cm, W = 1.5 µm, H = 2 µm, D = 0.9 µm and Λ = 224 nm. Regarding other shown dimensions: (a) h = 50 nm, w = 85 nm; (b) d = 50 nm, w = 55 nm; (c) h = D = 0.9 µm and w = 460 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Delay and reflectivity spectrum of (a) mesa-type Gaussian device, (b) grooved-type Gaussian device, (c) chirped raised-cosine device, at 0 V and at V max when the insertion loss is limited to 3 dB. The arrows show the operating wavelengths. The reference of the detuning axis (0 nm) is the Bragg wavelength set at 1550 nm. Reflectivities at 0 V and at V max are identical in case (c) thus appear superimposed; (d) Delay versus voltage characteristics for the three types of devices when the insertion loss is limited to 3 dB.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Delay versus insertion loss characteristics of the three types of devices; (b) Bit rate and tunable delay range versus the FWHM of the Gaussian profile grating in the case of the grooved-type device. The inset shows the dispersion versus detuing for FWHM of 2.66 cm (highest delay) and 0.33 cm (highest bit rate).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the State of the Art Silicon Delay Line Techniques.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

τ = d θ d ω = λ 2 2 π c d θ d λ ,

Metrics