Abstract

In this study, the intensity of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) of xanthene dye, Rose Bengal (RB), was significantly enhanced via bovine serum albumin (BSA) microstructures fabricated by the two-photon crosslinking (TPC) technique. The RB was utilized as the photoactivator in the TPC processing and the enhanced TPEF intensity correlates with the concentration of fabricated crosslinked BSA microstructures via the power control and pulse selection of the employed femtosecond laser. As a result, fabrication of three-dimensional BSA microstructures can be simultaneously monitored by the use of TPEF intensity. The crosslinked BSA microstructures synthesized may be used as an ordered biomaterial for fluorescence enhancement.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. C. R. Lambert, I. E. Kochevar, and R. W. Redmond, “Differential reactivity of upper triplet states produces wavelength-dependent two-photon photosensitization using Rose Bengal,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(18), 3737–3741 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. P. J. Campagnola, D. M. Delguidice, G. A. Epling, K. D. Hoffacker, A. R. Howell, J. D. Pitts, and S. L. Goodman, “3-dimensional submicron polymerization of acrylamide by multiphoton excitation of xanthene dyes,” Macromolecules 33(5), 1511–1513 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 249–251 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 312–314 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Miwa, S. Juodkazis, T. Kawakami, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Femtosecond two-photon stereo-lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 73(5), 561–566 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(5), 914–919 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. J. A. Hagen, W.-X. Li, H. Spaeth, J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, “Molecular beam deposition of DNA nanometer films,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 133–137 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Mysliwiec, L. Sznitko, A. Sobolewska, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Miniewicz, “Lasing effect in a hybrid dye-doped biopolymer and photochromic polymer system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 141106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Otomo, S. Yokoyama, T. Nakahama, and S. Mashiko, “Supernarrowing mirrorless laser emission in dendrimer-doped polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 3881–3883 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. C. Neckers, “Rose Bengal,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 47(1), 1–29 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Z. Zhang and T. Yagi, “Observation of group delay dispersion as a function of the pulse width in as mode locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(22), 2993–2995 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W.-S. Kuo, C.-H. Lien, K.-C. Cho, C.-Y. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, L. L. H. Huang, P. J. Campagnola, C. Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “Multiphoton fabrication of freeform polymer microstructures with gold nanorods,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27550–27559 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

J. Mysliwiec, L. Sznitko, A. Sobolewska, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Miniewicz, “Lasing effect in a hybrid dye-doped biopolymer and photochromic polymer system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W.-S. Kuo, C.-H. Lien, K.-C. Cho, C.-Y. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, L. L. H. Huang, P. J. Campagnola, C. Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “Multiphoton fabrication of freeform polymer microstructures with gold nanorods,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27550–27559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

Y. Ner, D. Navarathne, D. M. Niedzwiedzki, J. G. Grote, A. V. Dobrynin, H. A. Frank, and G. A. Sotzing, “Stabilization of fluorophore in DNA thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 263701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. J. Steckl, “DNA – a new material for photonics?” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 3–5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Hagen, W.-X. Li, H. Spaeth, J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, “Molecular beam deposition of DNA nanometer films,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 133–137 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J. A. Hagen, W. Li, A. J. Steckl, and J. G. Grote, “Enhanced emission efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes using deoxyribonucleic acid complex as an electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002

T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 312–314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, K. Totani, S. M. Kuebler, F. Stellacci, W. Wenseleers, K. Braun, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Photoresponsive hydrogel microstructure fabricated by two-photon initiated Polymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 12(9), 611–614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. Miwa, S. Juodkazis, T. Kawakami, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Femtosecond two-photon stereo-lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 73(5), 561–566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 249–251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release,” Macromolecules 33(5), 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, D. M. Delguidice, G. A. Epling, K. D. Hoffacker, A. R. Howell, J. D. Pitts, and S. L. Goodman, “3-dimensional submicron polymerization of acrylamide by multiphoton excitation of xanthene dyes,” Macromolecules 33(5), 1511–1513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, G. Wirnsberger, H. C. Huang, S. R. Cordero, M. D. McGehee, B. Scott, T. Deng, G. M. Whitesides, B. F. Chmelka, S. K. Buratto, and G. D. Stucky, “Mirrorless lasing from mesostructured waveguides patterned by soft lithography,” Science 287(5452), 465–467 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Otomo, S. Yokoyama, T. Nakahama, and S. Mashiko, “Supernarrowing mirrorless laser emission in dendrimer-doped polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 3881–3883 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. R. Lambert, I. E. Kochevar, and R. W. Redmond, “Differential reactivity of upper triplet states produces wavelength-dependent two-photon photosensitization using Rose Bengal,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(18), 3737–3741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993

Z. Zhang and T. Yagi, “Observation of group delay dispersion as a function of the pulse width in as mode locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(22), 2993–2995 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

D. C. Neckers, “Rose Bengal,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 47(1), 1–29 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, M.

T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, K. Totani, S. M. Kuebler, F. Stellacci, W. Wenseleers, K. Braun, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Photoresponsive hydrogel microstructure fabricated by two-photon initiated Polymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 12(9), 611–614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bartkiewicz, S.

J. Mysliwiec, L. Sznitko, A. Sobolewska, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Miniewicz, “Lasing effect in a hybrid dye-doped biopolymer and photochromic polymer system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Braun, K.

T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, K. Totani, S. M. Kuebler, F. Stellacci, W. Wenseleers, K. Braun, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Photoresponsive hydrogel microstructure fabricated by two-photon initiated Polymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 12(9), 611–614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buratto, S. K.

P. Yang, G. Wirnsberger, H. C. Huang, S. R. Cordero, M. D. McGehee, B. Scott, T. Deng, G. M. Whitesides, B. F. Chmelka, S. K. Buratto, and G. D. Stucky, “Mirrorless lasing from mesostructured waveguides patterned by soft lithography,” Science 287(5452), 465–467 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campagnola, P. J.

W.-S. Kuo, C.-H. Lien, K.-C. Cho, C.-Y. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, L. L. H. Huang, P. J. Campagnola, C. Y. Dong, and S.-J. Chen, “Multiphoton fabrication of freeform polymer microstructures with gold nanorods,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27550–27559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola, D. M. Delguidice, G. A. Epling, K. D. Hoffacker, A. R. Howell, J. D. Pitts, and S. L. Goodman, “3-dimensional submicron polymerization of acrylamide by multiphoton excitation of xanthene dyes,” Macromolecules 33(5), 1511–1513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release,” Macromolecules 33(5), 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-Y.

Chen, S.-J.

Chen, W. Q.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chmelka, B. F.

P. Yang, G. Wirnsberger, H. C. Huang, S. R. Cordero, M. D. McGehee, B. Scott, T. Deng, G. M. Whitesides, B. F. Chmelka, S. K. Buratto, and G. D. Stucky, “Mirrorless lasing from mesostructured waveguides patterned by soft lithography,” Science 287(5452), 465–467 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, K.-C.

Cordero, S. R.

P. Yang, G. Wirnsberger, H. C. Huang, S. R. Cordero, M. D. McGehee, B. Scott, T. Deng, G. M. Whitesides, B. F. Chmelka, S. K. Buratto, and G. D. Stucky, “Mirrorless lasing from mesostructured waveguides patterned by soft lithography,” Science 287(5452), 465–467 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delguidice, D. M.

P. J. Campagnola, D. M. Delguidice, G. A. Epling, K. D. Hoffacker, A. R. Howell, J. D. Pitts, and S. L. Goodman, “3-dimensional submicron polymerization of acrylamide by multiphoton excitation of xanthene dyes,” Macromolecules 33(5), 1511–1513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Deng, T.

P. Yang, G. Wirnsberger, H. C. Huang, S. R. Cordero, M. D. McGehee, B. Scott, T. Deng, G. M. Whitesides, B. F. Chmelka, S. K. Buratto, and G. D. Stucky, “Mirrorless lasing from mesostructured waveguides patterned by soft lithography,” Science 287(5452), 465–467 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dobrynin, A. V.

Y. Ner, D. Navarathne, D. M. Niedzwiedzki, J. G. Grote, A. V. Dobrynin, H. A. Frank, and G. A. Sotzing, “Stabilization of fluorophore in DNA thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 263701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, C. Y.

Dong, X. Z.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duan, M.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Epling, G. A.

P. J. Campagnola, D. M. Delguidice, G. A. Epling, K. D. Hoffacker, A. R. Howell, J. D. Pitts, and S. L. Goodman, “3-dimensional submicron polymerization of acrylamide by multiphoton excitation of xanthene dyes,” Macromolecules 33(5), 1511–1513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release,” Macromolecules 33(5), 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Frank, H. A.

Y. Ner, D. Navarathne, D. M. Niedzwiedzki, J. G. Grote, A. V. Dobrynin, H. A. Frank, and G. A. Sotzing, “Stabilization of fluorophore in DNA thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 263701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Galajda, P.

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 249–251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, S. L.

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release,” Macromolecules 33(5), 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, D. M. Delguidice, G. A. Epling, K. D. Hoffacker, A. R. Howell, J. D. Pitts, and S. L. Goodman, “3-dimensional submicron polymerization of acrylamide by multiphoton excitation of xanthene dyes,” Macromolecules 33(5), 1511–1513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grote, J. G.

Y. Ner, D. Navarathne, D. M. Niedzwiedzki, J. G. Grote, A. V. Dobrynin, H. A. Frank, and G. A. Sotzing, “Stabilization of fluorophore in DNA thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 263701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Hagen, W.-X. Li, H. Spaeth, J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, “Molecular beam deposition of DNA nanometer films,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 133–137 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Hagen, W. Li, A. J. Steckl, and J. G. Grote, “Enhanced emission efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes using deoxyribonucleic acid complex as an electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hagen, J. A.

J. A. Hagen, W.-X. Li, H. Spaeth, J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, “Molecular beam deposition of DNA nanometer films,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 133–137 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Hagen, W. Li, A. J. Steckl, and J. G. Grote, “Enhanced emission efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes using deoxyribonucleic acid complex as an electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hoffacker, K. D.

P. J. Campagnola, D. M. Delguidice, G. A. Epling, K. D. Hoffacker, A. R. Howell, J. D. Pitts, and S. L. Goodman, “3-dimensional submicron polymerization of acrylamide by multiphoton excitation of xanthene dyes,” Macromolecules 33(5), 1511–1513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Howell, A. R.

P. J. Campagnola, D. M. Delguidice, G. A. Epling, K. D. Hoffacker, A. R. Howell, J. D. Pitts, and S. L. Goodman, “3-dimensional submicron polymerization of acrylamide by multiphoton excitation of xanthene dyes,” Macromolecules 33(5), 1511–1513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. C.

P. Yang, G. Wirnsberger, H. C. Huang, S. R. Cordero, M. D. McGehee, B. Scott, T. Deng, G. M. Whitesides, B. F. Chmelka, S. K. Buratto, and G. D. Stucky, “Mirrorless lasing from mesostructured waveguides patterned by soft lithography,” Science 287(5452), 465–467 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, L. L. H.

Juodkazis, S.

M. Miwa, S. Juodkazis, T. Kawakami, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Femtosecond two-photon stereo-lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 73(5), 561–566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, T.

M. Miwa, S. Juodkazis, T. Kawakami, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Femtosecond two-photon stereo-lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 73(5), 561–566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 312–314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kochevar, I. E.

C. R. Lambert, I. E. Kochevar, and R. W. Redmond, “Differential reactivity of upper triplet states produces wavelength-dependent two-photon photosensitization using Rose Bengal,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(18), 3737–3741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuebler, S. M.

T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, K. Totani, S. M. Kuebler, F. Stellacci, W. Wenseleers, K. Braun, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Photoresponsive hydrogel microstructure fabricated by two-photon initiated Polymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 12(9), 611–614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, W.-S.

Lambert, C. R.

C. R. Lambert, I. E. Kochevar, and R. W. Redmond, “Differential reactivity of upper triplet states produces wavelength-dependent two-photon photosensitization using Rose Bengal,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(18), 3737–3741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

J. A. Hagen, W. Li, A. J. Steckl, and J. G. Grote, “Enhanced emission efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes using deoxyribonucleic acid complex as an electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.-X.

J. A. Hagen, W.-X. Li, H. Spaeth, J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, “Molecular beam deposition of DNA nanometer films,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 133–137 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lien, C.-H.

Lin, C.-Y.

Marder, S. R.

T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, K. Totani, S. M. Kuebler, F. Stellacci, W. Wenseleers, K. Braun, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Photoresponsive hydrogel microstructure fabricated by two-photon initiated Polymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 12(9), 611–614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mashiko, S.

A. Otomo, S. Yokoyama, T. Nakahama, and S. Mashiko, “Supernarrowing mirrorless laser emission in dendrimer-doped polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 3881–3883 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

M. Miwa, S. Juodkazis, T. Kawakami, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Femtosecond two-photon stereo-lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 73(5), 561–566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M. D.

P. Yang, G. Wirnsberger, H. C. Huang, S. R. Cordero, M. D. McGehee, B. Scott, T. Deng, G. M. Whitesides, B. F. Chmelka, S. K. Buratto, and G. D. Stucky, “Mirrorless lasing from mesostructured waveguides patterned by soft lithography,” Science 287(5452), 465–467 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miniewicz, A.

J. Mysliwiec, L. Sznitko, A. Sobolewska, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Miniewicz, “Lasing effect in a hybrid dye-doped biopolymer and photochromic polymer system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

M. Miwa, S. Juodkazis, T. Kawakami, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Femtosecond two-photon stereo-lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 73(5), 561–566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miwa, M.

M. Miwa, S. Juodkazis, T. Kawakami, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Femtosecond two-photon stereo-lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 73(5), 561–566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mysliwiec, J.

J. Mysliwiec, L. Sznitko, A. Sobolewska, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Miniewicz, “Lasing effect in a hybrid dye-doped biopolymer and photochromic polymer system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nakahama, T.

A. Otomo, S. Yokoyama, T. Nakahama, and S. Mashiko, “Supernarrowing mirrorless laser emission in dendrimer-doped polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 3881–3883 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, S.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Navarathne, D.

Y. Ner, D. Navarathne, D. M. Niedzwiedzki, J. G. Grote, A. V. Dobrynin, H. A. Frank, and G. A. Sotzing, “Stabilization of fluorophore in DNA thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 263701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Neckers, D. C.

D. C. Neckers, “Rose Bengal,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 47(1), 1–29 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ner, Y.

Y. Ner, D. Navarathne, D. M. Niedzwiedzki, J. G. Grote, A. V. Dobrynin, H. A. Frank, and G. A. Sotzing, “Stabilization of fluorophore in DNA thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 263701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Niedzwiedzki, D. M.

Y. Ner, D. Navarathne, D. M. Niedzwiedzki, J. G. Grote, A. V. Dobrynin, H. A. Frank, and G. A. Sotzing, “Stabilization of fluorophore in DNA thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 263701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ormos, P.

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 249–251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Otomo, A.

A. Otomo, S. Yokoyama, T. Nakahama, and S. Mashiko, “Supernarrowing mirrorless laser emission in dendrimer-doped polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 3881–3883 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, K. Totani, S. M. Kuebler, F. Stellacci, W. Wenseleers, K. Braun, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Photoresponsive hydrogel microstructure fabricated by two-photon initiated Polymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 12(9), 611–614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pitts, J. D.

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release,” Macromolecules 33(5), 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, D. M. Delguidice, G. A. Epling, K. D. Hoffacker, A. R. Howell, J. D. Pitts, and S. L. Goodman, “3-dimensional submicron polymerization of acrylamide by multiphoton excitation of xanthene dyes,” Macromolecules 33(5), 1511–1513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Redmond, R. W.

C. R. Lambert, I. E. Kochevar, and R. W. Redmond, “Differential reactivity of upper triplet states produces wavelength-dependent two-photon photosensitization using Rose Bengal,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(18), 3737–3741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scott, B.

P. Yang, G. Wirnsberger, H. C. Huang, S. R. Cordero, M. D. McGehee, B. Scott, T. Deng, G. M. Whitesides, B. F. Chmelka, S. K. Buratto, and G. D. Stucky, “Mirrorless lasing from mesostructured waveguides patterned by soft lithography,” Science 287(5452), 465–467 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sobolewska, A.

J. Mysliwiec, L. Sznitko, A. Sobolewska, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Miniewicz, “Lasing effect in a hybrid dye-doped biopolymer and photochromic polymer system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sotzing, G. A.

Y. Ner, D. Navarathne, D. M. Niedzwiedzki, J. G. Grote, A. V. Dobrynin, H. A. Frank, and G. A. Sotzing, “Stabilization of fluorophore in DNA thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 263701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spaeth, H.

J. A. Hagen, W.-X. Li, H. Spaeth, J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, “Molecular beam deposition of DNA nanometer films,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 133–137 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steckl, A. J.

J. A. Hagen, W.-X. Li, H. Spaeth, J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, “Molecular beam deposition of DNA nanometer films,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 133–137 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Steckl, “DNA – a new material for photonics?” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 3–5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Hagen, W. Li, A. J. Steckl, and J. G. Grote, “Enhanced emission efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes using deoxyribonucleic acid complex as an electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stellacci, F.

T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, K. Totani, S. M. Kuebler, F. Stellacci, W. Wenseleers, K. Braun, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Photoresponsive hydrogel microstructure fabricated by two-photon initiated Polymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 12(9), 611–614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stucky, G. D.

P. Yang, G. Wirnsberger, H. C. Huang, S. R. Cordero, M. D. McGehee, B. Scott, T. Deng, G. M. Whitesides, B. F. Chmelka, S. K. Buratto, and G. D. Stucky, “Mirrorless lasing from mesostructured waveguides patterned by soft lithography,” Science 287(5452), 465–467 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, H. B.

T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 312–314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Z. B.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sznitko, L.

J. Mysliwiec, L. Sznitko, A. Sobolewska, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Miniewicz, “Lasing effect in a hybrid dye-doped biopolymer and photochromic polymer system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takada, K.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 312–314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Totani, K.

T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, K. Totani, S. M. Kuebler, F. Stellacci, W. Wenseleers, K. Braun, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Photoresponsive hydrogel microstructure fabricated by two-photon initiated Polymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 12(9), 611–614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, K. Totani, S. M. Kuebler, F. Stellacci, W. Wenseleers, K. Braun, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Photoresponsive hydrogel microstructure fabricated by two-photon initiated Polymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 12(9), 611–614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wenseleers, W.

T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, K. Totani, S. M. Kuebler, F. Stellacci, W. Wenseleers, K. Braun, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Photoresponsive hydrogel microstructure fabricated by two-photon initiated Polymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 12(9), 611–614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

P. Yang, G. Wirnsberger, H. C. Huang, S. R. Cordero, M. D. McGehee, B. Scott, T. Deng, G. M. Whitesides, B. F. Chmelka, S. K. Buratto, and G. D. Stucky, “Mirrorless lasing from mesostructured waveguides patterned by soft lithography,” Science 287(5452), 465–467 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wirnsberger, G.

P. Yang, G. Wirnsberger, H. C. Huang, S. R. Cordero, M. D. McGehee, B. Scott, T. Deng, G. M. Whitesides, B. F. Chmelka, S. K. Buratto, and G. D. Stucky, “Mirrorless lasing from mesostructured waveguides patterned by soft lithography,” Science 287(5452), 465–467 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yagi, T.

Z. Zhang and T. Yagi, “Observation of group delay dispersion as a function of the pulse width in as mode locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(22), 2993–2995 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

P. Yang, G. Wirnsberger, H. C. Huang, S. R. Cordero, M. D. McGehee, B. Scott, T. Deng, G. M. Whitesides, B. F. Chmelka, S. K. Buratto, and G. D. Stucky, “Mirrorless lasing from mesostructured waveguides patterned by soft lithography,” Science 287(5452), 465–467 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokoyama, S.

A. Otomo, S. Yokoyama, T. Nakahama, and S. Mashiko, “Supernarrowing mirrorless laser emission in dendrimer-doped polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 3881–3883 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang and T. Yagi, “Observation of group delay dispersion as a function of the pulse width in as mode locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(22), 2993–2995 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

T. Watanabe, M. Akiyama, K. Totani, S. M. Kuebler, F. Stellacci, W. Wenseleers, K. Braun, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Photoresponsive hydrogel microstructure fabricated by two-photon initiated Polymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 12(9), 611–614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. A. Hagen, W. Li, A. J. Steckl, and J. G. Grote, “Enhanced emission efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes using deoxyribonucleic acid complex as an electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ner, D. Navarathne, D. M. Niedzwiedzki, J. G. Grote, A. V. Dobrynin, H. A. Frank, and G. A. Sotzing, “Stabilization of fluorophore in DNA thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 263701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mysliwiec, L. Sznitko, A. Sobolewska, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Miniewicz, “Lasing effect in a hybrid dye-doped biopolymer and photochromic polymer system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Otomo, S. Yokoyama, T. Nakahama, and S. Mashiko, “Supernarrowing mirrorless laser emission in dendrimer-doped polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 3881–3883 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 249–251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 312–314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang and T. Yagi, “Observation of group delay dispersion as a function of the pulse width in as mode locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(22), 2993–2995 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

M. Miwa, S. Juodkazis, T. Kawakami, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Femtosecond two-photon stereo-lithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 73(5), 561–566 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. Photobiol., A

D. C. Neckers, “Rose Bengal,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., A 47(1), 1–29 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

C. R. Lambert, I. E. Kochevar, and R. W. Redmond, “Differential reactivity of upper triplet states produces wavelength-dependent two-photon photosensitization using Rose Bengal,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(18), 3737–3741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release,” Macromolecules 33(5), 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, D. M. Delguidice, G. A. Epling, K. D. Hoffacker, A. R. Howell, J. D. Pitts, and S. L. Goodman, “3-dimensional submicron polymerization of acrylamide by multiphoton excitation of xanthene dyes,” Macromolecules 33(5), 1511–1513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

J. A. Hagen, W.-X. Li, H. Spaeth, J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, “Molecular beam deposition of DNA nanometer films,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 133–137 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

A. J. Steckl, “DNA – a new material for photonics?” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 3–5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Science

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Yang, G. Wirnsberger, H. C. Huang, S. R. Cordero, M. D. McGehee, B. Scott, T. Deng, G. M. Whitesides, B. F. Chmelka, S. K. Buratto, and G. D. Stucky, “Mirrorless lasing from mesostructured waveguides patterned by soft lithography,” Science 287(5452), 465–467 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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