Abstract

Dramatic advances in supercontinuum generation have been made recently using photonic crystal fibers, but it is quite challenging to obtain an octave-spanning supercontinuum on a chip, partially because of strong dispersion in high-index-contrast nonlinear integrated waveguides. We show by simulation that extremely flat and low dispersion can be achieved in silicon nitride slot waveguides over a wavelength band of 500 nm. Different from most of previously reported supercontinua that were generated either by higher-order soliton fission in anomalous dispersion regime or by self-phase modulation in normal dispersion regime, a two-octave supercontinuum from 630 to 2650 nm (360 THz in total) can be generated by enhancing self-steepening in pulse propagation in nearly zero dispersion regime, when an optical shock as short as 3 fs is formed.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (1)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 141–148 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (7)

2009 (3)

2008 (3)

2007 (4)

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

J. C. A. Tyrrell, P. Kinsler, and G. H. C. New, “Pseudospectral spatial-domain: a new method for nonlinear pulse propagation in the few-cycle regime with arbitrary dispersion,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(7), 973–986 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424(6948), 511–515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(14), 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

Y. Wang, R. Yue, H. Han, and X. Liao, “Raman study of structural order of a-SiNx:H and its change upon thermal annealing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 291(1-2), 107–112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

Afshar V, S.

Agrawal, G. P.

Akozbek, N.

V. Roppo, M. Centini, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, D. de Ceglia, M. Scalora, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, J. W. Haus, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Role of phase matching in pulsed second-harmonic generation: walk-off and phase-locked twin pulses in negative-index media,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aközbek, N.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(14), 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alic, N.

Beausoleil, R. G.

Becker, A.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(14), 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertolotti, M.

V. Roppo, M. Centini, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, D. de Ceglia, M. Scalora, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, J. W. Haus, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Role of phase matching in pulsed second-harmonic generation: walk-off and phase-locked twin pulses in negative-index media,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biancalana, F.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424(6948), 511–515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T. A.

Bloemer, M. J.

V. Roppo, M. Centini, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, D. de Ceglia, M. Scalora, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, J. W. Haus, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Role of phase matching in pulsed second-harmonic generation: walk-off and phase-locked twin pulses in negative-index media,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(14), 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyraz, Ö.

Broderick, N. G.

Centini, M.

V. Roppo, M. Centini, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, D. de Ceglia, M. Scalora, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, J. W. Haus, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Role of phase matching in pulsed second-harmonic generation: walk-off and phase-locked twin pulses in negative-index media,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chaudhari, C.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Chin, S. L.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(14), 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, D. Y.

Chou, C.-Y.

Chu, S.

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dadap, J. I.

de Ceglia, D.

V. Roppo, M. Centini, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, D. de Ceglia, M. Scalora, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, J. W. Haus, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Role of phase matching in pulsed second-harmonic generation: walk-off and phase-locked twin pulses in negative-index media,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duchesne, D.

Dudley, J. M.

Efimov, A.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424(6948), 511–515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eggleton, B. J.

Fainman, Y.

Ferrera, M.

Foster, M. A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Gaeta, “Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(16), 3582–3585 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genty, G.

Gondarenko, A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M.

Han, H.

Y. Wang, R. Yue, H. Han, and X. Liao, “Raman study of structural order of a-SiNx:H and its change upon thermal annealing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 291(1-2), 107–112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haus, J. W.

V. Roppo, M. Centini, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, D. de Ceglia, M. Scalora, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, J. W. Haus, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Role of phase matching in pulsed second-harmonic generation: walk-off and phase-locked twin pulses in negative-index media,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, J. R.

Heidt, A. M.

Horak, P.

Hsieh, I.-W.

Ikeda, K.

Iwasaki, A.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(14), 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jalali, B.

Kandidov, V. P.

V. Roppo, M. Centini, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, D. de Ceglia, M. Scalora, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, J. W. Haus, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Role of phase matching in pulsed second-harmonic generation: walk-off and phase-locked twin pulses in negative-index media,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kibler, B.

Kinsler, P.

P. Kinsler, “Optical pulse propagation with minimal approximations,” Phys. Rev. A 81(1), 013819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Genty, B. Kibler, P. Kinsler, and J. M. Dudley, “Harmonic extended supercontinuum generation and carrier envelope phase dependent spectral broadening in silica nanowires,” Opt. Express 16(15), 10886–10893 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Genty, P. Kinsler, B. Kibler, and J. M. Dudley, “Nonlinear envelope equation modeling of sub-cycle dynamics and harmonic generation in nonlinear waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5382–5387 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. A. Tyrrell, P. Kinsler, and G. H. C. New, “Pseudospectral spatial-domain: a new method for nonlinear pulse propagation in the few-cycle regime with arbitrary dispersion,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(7), 973–986 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kito, C.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424(6948), 511–515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koonath, P.

Koos, C.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O. G.

V. Roppo, M. Centini, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, D. de Ceglia, M. Scalora, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, J. W. Haus, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Role of phase matching in pulsed second-harmonic generation: walk-off and phase-locked twin pulses in negative-index media,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, V. V.

Lamont, M. R. E.

Légaré, F.

Leuthold, J.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Levy, J. S.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liao, M.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liao, X.

Y. Wang, R. Yue, H. Han, and X. Liao, “Raman study of structural order of a-SiNx:H and its change upon thermal annealing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 291(1-2), 107–112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

Liu, X.

Luther-Davies, B.

Madden, S.

Monro, T. M.

Morandotti, R.

Moss, D. J.

New, G. H. C.

J. C. A. Tyrrell, P. Kinsler, and G. H. C. New, “Pseudospectral spatial-domain: a new method for nonlinear pulse propagation in the few-cycle regime with arbitrary dispersion,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(7), 973–986 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Omenetto, F. G.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424(6948), 511–515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osgood, R. M.

Panoiu, N. C.

Peccianti, M.

Poletti, F.

Price, J. H.

Qin, G.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Raghunathan, V.

Ranka, J. K.

Razzari, L.

Reeves, W. H.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424(6948), 511–515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

Richardson, K.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 141–148 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Roppo, V.

V. Roppo, M. Centini, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, D. de Ceglia, M. Scalora, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, J. W. Haus, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Role of phase matching in pulsed second-harmonic generation: walk-off and phase-locked twin pulses in negative-index media,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424(6948), 511–515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(19), 1415–1417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saperstein, R. E.

Scalora, M.

V. Roppo, M. Centini, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, D. de Ceglia, M. Scalora, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, J. W. Haus, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Role of phase matching in pulsed second-harmonic generation: walk-off and phase-locked twin pulses in negative-index media,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(14), 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sibilia, C.

V. Roppo, M. Centini, C. Sibilia, M. Bertolotti, D. de Ceglia, M. Scalora, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, J. W. Haus, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Role of phase matching in pulsed second-harmonic generation: walk-off and phase-locked twin pulses in negative-index media,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Skryabin, D. V.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424(6948), 511–515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stentz, A. J.

Suzuki, T.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, “Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424(6948), 511–515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tse, M. L. V.

Turner-Foster, A. C.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tyrrell, J. C. A.

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161103 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Silicon nitride slot waveguide for dispersion flattening and supercontinuum generation. A horizontal silica slot is between two silicon nitride layers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Flattened all normal dispersion for supercontinuum generation in the slot waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two-octave supercontinuum generation in the dispersion-flattened slot waveguide. (a) The input 120-fs pulse is centered at 2200-nm wavelength. A supercontinuum is generated from 630 to 2650 nm mainly due to self-steepening of the pulse. (b) In time domain, an optical shock as short as 3 fs (see the inset) is formed, as the pulse travels 5 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral evolution in the slot waveguides. Low dispersion causes dramatic spectral broadening and optical shock formation, from A to B. Then, accumulated dispersion makes the pulse falling edge less steep and improves spectral flatness, from B to C. Self-phase modulation produces blue-shifted frequencies near the carrier frequency, from A to D.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectrogram evolution of the pulse. Strong self-steepening and spectral broadening occur in the pulse propagation from 0 to 4 mm. At 10 mm, the blue part of the pulse falling edge walks off due to dispersion. This forms a hockey-stick-like pattern in the spectrogram. A third-harmonic pulse trapped by the fundamental pulse due to a nonlinear phase locking also has a hockey-stick-like spectrogram, though stretched 3 times in the frequency domain.

Equations (2)

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( z + α 2 + i m = 2 ( i ) m β m m ! m t m ) A = [ N K e r r ( A ) + N R a m a n ( A ) ]
N K e r r ( A ) = i γ e ( 1 i τ K e r r t ) ( | A | 2 A + 1 3 A 3 e 2 i ω 0 t )   and N R a m a n ( A ) = i γ R ( 1 i τ R a m a n t ) ( A t h R ( t t ' ) ( | A | 2 + 1 3 A 2 e 2 i ω 0 t ' ) d t ' ) .

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