Abstract

When silicon strip and slot waveguides are coated with a 50nm amorphous titanium dioxide (TiO2) film, measured losses at a wavelength of 1.55 μm can be as low as (2 ± 1)dB/cm and (7 ± 2)dB/cm, respectively. We use atomic layer deposition (ALD), estimate the effect of ALD growth on the surface roughness, and discuss the effect on the scattering losses. Because the gap between the rails of a slot waveguide narrows by the TiO2 deposition, the effective slot width can be back-end controlled. This is useful for precise adjustment if the slot is to be filled with, e. g., a nonlinear organic material or with a sensitizer for sensors applications.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (1)

2009 (5)

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology - a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Alasaarela, A. Säynätjoki, T. Hakkarainen, and S. Honkanen, “Feature size reduction of silicon slot waveguides by partial filling using atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Eng. 48, 080502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Yap, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, P. Waldron, B. A. Syrett, and S. Janz, “Correlation of scattering loss, sidewall roughness and waveguide width in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) ridge waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 3999–4008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. Schrauwen, J. V. Lysebettens, T. Claes, K. D. Vos, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Focused-ion-beam fabrication of slots in silicon waveguides and ring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2004–2006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, and E. Cassan, “Propagation loss in single-mode ultrasmall square silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 891–896 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1306–1321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Alasaarela, T.

T. Alasaarela, T. Saastamoinen, J. Hiltunen, A. Saynatjoki, A. Tervonen, P. Stenberg, M. Kuittinen, and S. Honkanen, “Atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide and its application in resonant waveguide grating,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4321–4325 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Alasaarela, A. Säynätjoki, T. Hakkarainen, and S. Honkanen, “Feature size reduction of silicon slot waveguides by partial filling using atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Eng. 48, 080502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Baets, R.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology - a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Schrauwen, J. V. Lysebettens, T. Claes, K. D. Vos, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Focused-ion-beam fabrication of slots in silicon waveguides and ring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2004–2006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

Biaggio, I.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology - a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Schrauwen, J. V. Lysebettens, T. Claes, K. D. Vos, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Focused-ion-beam fabrication of slots in silicon waveguides and ring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2004–2006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brosi, J.-M.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology - a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Casquel, R.

Cassan, E.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, and E. Cassan, “Propagation loss in single-mode ultrasmall square silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 891–896 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1661–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cerrina, F.

Claes, T.

J. Schrauwen, J. V. Lysebettens, T. Claes, K. D. Vos, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Focused-ion-beam fabrication of slots in silicon waveguides and ring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2004–2006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Delâge, A.

Diederich, F.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology - a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology - a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Esembeson, B.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Frank, B.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology - a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology - a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon-on-insulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 15, 5976–5990 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1306–1321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, M.

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1306–1321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grillot, F.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, and E. Cassan, “Propagation loss in single-mode ultrasmall square silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 891–896 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1661–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Griol, A.

Gylfason, K. B.

Hakkarainen, T.

T. Alasaarela, A. Säynätjoki, T. Hakkarainen, and S. Honkanen, “Feature size reduction of silicon slot waveguides by partial filling using atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Eng. 48, 080502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hiltunen, J.

Holgado, M.

Honkanen, S.

T. Alasaarela, T. Saastamoinen, J. Hiltunen, A. Saynatjoki, A. Tervonen, P. Stenberg, M. Kuittinen, and S. Honkanen, “Atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide and its application in resonant waveguide grating,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4321–4325 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Alasaarela, A. Säynätjoki, T. Hakkarainen, and S. Honkanen, “Feature size reduction of silicon slot waveguides by partial filling using atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Eng. 48, 080502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jacome, L.

Janz, S.

Kimerling, L.

Kimerling, L. C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, “Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1888–1890 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koos, C.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology - a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon-on-insulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 15, 5976–5990 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1306–1321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuittinen, M.

Lacey, J. P. R.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lamontagne, B.

Lapointe, J.

Laval, S.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, and E. Cassan, “Propagation loss in single-mode ultrasmall square silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 891–896 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1661–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, “Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1888–1890 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology - a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon-on-insulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 15, 5976–5990 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1306–1321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, “Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1888–1890 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Luan, H.-C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lysebettens, J. V.

J. Schrauwen, J. V. Lysebettens, T. Claes, K. D. Vos, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Focused-ion-beam fabrication of slots in silicon waveguides and ring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2004–2006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Michinobu, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

Pascal, D.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1661–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Payne, F. P.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pfrang, A.

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1306–1321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poulton, C.

Poulton, C. G.

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1306–1321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saastamoinen, T.

Sánchez, B.

Saynatjoki, A.

Säynätjoki, A.

T. Alasaarela, A. Säynätjoki, T. Hakkarainen, and S. Honkanen, “Feature size reduction of silicon slot waveguides by partial filling using atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Eng. 48, 080502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schimmel, T.

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1306–1321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, J. H.

Schrauwen, J.

J. Schrauwen, J. V. Lysebettens, T. Claes, K. D. Vos, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Focused-ion-beam fabrication of slots in silicon waveguides and ring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2004–2006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scimeca, M. L.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology - a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.

Sohlström, H.

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J. Schrauwen, J. V. Lysebettens, T. Claes, K. D. Vos, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Focused-ion-beam fabrication of slots in silicon waveguides and ring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2004–2006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vallaitis, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216 (2009).
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Vivien, L.

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F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1661–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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J. Schrauwen, J. V. Lysebettens, T. Claes, K. D. Vos, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Focused-ion-beam fabrication of slots in silicon waveguides and ring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2004–2006 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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J. Schrauwen, J. V. Lysebettens, T. Claes, K. D. Vos, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Focused-ion-beam fabrication of slots in silicon waveguides and ring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2004–2006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1661–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

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C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3, 216 (2009).
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Proc. IEEE (1)

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology - a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

ePIXfab silicon photonics shuttle service, http://www.epixfab.eu/ .

FIMMWAVE by Photon Design, http://www.photond.com/ .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulation of ALD layer growth on a rough surface. The initial surface roughness is exponentially distributed having a correlation length of Lc = 15nm and an effective (RMS) roughness of σ = 5nm. The height profiles h(x) and the RMS roughnesses σ are shown for various thicknesses (0, 10, ..., 50)nm of the deposited layer in steps of 10nm. Each additional 10nm layer makes the surface smoother. The smoothing effect is strongest for the highest spatial frequencies visible in the initial height profile, while the smoothing after applying the first 10nm ALD layer is less effective.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM image of a slot waveguide cross-section that is ALD-coated with a 30nm thick layer of TiO2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Strip waveguides with various dimensions. Measured propagation losses as a function of (a) initial strip width, and (b) quasi-TE modal effective index n eff = β/k 0. Parameter: TiO2 cover height 0 ... 50nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Slot waveguides with various dimensions, which can be found in Table 1 with the respective waveguide numbers. Measured slot waveguide propagation losses as a function of quasi-TE modal effective index n eff = β/k 0 for a) all measured slot waveguides, b) only waveguides 1...5, and c) only waveguides 21...25. Waveguide numbers are growing from higher to lower effective indices in each plot. Parameters: Waveguide numbers (only a)), TiO2 cover height t = 20 ... 50nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured propagation loss of slot waveguides with n eff > 1.55 (no leakage loss) as a function of the remaining air slot width after coating. The thicker coating gives a stronger loss reduction, especially for the narrow air gaps. Parameters: Slot waveguide numbers (see Table 1), TiO2 cover height t = 30 ... 50nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Designed Rail Widths wrd , Designed Slot Widths wsd , Estimated Actual Rail Widths wr , Estimated Actual Slot Widths ws , and the Effective Indices Calculated for the estimated Actual Dimensions with Three Different ALD-TiO2 Thicknesses t

Equations (2)

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α = ϕ 2 ( d ) ( n 1 2 n 2 2 ) 2 k 0 3 4 π n 1 0 π Ř ( β n 2 k 0 cos θ ) d θ .
h ( x , τ ) τ = v 1 + ( h ( x , τ ) x ) 2 .

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