Abstract

Data interconnects are on the verge of a revolution. Electrical links are increasingly being pushed to their limits with the ever increasing demand for bandwidth. Data transmission in the optical domain is a leading candidate to satisfy this need. The optical modulator is key to most applications and increasing the data rate at which it operates is important for reducing power consumption, increasing channel bandwidth limitations and improving the efficiency of infrastructure usage. In this work silicon based devices of lengths 3.5mm and 1mm operating at 40Gbit/s are demonstrated with extinction ratios of up to 10dB and 3.5dB respectively. The efficiency and optical loss of the phase shifter is 2.7V.cm and 4dB/mm (or 4.5dB/mm including waveguide loss) respectively.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (6)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsung-Yang, A. Kah-Wee, F. Qing, S. Jun-Feng, X. Yong-Zhong, Y. Ming-Bin, L. Guo-Qiang, and K. Dim-Lee, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach–Zehnder Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low loss MMI couplers for high performance MZI modulators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1485–1487 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm V(π)L integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, F. Milesi, and J.-M. Fedeli, “High speed silicon optical modulator with self aligned fabrication process,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19064–19069 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

Asghari, M.

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beattie, J.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible si ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brimont, A.

Carothers, D.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible si ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

Chen, Y.-K.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible si ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

Damlencourt, J. F.

Dim-Lee, K.

L. Tsung-Yang, A. Kah-Wee, F. Qing, S. Jun-Feng, X. Yong-Zhong, Y. Ming-Bin, L. Guo-Qiang, and K. Dim-Lee, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dong, F.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

Fedeli, J.-M.

Fédéli, J. M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Gardes, F. Y.

Gill, D. M.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible si ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, C.

C. Gunn, “CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects,” Micro. IEEE 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guo-Qiang, L.

L. Tsung-Yang, A. Kah-Wee, F. Qing, S. Jun-Feng, X. Yong-Zhong, Y. Ming-Bin, L. Guo-Qiang, and K. Dim-Lee, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Halbwax, M.

Hill, C.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible si ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low loss MMI couplers for high performance MZI modulators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1485–1487 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jun-Feng, S.

L. Tsung-Yang, A. Kah-Wee, F. Qing, S. Jun-Feng, X. Yong-Zhong, Y. Ming-Bin, L. Guo-Qiang, and K. Dim-Lee, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kah-Wee, A.

L. Tsung-Yang, A. Kah-Wee, F. Qing, S. Jun-Feng, X. Yong-Zhong, Y. Ming-Bin, L. Guo-Qiang, and K. Dim-Lee, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kamocsai, R.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible si ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.

Kim, I. G.

Krauss, T. F.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kung, C.-C.

Laval, S.

Le Roux, X.

Lentine, A. L.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach–Zehnder Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, S.

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maine, S.

Marris-Morini, D.

Martí, J.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Milesi, F.

Ming-Bin, Y.

L. Tsung-Yang, A. Kah-Wee, F. Qing, S. Jun-Feng, X. Yong-Zhong, Y. Ming-Bin, L. Guo-Qiang, and K. Dim-Lee, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O’Faolain, L.

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. W.

Park, J.-W.

Park, M.

Pascal, D.

Patel, S. S.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible si ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pomerene, A.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible si ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

Qing, F.

L. Tsung-Yang, A. Kah-Wee, F. Qing, S. Jun-Feng, X. Yong-Zhong, Y. Ming-Bin, L. Guo-Qiang, and K. Dim-Lee, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rasigade, G.

Rasras, M.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible si ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanchis, P.

Shafiiha, R.

Thomson, D. J.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, F. Milesi, and J.-M. Fedeli, “High speed silicon optical modulator with self aligned fabrication process,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19064–19069 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low loss MMI couplers for high performance MZI modulators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1485–1487 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trotter, D. C.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach–Zehnder Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsung-Yang, L.

L. Tsung-Yang, A. Kah-Wee, F. Qing, S. Jun-Feng, X. Yong-Zhong, Y. Ming-Bin, L. Guo-Qiang, and K. Dim-Lee, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tu, K.-Y.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible si ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Watts, M. R.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach–Zehnder Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

White, A. E.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible si ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yong-Zhong, X.

L. Tsung-Yang, A. Kah-Wee, F. Qing, S. Jun-Feng, X. Yong-Zhong, Y. Ming-Bin, L. Guo-Qiang, and K. Dim-Lee, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

You, J.-B.

Young, R. W.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach–Zehnder Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

Zortman, W. A.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach–Zehnder Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach–Zehnder Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsung-Yang, A. Kah-Wee, F. Qing, S. Jun-Feng, X. Yong-Zhong, Y. Ming-Bin, L. Guo-Qiang, and K. Dim-Lee, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible si ring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Micro. IEEE (1)

C. Gunn, “CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects,” Micro. IEEE 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

D. Marris-Morini, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, M. Halbwax, S. Maine, S. Laval, J. M. Fédéli, and J. F. Damlencourt, “Optical modulation by carrier depletion in a silicon PIN diode,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10838–10843 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-B. You, M. Park, J.-W. Park, and G. Kim, “12.5 Gbps optical modulation of silicon racetrack resonator based on carrier-depletion in asymmetric p-n diode,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18340–18344 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Park, J.-B. You, I. G. Kim, and G. Kim, “High-modulation efficiency silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator based on carrier depletion in a PN Diode,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15520–15524 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Y. Gardes, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. O’Faolain, F. Dong, J.-M. Fedeli, P. Dumon, L. Vivien, T. F. Krauss, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High-speed modulation of a compact silicon ring resonator based on a reverse-biased pn diode,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21986–21991 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm V(π)L integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, F. Milesi, and J.-M. Fedeli, “High speed silicon optical modulator with self aligned fabrication process,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19064–19069 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low loss MMI couplers for high performance MZI modulators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1485–1487 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, “Silicon photonics- An introduction,” Wiley, ISBN 0–470–87034–6 (2004).

A Narasimha, S. Abdaila, C. Bradbury, A. Clark, J. Clymore, J. Coyne, A. Dahl, S. Gloeckner, A. Gruenberg, D. Guckenberger, S. Gutierrez, M. Harrison, D. Kucharski, K. Leap, R. LeBlanc, V. Liang, M. Mack, D. Martinez, G. Masini, A. Mekis, R. Menigoz, C. Ogden, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, J. Redman, J. Rodriguez, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, V. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, W. Xu, K. Vokoyama and P. D. DobbeIaere “An ultra low power CMOS photonics technology platform for H/S optoelectronic transceivers at less than $1 per Gbps,” in Proc. OFC 2010, San Diego, USA (2010).

S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, F. Gan, G.-R. Zhou, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “High-speed silicon electro-optical modulator that can be operated in carrier depletion or carrier injection mode,” 2008 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (2008).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram showing the phase shifter cross-section

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram showing the self-aligned formation of the pn junction. (a) – The active region is implanted with boron making the region p type. (b) – A silicon dioxide layer deposited onto the surface is patterned with the waveguide design. (c) – The waveguide is etched into the silicon overlayer using the silicon dioxide layer as a mask. (d) – A photoresist window is opened on one side of the waveguide through which phosphorus ions are implanted to form an n type region at the side of the waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microscope image of a fabricated MZI modulator with 250 micrometer long phase modulators. The diagram is annotated to show the position of the waveguides.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Graph showing the spectral response of the 3.5mm MZI with different reverse bias voltages

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Graph showing the spectral response of the 1mm MZI with different reverse bias voltages

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Phase shift achieved for different reverse bias voltages applied to both 3.5mm and 1mm phase shifters.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Eye diagram derived from optical PRBS data output at 40Gbit/s. 3.5mm MZI with 6.5V RF signal operated at quadrature (10dB ER).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Eye diagram derived from optical PRBS data output at 40Gbit/s. 1mm MZI with 6.5V RF operated approximately 3dB below quadrature (7.5dB ER).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Eye diagram derived from optical PRBS data output at 40Gbit/s. 3.5mm MZI with 4V RF signal operated at quadrature (7dB ER).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Eye diagram derived from optical PRBS data output at 40Gbit/s. 1mm MZI with 6.5V RF operated at quadrature (3.5dB ER).

Equations (1)

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P = ( ( 1 2 V d r i v e ) 2 Z × B R )

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