Abstract

The diffusion of silver nanoparticles in water at 298K inside an optical vortex lattice is analyzed in detail by numerical simulations. At power densities of the order of those used to trap nanoparticles with optical tweezers, the dynamic response shows three different regimes depending on the light wavelength. In the first one particles get trapped inside the light vortices following almost closed trajectories. In the second one, around the plasmon resonance, the diffusion constant is dramatically enhanced with respect to the Brownian motion. In the third one, at longer wavelengths, nanoparticles are confined during a few seconds in quasi-one-dimensional optical traps.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoengineering of optical resonances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243–247 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen, W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, “Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249–4252 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Otto, I. Mrozek, H. Grabhorn, and W. Akemann, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 4, 1143–1212 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. A. Schachar, W. Chen, B. K. Woo, B. K. Pierscionek, X. Zhang, and L. Ma, “Diffusion of nanoparticles into the capsule and cortex of a crystalline lens,” Nanotechnology 19, 1–4 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping of metallic Rayleigh particles,” Opt. Lett. 19, 930–932 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Albaladejo, M. I. Marqués, F. Scheffold, and J. J. Sáenz, “Giant enhanced diffusion of gold nanoparticles in optical vortex fields,” Nano Lett. 9, 3527–3531 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. J. Yang, N. Lu, D. P. Qi, R. P. Ma, Q. Wu, J. Y. Hao, X. M. Liu, Y. Mau, V. Reboud, N. Kehagias, C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, F. Y. C. Boey, X. D. Chen, and L. F. Chi, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence,” Small 6, 1038–1043 (2010).
    [PubMed]
  8. C. Reichhardt and F. Nori, “Phase locking, devil’s staircases, Farey trees, and Arnold tongues in driven vortex lattices with periodic pinning,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 414–417 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Ooi, S. Savelev, M. B. Gaifullin, T. Mochiku, K. Hirata, and F. Nori, “Nonlinear nanodevices using magnetic flux quanta,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 207003 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. L. Vega, R. Guantes, and S. Miret-Artes, “Chaos and transport properties of adatoms on solid surfaces,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 6193–6232 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C.-F. Chou, O. Bakajin, S. W. P. Turner, T. A. J. Duke, S. S. Chan, E. C. Cox, H. G. Craighead, and R. H. Austin, “Sorting by diffusion: an asymmetric obstacle course for continuous molecular separation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 13762–13765 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. R. Huang, J. O. Tegenfeldt, J. J. Kraeft, J. C. Sturm, R. H. Austin, and E. C. Cox, “DNA prism for high-speed continuous fractionation of large DNA molecules,” Nat. Biotechnol. 20, 1048–1051 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. B. Cummings and A. K. Singh, “Dielectrophoresis in microchips containing arrays of insulating posts: theoretical and experimental results,” Anal. Chem. 75, 4724–4731 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Ros, R. Eichhorn, J. Regtmeier, T. T. Duong, P. Reimann, and D. Anselmetti, “Brownian motion: absolute negative particle mobility,” Nature (London) 436, 190601 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Regtmeier, S. Grauwin, R. Eichhorn, P. Reimann, and A. Ros, “Acceleration of absolute negative mobility,” J. Sep. Sci. 30, 1461–1467 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. T. Korda, M. B. Taylor, and D. G. Grier, “Kinetically locked-in colloidal transport in an array of optical tweezers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 128301 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature (London) 426, 421–424 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Tierno, A. Soba, T. H. Johansen, and F. Sagues, “Dynamic colloidal sorting on a magnetic bubble lattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 214102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Mangold, P. Leiderer, and C. Bechinger, “Phase transitions of colloidal monolayers in periodic pinning arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 158302 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. Beil, H. H. von Grnberg, J. Dobnikar, R. Castaeda-Priego, and C. Bechinger, “Strain-induced domain formation in two-dimensional colloidal systems,” Europhys. Lett. 73, 450–454 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Tierno, T. H. Johansen, and T. M. Fischer, “Localized and delocalized motion of colloidal particles on a magnetic bubble lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 038303 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. Soba, P. Tierno, T. M. Fischer, and F. Sagues, “Dynamics of a paramagnetic colloidal particle driven on a magnetic-bubble lattice,” Phys. Rev. E 77, 060401 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. Prioli, A. M. F. Rivas, F. L. Freire, and A. O. Caride, “Influence of velocity in nanoscale friction processes,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 565–569 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Reimann and M. Evstigneev, “Description of atomic friction as forced Brownian motion,” New J. Phys. 7, 25–53 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. F. Schweitzer and J. A. Holyst, “Modelling collective opinion formation by means of active Brownian particles,” Eur. Phys. J. B 15, 723–732 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. Y. Liau, D. C. Read, W. J. Pugh, J. R. Furr, and A. D. Russell, “Analysis of the toxic mode of action of silver nanoparticles using stress-specific bioluminescent bacteria,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 25, 279–283 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. Gupta and S. Silver, “Molecular genetics: silver as a biocide: will resistance become a problem?” Nat. Biotechnol. 16, 888 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. G. Leitz, E. Fallman, S. Tuck, and O. Axner, “Stress response in Caenorhabditis elegans caused by optical tweezers: wavelength, power, and time dependence,” Biophys. J. 82, 2224–2231 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. B. T. Draine, “The disctete-dipole approximation and its application to interstellar graphite grains,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  30. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1998).
  31. P. C Chaumet and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Time-averaged total force on a dipolar sphere in an electromagnetic field,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1065–1067 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S. Albaladejo, M. I. Marqués, M. Laroche, and J. J. Sáenz, “Scattering forces from the curl of the spin angular momentum of a light field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 113602 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. M. Dienerowitz, M. Mazilu, P. J. Reece, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, “Optical vortex trap for resonant confinement of metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 16, 4991–4999 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. I. Zapata, S. Albaladejo, J. M. R. Parrondo, J. J. Sáenz, and F. Sols, “Deterministic ratchet from stationary light fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 130601 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

B. J. Yang, N. Lu, D. P. Qi, R. P. Ma, Q. Wu, J. Y. Hao, X. M. Liu, Y. Mau, V. Reboud, N. Kehagias, C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, F. Y. C. Boey, X. D. Chen, and L. F. Chi, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence,” Small 6, 1038–1043 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009

S. Albaladejo, M. I. Marqués, M. Laroche, and J. J. Sáenz, “Scattering forces from the curl of the spin angular momentum of a light field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 113602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Zapata, S. Albaladejo, J. M. R. Parrondo, J. J. Sáenz, and F. Sols, “Deterministic ratchet from stationary light fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 130601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

R. A. Schachar, W. Chen, B. K. Woo, B. K. Pierscionek, X. Zhang, and L. Ma, “Diffusion of nanoparticles into the capsule and cortex of a crystalline lens,” Nanotechnology 19, 1–4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Dienerowitz, M. Mazilu, P. J. Reece, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, “Optical vortex trap for resonant confinement of metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 16, 4991–4999 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Albaladejo, M. I. Marqués, F. Scheffold, and J. J. Sáenz, “Giant enhanced diffusion of gold nanoparticles in optical vortex fields,” Nano Lett. 9, 3527–3531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Tierno, A. Soba, T. H. Johansen, and F. Sagues, “Dynamic colloidal sorting on a magnetic bubble lattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 214102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Soba, P. Tierno, T. M. Fischer, and F. Sagues, “Dynamics of a paramagnetic colloidal particle driven on a magnetic-bubble lattice,” Phys. Rev. E 77, 060401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Regtmeier, S. Grauwin, R. Eichhorn, P. Reimann, and A. Ros, “Acceleration of absolute negative mobility,” J. Sep. Sci. 30, 1461–1467 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ooi, S. Savelev, M. B. Gaifullin, T. Mochiku, K. Hirata, and F. Nori, “Nonlinear nanodevices using magnetic flux quanta,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 207003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Tierno, T. H. Johansen, and T. M. Fischer, “Localized and delocalized motion of colloidal particles on a magnetic bubble lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 038303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

S. Beil, H. H. von Grnberg, J. Dobnikar, R. Castaeda-Priego, and C. Bechinger, “Strain-induced domain formation in two-dimensional colloidal systems,” Europhys. Lett. 73, 450–454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature (London) 426, 421–424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Ros, R. Eichhorn, J. Regtmeier, T. T. Duong, P. Reimann, and D. Anselmetti, “Brownian motion: absolute negative particle mobility,” Nature (London) 436, 190601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Reimann and M. Evstigneev, “Description of atomic friction as forced Brownian motion,” New J. Phys. 7, 25–53 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

E. B. Cummings and A. K. Singh, “Dielectrophoresis in microchips containing arrays of insulating posts: theoretical and experimental results,” Anal. Chem. 75, 4724–4731 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Prioli, A. M. F. Rivas, F. L. Freire, and A. O. Caride, “Influence of velocity in nanoscale friction processes,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 565–569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Mangold, P. Leiderer, and C. Bechinger, “Phase transitions of colloidal monolayers in periodic pinning arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 158302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

P. T. Korda, M. B. Taylor, and D. G. Grier, “Kinetically locked-in colloidal transport in an array of optical tweezers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 128301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Huang, J. O. Tegenfeldt, J. J. Kraeft, J. C. Sturm, R. H. Austin, and E. C. Cox, “DNA prism for high-speed continuous fractionation of large DNA molecules,” Nat. Biotechnol. 20, 1048–1051 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Vega, R. Guantes, and S. Miret-Artes, “Chaos and transport properties of adatoms on solid surfaces,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 6193–6232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Leitz, E. Fallman, S. Tuck, and O. Axner, “Stress response in Caenorhabditis elegans caused by optical tweezers: wavelength, power, and time dependence,” Biophys. J. 82, 2224–2231 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

F. Schweitzer and J. A. Holyst, “Modelling collective opinion formation by means of active Brownian particles,” Eur. Phys. J. B 15, 723–732 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. C Chaumet and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Time-averaged total force on a dipolar sphere in an electromagnetic field,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1065–1067 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

C.-F. Chou, O. Bakajin, S. W. P. Turner, T. A. J. Duke, S. S. Chan, E. C. Cox, H. G. Craighead, and R. H. Austin, “Sorting by diffusion: an asymmetric obstacle course for continuous molecular separation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 13762–13765 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Reichhardt and F. Nori, “Phase locking, devil’s staircases, Farey trees, and Arnold tongues in driven vortex lattices with periodic pinning,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 414–417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Gupta and S. Silver, “Molecular genetics: silver as a biocide: will resistance become a problem?” Nat. Biotechnol. 16, 888 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Draine, “The disctete-dipole approximation and its application to interstellar graphite grains,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoengineering of optical resonances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243–247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen, W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, “Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249–4252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. Y. Liau, D. C. Read, W. J. Pugh, J. R. Furr, and A. D. Russell, “Analysis of the toxic mode of action of silver nanoparticles using stress-specific bioluminescent bacteria,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 25, 279–283 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

1992

A. Otto, I. Mrozek, H. Grabhorn, and W. Akemann, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 4, 1143–1212 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Akemann, W.

A. Otto, I. Mrozek, H. Grabhorn, and W. Akemann, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 4, 1143–1212 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Albaladejo, S.

S. Albaladejo, M. I. Marqués, M. Laroche, and J. J. Sáenz, “Scattering forces from the curl of the spin angular momentum of a light field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 113602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Zapata, S. Albaladejo, J. M. R. Parrondo, J. J. Sáenz, and F. Sols, “Deterministic ratchet from stationary light fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 130601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Albaladejo, M. I. Marqués, F. Scheffold, and J. J. Sáenz, “Giant enhanced diffusion of gold nanoparticles in optical vortex fields,” Nano Lett. 9, 3527–3531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anselmetti, D.

A. Ros, R. Eichhorn, J. Regtmeier, T. T. Duong, P. Reimann, and D. Anselmetti, “Brownian motion: absolute negative particle mobility,” Nature (London) 436, 190601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. H.

L. R. Huang, J. O. Tegenfeldt, J. J. Kraeft, J. C. Sturm, R. H. Austin, and E. C. Cox, “DNA prism for high-speed continuous fractionation of large DNA molecules,” Nat. Biotechnol. 20, 1048–1051 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-F. Chou, O. Bakajin, S. W. P. Turner, T. A. J. Duke, S. S. Chan, E. C. Cox, H. G. Craighead, and R. H. Austin, “Sorting by diffusion: an asymmetric obstacle course for continuous molecular separation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 13762–13765 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoengineering of optical resonances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243–247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Axner, O.

G. Leitz, E. Fallman, S. Tuck, and O. Axner, “Stress response in Caenorhabditis elegans caused by optical tweezers: wavelength, power, and time dependence,” Biophys. J. 82, 2224–2231 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakajin, O.

C.-F. Chou, O. Bakajin, S. W. P. Turner, T. A. J. Duke, S. S. Chan, E. C. Cox, H. G. Craighead, and R. H. Austin, “Sorting by diffusion: an asymmetric obstacle course for continuous molecular separation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 13762–13765 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bechinger, C.

S. Beil, H. H. von Grnberg, J. Dobnikar, R. Castaeda-Priego, and C. Bechinger, “Strain-induced domain formation in two-dimensional colloidal systems,” Europhys. Lett. 73, 450–454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Mangold, P. Leiderer, and C. Bechinger, “Phase transitions of colloidal monolayers in periodic pinning arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 158302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beil, S.

S. Beil, H. H. von Grnberg, J. Dobnikar, R. Castaeda-Priego, and C. Bechinger, “Strain-induced domain formation in two-dimensional colloidal systems,” Europhys. Lett. 73, 450–454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Block, S. M.

Boey, F. Y. C.

B. J. Yang, N. Lu, D. P. Qi, R. P. Ma, Q. Wu, J. Y. Hao, X. M. Liu, Y. Mau, V. Reboud, N. Kehagias, C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, F. Y. C. Boey, X. D. Chen, and L. F. Chi, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence,” Small 6, 1038–1043 (2010).
[PubMed]

Caride, A. O.

R. Prioli, A. M. F. Rivas, F. L. Freire, and A. O. Caride, “Influence of velocity in nanoscale friction processes,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 565–569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Castaeda-Priego, R.

S. Beil, H. H. von Grnberg, J. Dobnikar, R. Castaeda-Priego, and C. Bechinger, “Strain-induced domain formation in two-dimensional colloidal systems,” Europhys. Lett. 73, 450–454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, S. S.

C.-F. Chou, O. Bakajin, S. W. P. Turner, T. A. J. Duke, S. S. Chan, E. C. Cox, H. G. Craighead, and R. H. Austin, “Sorting by diffusion: an asymmetric obstacle course for continuous molecular separation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 13762–13765 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaumet, P. C

Chen, W.

R. A. Schachar, W. Chen, B. K. Woo, B. K. Pierscionek, X. Zhang, and L. Ma, “Diffusion of nanoparticles into the capsule and cortex of a crystalline lens,” Nanotechnology 19, 1–4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. D.

B. J. Yang, N. Lu, D. P. Qi, R. P. Ma, Q. Wu, J. Y. Hao, X. M. Liu, Y. Mau, V. Reboud, N. Kehagias, C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, F. Y. C. Boey, X. D. Chen, and L. F. Chi, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence,” Small 6, 1038–1043 (2010).
[PubMed]

Chi, L. F.

B. J. Yang, N. Lu, D. P. Qi, R. P. Ma, Q. Wu, J. Y. Hao, X. M. Liu, Y. Mau, V. Reboud, N. Kehagias, C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, F. Y. C. Boey, X. D. Chen, and L. F. Chi, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence,” Small 6, 1038–1043 (2010).
[PubMed]

Chou, C.-F.

C.-F. Chou, O. Bakajin, S. W. P. Turner, T. A. J. Duke, S. S. Chan, E. C. Cox, H. G. Craighead, and R. H. Austin, “Sorting by diffusion: an asymmetric obstacle course for continuous molecular separation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 13762–13765 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, E. C.

L. R. Huang, J. O. Tegenfeldt, J. J. Kraeft, J. C. Sturm, R. H. Austin, and E. C. Cox, “DNA prism for high-speed continuous fractionation of large DNA molecules,” Nat. Biotechnol. 20, 1048–1051 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-F. Chou, O. Bakajin, S. W. P. Turner, T. A. J. Duke, S. S. Chan, E. C. Cox, H. G. Craighead, and R. H. Austin, “Sorting by diffusion: an asymmetric obstacle course for continuous molecular separation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 13762–13765 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Craighead, H. G.

C.-F. Chou, O. Bakajin, S. W. P. Turner, T. A. J. Duke, S. S. Chan, E. C. Cox, H. G. Craighead, and R. H. Austin, “Sorting by diffusion: an asymmetric obstacle course for continuous molecular separation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 13762–13765 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cummings, E. B.

E. B. Cummings and A. K. Singh, “Dielectrophoresis in microchips containing arrays of insulating posts: theoretical and experimental results,” Anal. Chem. 75, 4724–4731 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

Dienerowitz, M.

Dobnikar, J.

S. Beil, H. H. von Grnberg, J. Dobnikar, R. Castaeda-Priego, and C. Bechinger, “Strain-induced domain formation in two-dimensional colloidal systems,” Europhys. Lett. 73, 450–454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Draine, B. T.

B. T. Draine, “The disctete-dipole approximation and its application to interstellar graphite grains,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Duke, T. A. J.

C.-F. Chou, O. Bakajin, S. W. P. Turner, T. A. J. Duke, S. S. Chan, E. C. Cox, H. G. Craighead, and R. H. Austin, “Sorting by diffusion: an asymmetric obstacle course for continuous molecular separation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 13762–13765 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duong, T. T.

A. Ros, R. Eichhorn, J. Regtmeier, T. T. Duong, P. Reimann, and D. Anselmetti, “Brownian motion: absolute negative particle mobility,” Nature (London) 436, 190601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eichhorn, R.

J. Regtmeier, S. Grauwin, R. Eichhorn, P. Reimann, and A. Ros, “Acceleration of absolute negative mobility,” J. Sep. Sci. 30, 1461–1467 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ros, R. Eichhorn, J. Regtmeier, T. T. Duong, P. Reimann, and D. Anselmetti, “Brownian motion: absolute negative particle mobility,” Nature (London) 436, 190601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Evstigneev, M.

P. Reimann and M. Evstigneev, “Description of atomic friction as forced Brownian motion,” New J. Phys. 7, 25–53 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fallman, E.

G. Leitz, E. Fallman, S. Tuck, and O. Axner, “Stress response in Caenorhabditis elegans caused by optical tweezers: wavelength, power, and time dependence,” Biophys. J. 82, 2224–2231 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldmann, J.

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen, W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, “Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249–4252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, T. M.

A. Soba, P. Tierno, T. M. Fischer, and F. Sagues, “Dynamics of a paramagnetic colloidal particle driven on a magnetic-bubble lattice,” Phys. Rev. E 77, 060401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Tierno, T. H. Johansen, and T. M. Fischer, “Localized and delocalized motion of colloidal particles on a magnetic bubble lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 038303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freire, F. L.

R. Prioli, A. M. F. Rivas, F. L. Freire, and A. O. Caride, “Influence of velocity in nanoscale friction processes,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 565–569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Furr, J. R.

S. Y. Liau, D. C. Read, W. J. Pugh, J. R. Furr, and A. D. Russell, “Analysis of the toxic mode of action of silver nanoparticles using stress-specific bioluminescent bacteria,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 25, 279–283 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaifullin, M. B.

S. Ooi, S. Savelev, M. B. Gaifullin, T. Mochiku, K. Hirata, and F. Nori, “Nonlinear nanodevices using magnetic flux quanta,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 207003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grabhorn, H.

A. Otto, I. Mrozek, H. Grabhorn, and W. Akemann, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 4, 1143–1212 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Grauwin, S.

J. Regtmeier, S. Grauwin, R. Eichhorn, P. Reimann, and A. Ros, “Acceleration of absolute negative mobility,” J. Sep. Sci. 30, 1461–1467 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grier, D. G.

P. T. Korda, M. B. Taylor, and D. G. Grier, “Kinetically locked-in colloidal transport in an array of optical tweezers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 128301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosse, S.

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen, W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, “Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249–4252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guantes, R.

J. L. Vega, R. Guantes, and S. Miret-Artes, “Chaos and transport properties of adatoms on solid surfaces,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 6193–6232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, A.

A. Gupta and S. Silver, “Molecular genetics: silver as a biocide: will resistance become a problem?” Nat. Biotechnol. 16, 888 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoengineering of optical resonances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243–247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hao, J. Y.

B. J. Yang, N. Lu, D. P. Qi, R. P. Ma, Q. Wu, J. Y. Hao, X. M. Liu, Y. Mau, V. Reboud, N. Kehagias, C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, F. Y. C. Boey, X. D. Chen, and L. F. Chi, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence,” Small 6, 1038–1043 (2010).
[PubMed]

Hirata, K.

S. Ooi, S. Savelev, M. B. Gaifullin, T. Mochiku, K. Hirata, and F. Nori, “Nonlinear nanodevices using magnetic flux quanta,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 207003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holyst, J. A.

F. Schweitzer and J. A. Holyst, “Modelling collective opinion formation by means of active Brownian particles,” Eur. Phys. J. B 15, 723–732 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L. R.

L. R. Huang, J. O. Tegenfeldt, J. J. Kraeft, J. C. Sturm, R. H. Austin, and E. C. Cox, “DNA prism for high-speed continuous fractionation of large DNA molecules,” Nat. Biotechnol. 20, 1048–1051 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johansen, T. H.

P. Tierno, A. Soba, T. H. Johansen, and F. Sagues, “Dynamic colloidal sorting on a magnetic bubble lattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 214102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Tierno, T. H. Johansen, and T. M. Fischer, “Localized and delocalized motion of colloidal particles on a magnetic bubble lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 038303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kehagias, N.

B. J. Yang, N. Lu, D. P. Qi, R. P. Ma, Q. Wu, J. Y. Hao, X. M. Liu, Y. Mau, V. Reboud, N. Kehagias, C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, F. Y. C. Boey, X. D. Chen, and L. F. Chi, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence,” Small 6, 1038–1043 (2010).
[PubMed]

Klar, T.

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen, W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, “Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249–4252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Korda, P. T.

P. T. Korda, M. B. Taylor, and D. G. Grier, “Kinetically locked-in colloidal transport in an array of optical tweezers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 128301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kraeft, J. J.

L. R. Huang, J. O. Tegenfeldt, J. J. Kraeft, J. C. Sturm, R. H. Austin, and E. C. Cox, “DNA prism for high-speed continuous fractionation of large DNA molecules,” Nat. Biotechnol. 20, 1048–1051 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauss, T. F.

Laroche, M.

S. Albaladejo, M. I. Marqués, M. Laroche, and J. J. Sáenz, “Scattering forces from the curl of the spin angular momentum of a light field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 113602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leiderer, P.

K. Mangold, P. Leiderer, and C. Bechinger, “Phase transitions of colloidal monolayers in periodic pinning arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 158302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitz, G.

G. Leitz, E. Fallman, S. Tuck, and O. Axner, “Stress response in Caenorhabditis elegans caused by optical tweezers: wavelength, power, and time dependence,” Biophys. J. 82, 2224–2231 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liau, S. Y.

S. Y. Liau, D. C. Read, W. J. Pugh, J. R. Furr, and A. D. Russell, “Analysis of the toxic mode of action of silver nanoparticles using stress-specific bioluminescent bacteria,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 25, 279–283 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X. M.

B. J. Yang, N. Lu, D. P. Qi, R. P. Ma, Q. Wu, J. Y. Hao, X. M. Liu, Y. Mau, V. Reboud, N. Kehagias, C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, F. Y. C. Boey, X. D. Chen, and L. F. Chi, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence,” Small 6, 1038–1043 (2010).
[PubMed]

Lu, N.

B. J. Yang, N. Lu, D. P. Qi, R. P. Ma, Q. Wu, J. Y. Hao, X. M. Liu, Y. Mau, V. Reboud, N. Kehagias, C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, F. Y. C. Boey, X. D. Chen, and L. F. Chi, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence,” Small 6, 1038–1043 (2010).
[PubMed]

Ma, L.

R. A. Schachar, W. Chen, B. K. Woo, B. K. Pierscionek, X. Zhang, and L. Ma, “Diffusion of nanoparticles into the capsule and cortex of a crystalline lens,” Nanotechnology 19, 1–4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R. P.

B. J. Yang, N. Lu, D. P. Qi, R. P. Ma, Q. Wu, J. Y. Hao, X. M. Liu, Y. Mau, V. Reboud, N. Kehagias, C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, F. Y. C. Boey, X. D. Chen, and L. F. Chi, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence,” Small 6, 1038–1043 (2010).
[PubMed]

MacDonald, M. P.

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature (London) 426, 421–424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mangold, K.

K. Mangold, P. Leiderer, and C. Bechinger, “Phase transitions of colloidal monolayers in periodic pinning arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 158302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marqués, M. I.

S. Albaladejo, M. I. Marqués, M. Laroche, and J. J. Sáenz, “Scattering forces from the curl of the spin angular momentum of a light field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 113602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Albaladejo, M. I. Marqués, F. Scheffold, and J. J. Sáenz, “Giant enhanced diffusion of gold nanoparticles in optical vortex fields,” Nano Lett. 9, 3527–3531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mau, Y.

B. J. Yang, N. Lu, D. P. Qi, R. P. Ma, Q. Wu, J. Y. Hao, X. M. Liu, Y. Mau, V. Reboud, N. Kehagias, C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, F. Y. C. Boey, X. D. Chen, and L. F. Chi, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence,” Small 6, 1038–1043 (2010).
[PubMed]

Mazilu, M.

Miret-Artes, S.

J. L. Vega, R. Guantes, and S. Miret-Artes, “Chaos and transport properties of adatoms on solid surfaces,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 6193–6232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mochiku, T.

S. Ooi, S. Savelev, M. B. Gaifullin, T. Mochiku, K. Hirata, and F. Nori, “Nonlinear nanodevices using magnetic flux quanta,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 207003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mrozek, I.

A. Otto, I. Mrozek, H. Grabhorn, and W. Akemann, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 4, 1143–1212 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

Nori, F.

S. Ooi, S. Savelev, M. B. Gaifullin, T. Mochiku, K. Hirata, and F. Nori, “Nonlinear nanodevices using magnetic flux quanta,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 207003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Reichhardt and F. Nori, “Phase locking, devil’s staircases, Farey trees, and Arnold tongues in driven vortex lattices with periodic pinning,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 414–417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oldenburg, S. J.

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoengineering of optical resonances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243–247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ooi, S.

S. Ooi, S. Savelev, M. B. Gaifullin, T. Mochiku, K. Hirata, and F. Nori, “Nonlinear nanodevices using magnetic flux quanta,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 207003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Otto, A.

A. Otto, I. Mrozek, H. Grabhorn, and W. Akemann, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 4, 1143–1212 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1998).

Parrondo, J. M. R.

I. Zapata, S. Albaladejo, J. M. R. Parrondo, J. J. Sáenz, and F. Sols, “Deterministic ratchet from stationary light fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 130601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perner, M.

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen, W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, “Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249–4252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pierscionek, B. K.

R. A. Schachar, W. Chen, B. K. Woo, B. K. Pierscionek, X. Zhang, and L. Ma, “Diffusion of nanoparticles into the capsule and cortex of a crystalline lens,” Nanotechnology 19, 1–4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prioli, R.

R. Prioli, A. M. F. Rivas, F. L. Freire, and A. O. Caride, “Influence of velocity in nanoscale friction processes,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 565–569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pugh, W. J.

S. Y. Liau, D. C. Read, W. J. Pugh, J. R. Furr, and A. D. Russell, “Analysis of the toxic mode of action of silver nanoparticles using stress-specific bioluminescent bacteria,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 25, 279–283 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, D. P.

B. J. Yang, N. Lu, D. P. Qi, R. P. Ma, Q. Wu, J. Y. Hao, X. M. Liu, Y. Mau, V. Reboud, N. Kehagias, C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, F. Y. C. Boey, X. D. Chen, and L. F. Chi, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence,” Small 6, 1038–1043 (2010).
[PubMed]

Read, D. C.

S. Y. Liau, D. C. Read, W. J. Pugh, J. R. Furr, and A. D. Russell, “Analysis of the toxic mode of action of silver nanoparticles using stress-specific bioluminescent bacteria,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 25, 279–283 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reboud, V.

B. J. Yang, N. Lu, D. P. Qi, R. P. Ma, Q. Wu, J. Y. Hao, X. M. Liu, Y. Mau, V. Reboud, N. Kehagias, C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, F. Y. C. Boey, X. D. Chen, and L. F. Chi, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence,” Small 6, 1038–1043 (2010).
[PubMed]

Reece, P. J.

Regtmeier, J.

J. Regtmeier, S. Grauwin, R. Eichhorn, P. Reimann, and A. Ros, “Acceleration of absolute negative mobility,” J. Sep. Sci. 30, 1461–1467 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ros, R. Eichhorn, J. Regtmeier, T. T. Duong, P. Reimann, and D. Anselmetti, “Brownian motion: absolute negative particle mobility,” Nature (London) 436, 190601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reichhardt, C.

C. Reichhardt and F. Nori, “Phase locking, devil’s staircases, Farey trees, and Arnold tongues in driven vortex lattices with periodic pinning,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 414–417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reimann, P.

J. Regtmeier, S. Grauwin, R. Eichhorn, P. Reimann, and A. Ros, “Acceleration of absolute negative mobility,” J. Sep. Sci. 30, 1461–1467 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ros, R. Eichhorn, J. Regtmeier, T. T. Duong, P. Reimann, and D. Anselmetti, “Brownian motion: absolute negative particle mobility,” Nature (London) 436, 190601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Reimann and M. Evstigneev, “Description of atomic friction as forced Brownian motion,” New J. Phys. 7, 25–53 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rivas, A. M. F.

R. Prioli, A. M. F. Rivas, F. L. Freire, and A. O. Caride, “Influence of velocity in nanoscale friction processes,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 565–569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ros, A.

J. Regtmeier, S. Grauwin, R. Eichhorn, P. Reimann, and A. Ros, “Acceleration of absolute negative mobility,” J. Sep. Sci. 30, 1461–1467 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ros, R. Eichhorn, J. Regtmeier, T. T. Duong, P. Reimann, and D. Anselmetti, “Brownian motion: absolute negative particle mobility,” Nature (London) 436, 190601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Russell, A. D.

S. Y. Liau, D. C. Read, W. J. Pugh, J. R. Furr, and A. D. Russell, “Analysis of the toxic mode of action of silver nanoparticles using stress-specific bioluminescent bacteria,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 25, 279–283 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sáenz, J. J.

S. Albaladejo, M. I. Marqués, M. Laroche, and J. J. Sáenz, “Scattering forces from the curl of the spin angular momentum of a light field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 113602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Zapata, S. Albaladejo, J. M. R. Parrondo, J. J. Sáenz, and F. Sols, “Deterministic ratchet from stationary light fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 130601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Albaladejo, M. I. Marqués, F. Scheffold, and J. J. Sáenz, “Giant enhanced diffusion of gold nanoparticles in optical vortex fields,” Nano Lett. 9, 3527–3531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sagues, F.

P. Tierno, A. Soba, T. H. Johansen, and F. Sagues, “Dynamic colloidal sorting on a magnetic bubble lattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 214102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Soba, P. Tierno, T. M. Fischer, and F. Sagues, “Dynamics of a paramagnetic colloidal particle driven on a magnetic-bubble lattice,” Phys. Rev. E 77, 060401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Savelev, S.

S. Ooi, S. Savelev, M. B. Gaifullin, T. Mochiku, K. Hirata, and F. Nori, “Nonlinear nanodevices using magnetic flux quanta,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 207003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schachar, R. A.

R. A. Schachar, W. Chen, B. K. Woo, B. K. Pierscionek, X. Zhang, and L. Ma, “Diffusion of nanoparticles into the capsule and cortex of a crystalline lens,” Nanotechnology 19, 1–4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scheffold, F.

S. Albaladejo, M. I. Marqués, F. Scheffold, and J. J. Sáenz, “Giant enhanced diffusion of gold nanoparticles in optical vortex fields,” Nano Lett. 9, 3527–3531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schweitzer, F.

F. Schweitzer and J. A. Holyst, “Modelling collective opinion formation by means of active Brownian particles,” Eur. Phys. J. B 15, 723–732 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Silver, S.

A. Gupta and S. Silver, “Molecular genetics: silver as a biocide: will resistance become a problem?” Nat. Biotechnol. 16, 888 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, A. K.

E. B. Cummings and A. K. Singh, “Dielectrophoresis in microchips containing arrays of insulating posts: theoretical and experimental results,” Anal. Chem. 75, 4724–4731 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soba, A.

P. Tierno, A. Soba, T. H. Johansen, and F. Sagues, “Dynamic colloidal sorting on a magnetic bubble lattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 214102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Soba, P. Tierno, T. M. Fischer, and F. Sagues, “Dynamics of a paramagnetic colloidal particle driven on a magnetic-bubble lattice,” Phys. Rev. E 77, 060401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sols, F.

I. Zapata, S. Albaladejo, J. M. R. Parrondo, J. J. Sáenz, and F. Sols, “Deterministic ratchet from stationary light fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 130601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

B. J. Yang, N. Lu, D. P. Qi, R. P. Ma, Q. Wu, J. Y. Hao, X. M. Liu, Y. Mau, V. Reboud, N. Kehagias, C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, F. Y. C. Boey, X. D. Chen, and L. F. Chi, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence,” Small 6, 1038–1043 (2010).
[PubMed]

Spalding, G. C.

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature (London) 426, 421–424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spirkl, W.

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen, W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, “Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249–4252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, J. C.

L. R. Huang, J. O. Tegenfeldt, J. J. Kraeft, J. C. Sturm, R. H. Austin, and E. C. Cox, “DNA prism for high-speed continuous fractionation of large DNA molecules,” Nat. Biotechnol. 20, 1048–1051 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svoboda, K.

Taylor, M. B.

P. T. Korda, M. B. Taylor, and D. G. Grier, “Kinetically locked-in colloidal transport in an array of optical tweezers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 128301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tegenfeldt, J. O.

L. R. Huang, J. O. Tegenfeldt, J. J. Kraeft, J. C. Sturm, R. H. Austin, and E. C. Cox, “DNA prism for high-speed continuous fractionation of large DNA molecules,” Nat. Biotechnol. 20, 1048–1051 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tierno, P.

P. Tierno, A. Soba, T. H. Johansen, and F. Sagues, “Dynamic colloidal sorting on a magnetic bubble lattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 214102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Soba, P. Tierno, T. M. Fischer, and F. Sagues, “Dynamics of a paramagnetic colloidal particle driven on a magnetic-bubble lattice,” Phys. Rev. E 77, 060401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Tierno, T. H. Johansen, and T. M. Fischer, “Localized and delocalized motion of colloidal particles on a magnetic bubble lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 038303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuck, S.

G. Leitz, E. Fallman, S. Tuck, and O. Axner, “Stress response in Caenorhabditis elegans caused by optical tweezers: wavelength, power, and time dependence,” Biophys. J. 82, 2224–2231 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, S. W. P.

C.-F. Chou, O. Bakajin, S. W. P. Turner, T. A. J. Duke, S. S. Chan, E. C. Cox, H. G. Craighead, and R. H. Austin, “Sorting by diffusion: an asymmetric obstacle course for continuous molecular separation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 13762–13765 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vega, J. L.

J. L. Vega, R. Guantes, and S. Miret-Artes, “Chaos and transport properties of adatoms on solid surfaces,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 6193–6232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

von Grnberg, H. H.

S. Beil, H. H. von Grnberg, J. Dobnikar, R. Castaeda-Priego, and C. Bechinger, “Strain-induced domain formation in two-dimensional colloidal systems,” Europhys. Lett. 73, 450–454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

von Plessen, G.

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen, W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, “Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249–4252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Westcott, S. L.

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoengineering of optical resonances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243–247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Woo, B. K.

R. A. Schachar, W. Chen, B. K. Woo, B. K. Pierscionek, X. Zhang, and L. Ma, “Diffusion of nanoparticles into the capsule and cortex of a crystalline lens,” Nanotechnology 19, 1–4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

B. J. Yang, N. Lu, D. P. Qi, R. P. Ma, Q. Wu, J. Y. Hao, X. M. Liu, Y. Mau, V. Reboud, N. Kehagias, C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, F. Y. C. Boey, X. D. Chen, and L. F. Chi, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence,” Small 6, 1038–1043 (2010).
[PubMed]

Yang, B. J.

B. J. Yang, N. Lu, D. P. Qi, R. P. Ma, Q. Wu, J. Y. Hao, X. M. Liu, Y. Mau, V. Reboud, N. Kehagias, C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, F. Y. C. Boey, X. D. Chen, and L. F. Chi, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence,” Small 6, 1038–1043 (2010).
[PubMed]

Zapata, I.

I. Zapata, S. Albaladejo, J. M. R. Parrondo, J. J. Sáenz, and F. Sols, “Deterministic ratchet from stationary light fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 130601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

R. A. Schachar, W. Chen, B. K. Woo, B. K. Pierscionek, X. Zhang, and L. Ma, “Diffusion of nanoparticles into the capsule and cortex of a crystalline lens,” Nanotechnology 19, 1–4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

E. B. Cummings and A. K. Singh, “Dielectrophoresis in microchips containing arrays of insulating posts: theoretical and experimental results,” Anal. Chem. 75, 4724–4731 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. A

R. Prioli, A. M. F. Rivas, F. L. Freire, and A. O. Caride, “Influence of velocity in nanoscale friction processes,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 565–569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. Tierno, A. Soba, T. H. Johansen, and F. Sagues, “Dynamic colloidal sorting on a magnetic bubble lattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 214102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J.

B. T. Draine, “The disctete-dipole approximation and its application to interstellar graphite grains,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

G. Leitz, E. Fallman, S. Tuck, and O. Axner, “Stress response in Caenorhabditis elegans caused by optical tweezers: wavelength, power, and time dependence,” Biophys. J. 82, 2224–2231 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoengineering of optical resonances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243–247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. B

F. Schweitzer and J. A. Holyst, “Modelling collective opinion formation by means of active Brownian particles,” Eur. Phys. J. B 15, 723–732 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett.

S. Beil, H. H. von Grnberg, J. Dobnikar, R. Castaeda-Priego, and C. Bechinger, “Strain-induced domain formation in two-dimensional colloidal systems,” Europhys. Lett. 73, 450–454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter

J. L. Vega, R. Guantes, and S. Miret-Artes, “Chaos and transport properties of adatoms on solid surfaces,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 6193–6232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Otto, I. Mrozek, H. Grabhorn, and W. Akemann, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 4, 1143–1212 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Sep. Sci.

J. Regtmeier, S. Grauwin, R. Eichhorn, P. Reimann, and A. Ros, “Acceleration of absolute negative mobility,” J. Sep. Sci. 30, 1461–1467 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lett. Appl. Microbiol.

S. Y. Liau, D. C. Read, W. J. Pugh, J. R. Furr, and A. D. Russell, “Analysis of the toxic mode of action of silver nanoparticles using stress-specific bioluminescent bacteria,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 25, 279–283 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett.

S. Albaladejo, M. I. Marqués, F. Scheffold, and J. J. Sáenz, “Giant enhanced diffusion of gold nanoparticles in optical vortex fields,” Nano Lett. 9, 3527–3531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

R. A. Schachar, W. Chen, B. K. Woo, B. K. Pierscionek, X. Zhang, and L. Ma, “Diffusion of nanoparticles into the capsule and cortex of a crystalline lens,” Nanotechnology 19, 1–4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol.

A. Gupta and S. Silver, “Molecular genetics: silver as a biocide: will resistance become a problem?” Nat. Biotechnol. 16, 888 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Huang, J. O. Tegenfeldt, J. J. Kraeft, J. C. Sturm, R. H. Austin, and E. C. Cox, “DNA prism for high-speed continuous fractionation of large DNA molecules,” Nat. Biotechnol. 20, 1048–1051 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (London)

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature (London) 426, 421–424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Ros, R. Eichhorn, J. Regtmeier, T. T. Duong, P. Reimann, and D. Anselmetti, “Brownian motion: absolute negative particle mobility,” Nature (London) 436, 190601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys.

P. Reimann and M. Evstigneev, “Description of atomic friction as forced Brownian motion,” New J. Phys. 7, 25–53 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. E

A. Soba, P. Tierno, T. M. Fischer, and F. Sagues, “Dynamics of a paramagnetic colloidal particle driven on a magnetic-bubble lattice,” Phys. Rev. E 77, 060401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen, W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, “Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249–4252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Albaladejo, M. I. Marqués, M. Laroche, and J. J. Sáenz, “Scattering forces from the curl of the spin angular momentum of a light field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 113602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Zapata, S. Albaladejo, J. M. R. Parrondo, J. J. Sáenz, and F. Sols, “Deterministic ratchet from stationary light fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 130601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Reichhardt and F. Nori, “Phase locking, devil’s staircases, Farey trees, and Arnold tongues in driven vortex lattices with periodic pinning,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 414–417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Ooi, S. Savelev, M. B. Gaifullin, T. Mochiku, K. Hirata, and F. Nori, “Nonlinear nanodevices using magnetic flux quanta,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 207003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Korda, M. B. Taylor, and D. G. Grier, “Kinetically locked-in colloidal transport in an array of optical tweezers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 128301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tierno, T. H. Johansen, and T. M. Fischer, “Localized and delocalized motion of colloidal particles on a magnetic bubble lattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 038303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Mangold, P. Leiderer, and C. Bechinger, “Phase transitions of colloidal monolayers in periodic pinning arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 158302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

C.-F. Chou, O. Bakajin, S. W. P. Turner, T. A. J. Duke, S. S. Chan, E. C. Cox, H. G. Craighead, and R. H. Austin, “Sorting by diffusion: an asymmetric obstacle course for continuous molecular separation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 13762–13765 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small

B. J. Yang, N. Lu, D. P. Qi, R. P. Ma, Q. Wu, J. Y. Hao, X. M. Liu, Y. Mau, V. Reboud, N. Kehagias, C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, F. Y. C. Boey, X. D. Chen, and L. F. Chi, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence,” Small 6, 1038–1043 (2010).
[PubMed]

Other

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1998).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Silver polarizability in water versus wavelength in vacuum. The black line represents the real part of the polarizability. The gray one the imaginary part. Inset: sketch of the crossed standing waves configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mean square displacement (MSD) versus time (in log scale and S.I units), for silver nanoparticles in water with radius a = 50nm and different wavelengths. Black dashed line corresponds to a unit slope linear fitting to the Brownian data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

On the left a sketch of the force field is shown for a)λ = 350nm, b)λ = 450nm and c)λ = 600nm. At the center, the trajectory of a silver nanoparticle for a)λ = 350nm, b)λ = 450nm and c)λ = 600nm is shown. Different total simulation times are considered. On the right, intensity maps in the intersection of two standing waves with π/2 dephasing. Bright areas correspond to maxima of the potential landscape. Arrows represent to the total force field.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Silver nanoparticles displacement for the three different wavelength regions considered and for activated ”ratchet effect.” Total simulations time considered is t=1s.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

m d 2 r dt 2 = F ( r ) γ d r dt + ξ ( t ) ,
α 4 π a 3 α 0 [ 1 i α 0 2 3 ( ka ) 3 ] 1 ,
F = α { U } + σ { n c S } + σ { c n × L S } ,
E ( r ) = E 0 [ sin ( kx ) + isin ( ky ) ] z ^ ,
F 2 = α 4 E o 2 [ sin 2 ( kx + 3 π / 8 ) ] ,

Metrics