Abstract

We report the first operation of an electrically pumped 1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser epitaxially grown on a Si (100) substrate. The laser structure was grown directly on the Si substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. Lasing at 1.302 μm has been demonstrated with threshold current density of 725 A/cm2 and output power of ~26 mW for broad-area lasers with as-cleaved facets at room temperature. These results are directly attributable to the optimized growth temperature of the initial GaAs nucleation layer.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on Silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetector,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Tanabe, D. Guimard, D. Bordel, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Electrically pumped 1.3 microm room-temperature InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers on Si substrates by metal-mediated wafer bonding and layer transfer,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10604–10608 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Z. Mi, J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, and D. L. Huffaker, “Self-organised quantum dots as dislocation filters: the case of GaAs-based lasers on silicon,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 121–123 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Fischer, W. T. Masselink, J. Klem, T. Henderson, T. C. McGlinn, M. V. Klein, H. Morkoc, J. H. Mazur, and J. Washburn, “Growth and properties of GaAs/AlGaAs on nonpolar substrates using molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(1), 374–381 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Fischer, W. Kopp, H. Morkoç, M. Pion, A. Specht, G. Burkhart, H. Appelman, D. McGougan, and R. Rice, “Low threshold laser operation at room temperature in GaAs/(Al,Ga)As structures grown directly on (100)Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(20), 1360–1361 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Sugawara and M. Usami, “Quantum dot devices handling the heat,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 30–31 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Y. Liu, I. R. Sellers, T. J. Badcock, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, K. M. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. G. Deppe, K. Shavritranuruk, G. Ozgur, H. Chen, and S. Freisem, “Quantum dot laser diode with low threshold and low internal loss,” Electron. Lett. 45(1), 54–55 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Beanland, A. M. Sanchez, D. Childs, K. M. Groom, H. Y. Liu, D. J. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Structural analysis of life tested 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014913 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Li, D. Guimard, M. Rajesh, and Y. Arakawa, “Growth of InAs/Sb:GaAs quantum dots on silicon substrate with high density and efficient light emission in the 1.3 μm band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Y. Liu, M. Hopkinson, C. N. Harrison, M. J. Steer, R. Frith, I. R. Sellers, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “Optimizing the growth of 1.3 μm InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2931–2936 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Y. Liu, D. T. Childs, T. J. Badcock, K. M. Groom, I. R. Sellers, M. Hopkinson, R. A. Hogg, D. J. Robbins, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “High-performance three-layer 1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers with very low continuous-wave room-temperature threshold currents,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1139–1141 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. M. Ustinov and A. E. Zhukov, “GaAs-based long-wavelength lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15(8), R41–R54 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (5)

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on Silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetector,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanabe, D. Guimard, D. Bordel, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Electrically pumped 1.3 microm room-temperature InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers on Si substrates by metal-mediated wafer bonding and layer transfer,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10604–10608 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

D. G. Deppe, K. Shavritranuruk, G. Ozgur, H. Chen, and S. Freisem, “Quantum dot laser diode with low threshold and low internal loss,” Electron. Lett. 45(1), 54–55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Sugawara and M. Usami, “Quantum dot devices handling the heat,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 30–31 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

R. Beanland, A. M. Sanchez, D. Childs, K. M. Groom, H. Y. Liu, D. J. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Structural analysis of life tested 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, D. Guimard, M. Rajesh, and Y. Arakawa, “Growth of InAs/Sb:GaAs quantum dots on silicon substrate with high density and efficient light emission in the 1.3 μm band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

Z. Mi, J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, and D. L. Huffaker, “Self-organised quantum dots as dislocation filters: the case of GaAs-based lasers on silicon,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 121–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. Y. Liu, D. T. Childs, T. J. Badcock, K. M. Groom, I. R. Sellers, M. Hopkinson, R. A. Hogg, D. J. Robbins, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “High-performance three-layer 1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers with very low continuous-wave room-temperature threshold currents,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1139–1141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. Y. Liu, I. R. Sellers, T. J. Badcock, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, K. M. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. Y. Liu, M. Hopkinson, C. N. Harrison, M. J. Steer, R. Frith, I. R. Sellers, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “Optimizing the growth of 1.3 μm InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2931–2936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

V. M. Ustinov and A. E. Zhukov, “GaAs-based long-wavelength lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15(8), R41–R54 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. Fischer, W. Kopp, H. Morkoç, M. Pion, A. Specht, G. Burkhart, H. Appelman, D. McGougan, and R. Rice, “Low threshold laser operation at room temperature in GaAs/(Al,Ga)As structures grown directly on (100)Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(20), 1360–1361 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. Fischer, W. T. Masselink, J. Klem, T. Henderson, T. C. McGlinn, M. V. Klein, H. Morkoc, J. H. Mazur, and J. Washburn, “Growth and properties of GaAs/AlGaAs on nonpolar substrates using molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(1), 374–381 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appelman, H.

R. Fischer, W. Kopp, H. Morkoç, M. Pion, A. Specht, G. Burkhart, H. Appelman, D. McGougan, and R. Rice, “Low threshold laser operation at room temperature in GaAs/(Al,Ga)As structures grown directly on (100)Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(20), 1360–1361 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

K. Tanabe, D. Guimard, D. Bordel, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Electrically pumped 1.3 microm room-temperature InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers on Si substrates by metal-mediated wafer bonding and layer transfer,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10604–10608 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, D. Guimard, M. Rajesh, and Y. Arakawa, “Growth of InAs/Sb:GaAs quantum dots on silicon substrate with high density and efficient light emission in the 1.3 μm band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Badcock, T. J.

H. Y. Liu, D. T. Childs, T. J. Badcock, K. M. Groom, I. R. Sellers, M. Hopkinson, R. A. Hogg, D. J. Robbins, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “High-performance three-layer 1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers with very low continuous-wave room-temperature threshold currents,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1139–1141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Liu, I. R. Sellers, T. J. Badcock, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, K. M. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beanland, R.

R. Beanland, A. M. Sanchez, D. Childs, K. M. Groom, H. Y. Liu, D. J. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Structural analysis of life tested 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Liu, I. R. Sellers, T. J. Badcock, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, K. M. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, P.

Z. Mi, J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, and D. L. Huffaker, “Self-organised quantum dots as dislocation filters: the case of GaAs-based lasers on silicon,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 121–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bordel, D.

Bowers, J. E.

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on Silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Burkhart, G.

R. Fischer, W. Kopp, H. Morkoç, M. Pion, A. Specht, G. Burkhart, H. Appelman, D. McGougan, and R. Rice, “Low threshold laser operation at room temperature in GaAs/(Al,Ga)As structures grown directly on (100)Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(20), 1360–1361 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

Chen, H.

D. G. Deppe, K. Shavritranuruk, G. Ozgur, H. Chen, and S. Freisem, “Quantum dot laser diode with low threshold and low internal loss,” Electron. Lett. 45(1), 54–55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Childs, D.

R. Beanland, A. M. Sanchez, D. Childs, K. M. Groom, H. Y. Liu, D. J. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Structural analysis of life tested 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Childs, D. T.

H. Y. Liu, D. T. Childs, T. J. Badcock, K. M. Groom, I. R. Sellers, M. Hopkinson, R. A. Hogg, D. J. Robbins, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “High-performance three-layer 1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers with very low continuous-wave room-temperature threshold currents,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1139–1141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

David, J. P. R.

H. Y. Liu, I. R. Sellers, T. J. Badcock, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, K. M. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deppe, D. G.

D. G. Deppe, K. Shavritranuruk, G. Ozgur, H. Chen, and S. Freisem, “Quantum dot laser diode with low threshold and low internal loss,” Electron. Lett. 45(1), 54–55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fathpour, S.

Fischer, R.

R. Fischer, W. Kopp, H. Morkoç, M. Pion, A. Specht, G. Burkhart, H. Appelman, D. McGougan, and R. Rice, “Low threshold laser operation at room temperature in GaAs/(Al,Ga)As structures grown directly on (100)Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(20), 1360–1361 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. Fischer, W. T. Masselink, J. Klem, T. Henderson, T. C. McGlinn, M. V. Klein, H. Morkoc, J. H. Mazur, and J. Washburn, “Growth and properties of GaAs/AlGaAs on nonpolar substrates using molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(1), 374–381 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Freisem, S.

D. G. Deppe, K. Shavritranuruk, G. Ozgur, H. Chen, and S. Freisem, “Quantum dot laser diode with low threshold and low internal loss,” Electron. Lett. 45(1), 54–55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frith, R.

H. Y. Liu, M. Hopkinson, C. N. Harrison, M. J. Steer, R. Frith, I. R. Sellers, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “Optimizing the growth of 1.3 μm InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2931–2936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Groom, K. M.

R. Beanland, A. M. Sanchez, D. Childs, K. M. Groom, H. Y. Liu, D. J. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Structural analysis of life tested 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Liu, D. T. Childs, T. J. Badcock, K. M. Groom, I. R. Sellers, M. Hopkinson, R. A. Hogg, D. J. Robbins, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “High-performance three-layer 1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers with very low continuous-wave room-temperature threshold currents,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1139–1141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Liu, I. R. Sellers, T. J. Badcock, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, K. M. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guimard, D.

K. Tanabe, D. Guimard, D. Bordel, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Electrically pumped 1.3 microm room-temperature InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers on Si substrates by metal-mediated wafer bonding and layer transfer,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10604–10608 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, D. Guimard, M. Rajesh, and Y. Arakawa, “Growth of InAs/Sb:GaAs quantum dots on silicon substrate with high density and efficient light emission in the 1.3 μm band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gutierrez, M.

H. Y. Liu, I. R. Sellers, T. J. Badcock, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, K. M. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, C. N.

H. Y. Liu, M. Hopkinson, C. N. Harrison, M. J. Steer, R. Frith, I. R. Sellers, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “Optimizing the growth of 1.3 μm InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2931–2936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, T.

R. Fischer, W. T. Masselink, J. Klem, T. Henderson, T. C. McGlinn, M. V. Klein, H. Morkoc, J. H. Mazur, and J. Washburn, “Growth and properties of GaAs/AlGaAs on nonpolar substrates using molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(1), 374–381 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hogg, R. A.

H. Y. Liu, D. T. Childs, T. J. Badcock, K. M. Groom, I. R. Sellers, M. Hopkinson, R. A. Hogg, D. J. Robbins, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “High-performance three-layer 1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers with very low continuous-wave room-temperature threshold currents,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1139–1141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hopkinson, M.

R. Beanland, A. M. Sanchez, D. Childs, K. M. Groom, H. Y. Liu, D. J. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Structural analysis of life tested 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Liu, D. T. Childs, T. J. Badcock, K. M. Groom, I. R. Sellers, M. Hopkinson, R. A. Hogg, D. J. Robbins, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “High-performance three-layer 1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers with very low continuous-wave room-temperature threshold currents,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1139–1141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Liu, I. R. Sellers, T. J. Badcock, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, K. M. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Liu, M. Hopkinson, C. N. Harrison, M. J. Steer, R. Frith, I. R. Sellers, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “Optimizing the growth of 1.3 μm InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2931–2936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huffaker, D. L.

Z. Mi, J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, and D. L. Huffaker, “Self-organised quantum dots as dislocation filters: the case of GaAs-based lasers on silicon,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 121–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iwamoto, S.

Jalali, B.

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetector,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein, M. V.

R. Fischer, W. T. Masselink, J. Klem, T. Henderson, T. C. McGlinn, M. V. Klein, H. Morkoc, J. H. Mazur, and J. Washburn, “Growth and properties of GaAs/AlGaAs on nonpolar substrates using molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(1), 374–381 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Klem, J.

R. Fischer, W. T. Masselink, J. Klem, T. Henderson, T. C. McGlinn, M. V. Klein, H. Morkoc, J. H. Mazur, and J. Washburn, “Growth and properties of GaAs/AlGaAs on nonpolar substrates using molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(1), 374–381 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kopp, W.

R. Fischer, W. Kopp, H. Morkoç, M. Pion, A. Specht, G. Burkhart, H. Appelman, D. McGougan, and R. Rice, “Low threshold laser operation at room temperature in GaAs/(Al,Ga)As structures grown directly on (100)Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(20), 1360–1361 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

L. Li, D. Guimard, M. Rajesh, and Y. Arakawa, “Growth of InAs/Sb:GaAs quantum dots on silicon substrate with high density and efficient light emission in the 1.3 μm band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liang, D.

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on Silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. Y.

R. Beanland, A. M. Sanchez, D. Childs, K. M. Groom, H. Y. Liu, D. J. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Structural analysis of life tested 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Liu, D. T. Childs, T. J. Badcock, K. M. Groom, I. R. Sellers, M. Hopkinson, R. A. Hogg, D. J. Robbins, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “High-performance three-layer 1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers with very low continuous-wave room-temperature threshold currents,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1139–1141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Liu, I. R. Sellers, T. J. Badcock, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, K. M. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Liu, M. Hopkinson, C. N. Harrison, M. J. Steer, R. Frith, I. R. Sellers, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “Optimizing the growth of 1.3 μm InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2931–2936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetector,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Masselink, W. T.

R. Fischer, W. T. Masselink, J. Klem, T. Henderson, T. C. McGlinn, M. V. Klein, H. Morkoc, J. H. Mazur, and J. Washburn, “Growth and properties of GaAs/AlGaAs on nonpolar substrates using molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(1), 374–381 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, J. H.

R. Fischer, W. T. Masselink, J. Klem, T. Henderson, T. C. McGlinn, M. V. Klein, H. Morkoc, J. H. Mazur, and J. Washburn, “Growth and properties of GaAs/AlGaAs on nonpolar substrates using molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(1), 374–381 (1985).
[CrossRef]

McGlinn, T. C.

R. Fischer, W. T. Masselink, J. Klem, T. Henderson, T. C. McGlinn, M. V. Klein, H. Morkoc, J. H. Mazur, and J. Washburn, “Growth and properties of GaAs/AlGaAs on nonpolar substrates using molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(1), 374–381 (1985).
[CrossRef]

McGougan, D.

R. Fischer, W. Kopp, H. Morkoç, M. Pion, A. Specht, G. Burkhart, H. Appelman, D. McGougan, and R. Rice, “Low threshold laser operation at room temperature in GaAs/(Al,Ga)As structures grown directly on (100)Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(20), 1360–1361 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mi, Z.

Z. Mi, J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, and D. L. Huffaker, “Self-organised quantum dots as dislocation filters: the case of GaAs-based lasers on silicon,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 121–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetector,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morkoc, H.

R. Fischer, W. T. Masselink, J. Klem, T. Henderson, T. C. McGlinn, M. V. Klein, H. Morkoc, J. H. Mazur, and J. Washburn, “Growth and properties of GaAs/AlGaAs on nonpolar substrates using molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(1), 374–381 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Morkoç, H.

R. Fischer, W. Kopp, H. Morkoç, M. Pion, A. Specht, G. Burkhart, H. Appelman, D. McGougan, and R. Rice, “Low threshold laser operation at room temperature in GaAs/(Al,Ga)As structures grown directly on (100)Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(20), 1360–1361 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mowbray, D. J.

R. Beanland, A. M. Sanchez, D. Childs, K. M. Groom, H. Y. Liu, D. J. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Structural analysis of life tested 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Liu, D. T. Childs, T. J. Badcock, K. M. Groom, I. R. Sellers, M. Hopkinson, R. A. Hogg, D. J. Robbins, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “High-performance three-layer 1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers with very low continuous-wave room-temperature threshold currents,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1139–1141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Liu, I. R. Sellers, T. J. Badcock, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, K. M. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Liu, M. Hopkinson, C. N. Harrison, M. J. Steer, R. Frith, I. R. Sellers, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “Optimizing the growth of 1.3 μm InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2931–2936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ng, J. S.

H. Y. Liu, I. R. Sellers, T. J. Badcock, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, K. M. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ozgur, G.

D. G. Deppe, K. Shavritranuruk, G. Ozgur, H. Chen, and S. Freisem, “Quantum dot laser diode with low threshold and low internal loss,” Electron. Lett. 45(1), 54–55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pion, M.

R. Fischer, W. Kopp, H. Morkoç, M. Pion, A. Specht, G. Burkhart, H. Appelman, D. McGougan, and R. Rice, “Low threshold laser operation at room temperature in GaAs/(Al,Ga)As structures grown directly on (100)Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(20), 1360–1361 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rajesh, M.

L. Li, D. Guimard, M. Rajesh, and Y. Arakawa, “Growth of InAs/Sb:GaAs quantum dots on silicon substrate with high density and efficient light emission in the 1.3 μm band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rice, R.

R. Fischer, W. Kopp, H. Morkoç, M. Pion, A. Specht, G. Burkhart, H. Appelman, D. McGougan, and R. Rice, “Low threshold laser operation at room temperature in GaAs/(Al,Ga)As structures grown directly on (100)Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(20), 1360–1361 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D. J.

H. Y. Liu, D. T. Childs, T. J. Badcock, K. M. Groom, I. R. Sellers, M. Hopkinson, R. A. Hogg, D. J. Robbins, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “High-performance three-layer 1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers with very low continuous-wave room-temperature threshold currents,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1139–1141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, A. M.

R. Beanland, A. M. Sanchez, D. Childs, K. M. Groom, H. Y. Liu, D. J. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Structural analysis of life tested 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sellers, I. R.

H. Y. Liu, D. T. Childs, T. J. Badcock, K. M. Groom, I. R. Sellers, M. Hopkinson, R. A. Hogg, D. J. Robbins, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “High-performance three-layer 1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers with very low continuous-wave room-temperature threshold currents,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1139–1141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Liu, I. R. Sellers, T. J. Badcock, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, K. M. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Liu, M. Hopkinson, C. N. Harrison, M. J. Steer, R. Frith, I. R. Sellers, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “Optimizing the growth of 1.3 μm InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2931–2936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shavritranuruk, K.

D. G. Deppe, K. Shavritranuruk, G. Ozgur, H. Chen, and S. Freisem, “Quantum dot laser diode with low threshold and low internal loss,” Electron. Lett. 45(1), 54–55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Skolnick, M. S.

H. Y. Liu, D. T. Childs, T. J. Badcock, K. M. Groom, I. R. Sellers, M. Hopkinson, R. A. Hogg, D. J. Robbins, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “High-performance three-layer 1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers with very low continuous-wave room-temperature threshold currents,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1139–1141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Liu, I. R. Sellers, T. J. Badcock, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, K. M. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Liu, M. Hopkinson, C. N. Harrison, M. J. Steer, R. Frith, I. R. Sellers, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “Optimizing the growth of 1.3 μm InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2931–2936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Specht, A.

R. Fischer, W. Kopp, H. Morkoç, M. Pion, A. Specht, G. Burkhart, H. Appelman, D. McGougan, and R. Rice, “Low threshold laser operation at room temperature in GaAs/(Al,Ga)As structures grown directly on (100)Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(20), 1360–1361 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Steer, M. J.

H. Y. Liu, M. Hopkinson, C. N. Harrison, M. J. Steer, R. Frith, I. R. Sellers, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “Optimizing the growth of 1.3 μm InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2931–2936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sugawara, M.

M. Sugawara and M. Usami, “Quantum dot devices handling the heat,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 30–31 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

Tanabe, K.

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Usami, M.

M. Sugawara and M. Usami, “Quantum dot devices handling the heat,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 30–31 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ustinov, V. M.

V. M. Ustinov and A. E. Zhukov, “GaAs-based long-wavelength lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15(8), R41–R54 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Washburn, J.

R. Fischer, W. T. Masselink, J. Klem, T. Henderson, T. C. McGlinn, M. V. Klein, H. Morkoc, J. H. Mazur, and J. Washburn, “Growth and properties of GaAs/AlGaAs on nonpolar substrates using molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(1), 374–381 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Z. Mi, J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, and D. L. Huffaker, “Self-organised quantum dots as dislocation filters: the case of GaAs-based lasers on silicon,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 121–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhukov, A. E.

V. M. Ustinov and A. E. Zhukov, “GaAs-based long-wavelength lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15(8), R41–R54 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. Fischer, W. Kopp, H. Morkoç, M. Pion, A. Specht, G. Burkhart, H. Appelman, D. McGougan, and R. Rice, “Low threshold laser operation at room temperature in GaAs/(Al,Ga)As structures grown directly on (100)Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(20), 1360–1361 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Liu, I. R. Sellers, T. J. Badcock, D. J. Mowbray, M. S. Skolnick, K. M. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, D. Guimard, M. Rajesh, and Y. Arakawa, “Growth of InAs/Sb:GaAs quantum dots on silicon substrate with high density and efficient light emission in the 1.3 μm band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

D. G. Deppe, K. Shavritranuruk, G. Ozgur, H. Chen, and S. Freisem, “Quantum dot laser diode with low threshold and low internal loss,” Electron. Lett. 45(1), 54–55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Mi, J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, and D. L. Huffaker, “Self-organised quantum dots as dislocation filters: the case of GaAs-based lasers on silicon,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 121–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Y. Liu, D. T. Childs, T. J. Badcock, K. M. Groom, I. R. Sellers, M. Hopkinson, R. A. Hogg, D. J. Robbins, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “High-performance three-layer 1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers with very low continuous-wave room-temperature threshold currents,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1139–1141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

R. Beanland, A. M. Sanchez, D. Childs, K. M. Groom, H. Y. Liu, D. J. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Structural analysis of life tested 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Liu, M. Hopkinson, C. N. Harrison, M. J. Steer, R. Frith, I. R. Sellers, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “Optimizing the growth of 1.3 μm InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2931–2936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Fischer, W. T. Masselink, J. Klem, T. Henderson, T. C. McGlinn, M. V. Klein, H. Morkoc, J. H. Mazur, and J. Washburn, “Growth and properties of GaAs/AlGaAs on nonpolar substrates using molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(1), 374–381 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (4)

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetector,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on Silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Sugawara and M. Usami, “Quantum dot devices handling the heat,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 30–31 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

V. M. Ustinov and A. E. Zhukov, “GaAs-based long-wavelength lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15(8), R41–R54 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional schematic of fabricated InAs/InGaAs dot-in-a-well structure on Si substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

RT PL spectra of InAs/GaAs QDs grown on Si substrates with different growth temperatures for the initial GaAs nucleation layer. The RT PL spectrum of InAs QDs grown on GaAs substrate is also shown as a reference. The inset shows a 1 × 1 μm2 AFM image of InAs/GaAs QDs grown on Si substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-sectional TEM images of GaAs/Si interface for the initial GaAs nucleation layer grown at (a) 380 °C, (b) 400 °C, and (c) 420 °C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Light output against current characteristic for InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser on Si substrate under pulsed conditions at room temperature. The inset shows the laser optical spectrum above threshold.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Light output against current characteristic for InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser on Si substrate at various operating temperatures.

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