Abstract

Using a beam propagation model of Yb3+ doped, CW fiber amplifiers we show that gain saturation by a strong fundamental mode significantly suppresses the growth of higher order modes with parallel polarization, but enhances the growth of higher order modes with perpendicular polarization. We quantify this effect in straight and bent fibers, with full core or restricted area doping.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Mode instability in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19, 10180–10192 (2011). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-11-10180 .
  2. J. B. Spring, T. H. Russell, T. M. Shay, R. W. Berdine, A. D. Sanchez, B. G. Ward, and W. B Roh, “Comparison of stimulated Brillouin scattering thresholds and spectra in nonpolarization-maintaining and polarization-maintaining passive fibers,” Proc. SPIE 5709, 147–156 (2005).
  3. R. H. Stolen, “Polarization effects in fiber Raman and Brillouin lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1157–1161 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Jiang and J. R. Marciante, “Impact of transverse spatial-hole burning on beam quality in large-mode-area Yb-doped fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 247–254 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-25-2-247 .
  5. S. Liao, M. Gong, and H. Zhang, “Influence of mode distortion on the transverse mode competition in large-mode-area amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 282, 406–412 (2009), http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0030401808010067 .
  6. J. Marciante, “Gain filtering for single-spatial-mode operation of large-mode-area fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 30–36 (2009), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4773298 .
  7. S. Liao, M. Gong, and H. Zhang, “Theoretical calculation of beam quality factor of large-mode-area fiber amplifiers,” Laser Phys. 19, 437–444 (2009), http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1134/S1054660X09030141 .
  8. M. Gong, Y. Yuan, C. Li, P. Yan, H. Zhang, and S. Liao, “Numerical modeling of transverse mode competition in strongly pumped multimode fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 15, 3236–3246 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-6-3236 .
  9. T. Bhutta, J. I. Mackenzie, D. P. Shepherd, and R. J. Beach, “Spatial dopant profiles for transverse-mode selection in multi-mode waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1539–1543 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-19-7-1539 .
  10. J. Sousa and O. Okhotnikov, “Multimode Er-doped fiber for single-transverse-mode amplification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1528–1530 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Andermahr and C. Fallnich, “Interaction of transverse modes in a single-frequency few-mode fiber amplifier caused by local gain saturation,” Opt. Express 16, 8678–8684 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-12-8678 .
  12. N. Andermahr and C. Fallnich, “Modeling of transverse mode interaction in large-mode-area fiber amplifiers.” Opt. Express 16, 20038–20046 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-24-20038 .
  13. D. Vysotsky and A. Napartovich, “Mode competition in steady-state optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 108, 547–556 (2009). http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1063776109040013 .
  14. J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, S. Ramachandran, and S. Gaalmi, “Spatially and spectrally resolved imaging of modal content in large-mode-area fibers,” Opt. Express 16, 7233–7243 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-10-7233 .
  15. T. Eidam, S. Hadrich, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tunnermann, “Preferential gain photonic-crystal fiber for mode stabilization at high average powers,” Opt. Express 19, 8656–8661 (2011). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-9-8656 .
  16. D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides , 2nd ed. (Academic Press, 1991).
  17. J. Koplow, D. Kliner, and L. Goldberg, “Single-mode operation of a coiled multimode fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 25, 442–444 (2000), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-25-7-442 .

2005 (1)

J. B. Spring, T. H. Russell, T. M. Shay, R. W. Berdine, A. D. Sanchez, B. G. Ward, and W. B Roh, “Comparison of stimulated Brillouin scattering thresholds and spectra in nonpolarization-maintaining and polarization-maintaining passive fibers,” Proc. SPIE 5709, 147–156 (2005).

1999 (1)

J. Sousa and O. Okhotnikov, “Multimode Er-doped fiber for single-transverse-mode amplification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1528–1530 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

R. H. Stolen, “Polarization effects in fiber Raman and Brillouin lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1157–1161 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Berdine, R. W.

J. B. Spring, T. H. Russell, T. M. Shay, R. W. Berdine, A. D. Sanchez, B. G. Ward, and W. B Roh, “Comparison of stimulated Brillouin scattering thresholds and spectra in nonpolarization-maintaining and polarization-maintaining passive fibers,” Proc. SPIE 5709, 147–156 (2005).

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides , 2nd ed. (Academic Press, 1991).

Okhotnikov, O.

J. Sousa and O. Okhotnikov, “Multimode Er-doped fiber for single-transverse-mode amplification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1528–1530 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roh, W. B

J. B. Spring, T. H. Russell, T. M. Shay, R. W. Berdine, A. D. Sanchez, B. G. Ward, and W. B Roh, “Comparison of stimulated Brillouin scattering thresholds and spectra in nonpolarization-maintaining and polarization-maintaining passive fibers,” Proc. SPIE 5709, 147–156 (2005).

Russell, T. H.

J. B. Spring, T. H. Russell, T. M. Shay, R. W. Berdine, A. D. Sanchez, B. G. Ward, and W. B Roh, “Comparison of stimulated Brillouin scattering thresholds and spectra in nonpolarization-maintaining and polarization-maintaining passive fibers,” Proc. SPIE 5709, 147–156 (2005).

Sanchez, A. D.

J. B. Spring, T. H. Russell, T. M. Shay, R. W. Berdine, A. D. Sanchez, B. G. Ward, and W. B Roh, “Comparison of stimulated Brillouin scattering thresholds and spectra in nonpolarization-maintaining and polarization-maintaining passive fibers,” Proc. SPIE 5709, 147–156 (2005).

Shay, T. M.

J. B. Spring, T. H. Russell, T. M. Shay, R. W. Berdine, A. D. Sanchez, B. G. Ward, and W. B Roh, “Comparison of stimulated Brillouin scattering thresholds and spectra in nonpolarization-maintaining and polarization-maintaining passive fibers,” Proc. SPIE 5709, 147–156 (2005).

Sousa, J.

J. Sousa and O. Okhotnikov, “Multimode Er-doped fiber for single-transverse-mode amplification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1528–1530 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Spring, J. B.

J. B. Spring, T. H. Russell, T. M. Shay, R. W. Berdine, A. D. Sanchez, B. G. Ward, and W. B Roh, “Comparison of stimulated Brillouin scattering thresholds and spectra in nonpolarization-maintaining and polarization-maintaining passive fibers,” Proc. SPIE 5709, 147–156 (2005).

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, “Polarization effects in fiber Raman and Brillouin lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1157–1161 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ward, B. G.

J. B. Spring, T. H. Russell, T. M. Shay, R. W. Berdine, A. D. Sanchez, B. G. Ward, and W. B Roh, “Comparison of stimulated Brillouin scattering thresholds and spectra in nonpolarization-maintaining and polarization-maintaining passive fibers,” Proc. SPIE 5709, 147–156 (2005).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Sousa and O. Okhotnikov, “Multimode Er-doped fiber for single-transverse-mode amplification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1528–1530 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. H. Stolen, “Polarization effects in fiber Raman and Brillouin lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1157–1161 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. B. Spring, T. H. Russell, T. M. Shay, R. W. Berdine, A. D. Sanchez, B. G. Ward, and W. B Roh, “Comparison of stimulated Brillouin scattering thresholds and spectra in nonpolarization-maintaining and polarization-maintaining passive fibers,” Proc. SPIE 5709, 147–156 (2005).

Other (14)

A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Mode instability in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19, 10180–10192 (2011). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-11-10180 .

Z. Jiang and J. R. Marciante, “Impact of transverse spatial-hole burning on beam quality in large-mode-area Yb-doped fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 247–254 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-25-2-247 .

S. Liao, M. Gong, and H. Zhang, “Influence of mode distortion on the transverse mode competition in large-mode-area amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 282, 406–412 (2009), http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0030401808010067 .

J. Marciante, “Gain filtering for single-spatial-mode operation of large-mode-area fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 30–36 (2009), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4773298 .

S. Liao, M. Gong, and H. Zhang, “Theoretical calculation of beam quality factor of large-mode-area fiber amplifiers,” Laser Phys. 19, 437–444 (2009), http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1134/S1054660X09030141 .

M. Gong, Y. Yuan, C. Li, P. Yan, H. Zhang, and S. Liao, “Numerical modeling of transverse mode competition in strongly pumped multimode fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 15, 3236–3246 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-6-3236 .

T. Bhutta, J. I. Mackenzie, D. P. Shepherd, and R. J. Beach, “Spatial dopant profiles for transverse-mode selection in multi-mode waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1539–1543 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-19-7-1539 .

N. Andermahr and C. Fallnich, “Interaction of transverse modes in a single-frequency few-mode fiber amplifier caused by local gain saturation,” Opt. Express 16, 8678–8684 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-12-8678 .

N. Andermahr and C. Fallnich, “Modeling of transverse mode interaction in large-mode-area fiber amplifiers.” Opt. Express 16, 20038–20046 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-24-20038 .

D. Vysotsky and A. Napartovich, “Mode competition in steady-state optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 108, 547–556 (2009). http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1063776109040013 .

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, S. Ramachandran, and S. Gaalmi, “Spatially and spectrally resolved imaging of modal content in large-mode-area fibers,” Opt. Express 16, 7233–7243 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-10-7233 .

T. Eidam, S. Hadrich, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tunnermann, “Preferential gain photonic-crystal fiber for mode stabilization at high average powers,” Opt. Express 19, 8656–8661 (2011). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-9-8656 .

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides , 2nd ed. (Academic Press, 1991).

J. Koplow, D. Kliner, and L. Goldberg, “Single-mode operation of a coiled multimode fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 25, 442–444 (2000), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-25-7-442 .

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