Abstract

Localized plasmon resonances of spherical nanovoid arrays strongly enhance solar cell performance by a factor of 3.5 in external quantum efficiency at plasmonic resonances, and a four-fold enhancement in overall power conversion efficiency. Large area substrates of silver nanovoids are electrochemically templated through self-assembled colloidal spheres and organic solar cells fabricated on top. Our design represents a new class of plasmonic photovoltaic enhancement: that of localized plasmon-enhanced absorption within nanovoid structures. Angularly-resolved spectra demonstrate strong localized Mie plasmon modes within the nanovoids. Theoretical modelling shows varied spatial dependence of light intensity within the void region suggesting a first possible route towards Third Generation plasmonic photovoltaics.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (9)

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Design considerations for plasmonic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 4794–4808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10, 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Soderstrom, F. Haug, J. Escarre, O. Cubero, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent increase in n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells by guided mode excitation via grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 213508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Menezes, J. Ferreira, M. J. L. Santos, L. Cescato, and A. G. Brolo, “Large-area fabrication of periodic arrays of nanoholes in metal films and their application in biosensing and plasmonic-enhanced photovoltaics,” Adv. Func. Mater. 20, 3918–3924 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Bai, Q. Gan, G. Song, L. Chen, Z. Kafafi, and F. Bartoli, “Broadband short-range surface plasmon structures for absorption enhancement in organic photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 18, 620–630 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Ferry, M. Verschuuren, H. Li, E. Verhagen, B. Hongbo, R. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18, 237–245 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Chao, C. Wang, and J. Chang, “Spatial distribution of absorption in plasmonic thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express 18, 11763–11771 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

P. N. Saeta, V. E. Ferry, D. Pacifici, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “How much can guided modes enhance absorption in thin solar cells?” Opt. Express 17, 20975–20990 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. F. Soares, S. H. Pelfrey, A. E. Russell, J. J. Baumberg, and P. N. Bartlett, “Relating SERS intensity to specific plasmon modes on sphere segment void surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9284–9289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

N. C. Lindquist, W. A. Luhman, S.-H. Oh, and R. J. Holmes, “Plasmonic nanocavity arrays for enhanced efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van De Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Teperik, F. J. García de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Reilly, J. van De Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 16, 21793–21800 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

H. Hoppe, S. Shokhovets, and G. Gobsch, “Inverse relation between photocurrent and absorption layer thickness in polymer solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1, R40–R42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia De Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett. 7, 2094–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganas, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

T. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. Cole, J. Baumberg, M. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. Russell, and P. Bartlett, “Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 1–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. McCulloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5, 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, T. Kelf, and J. J. Baumberg, “Wetting of regularly structured gold surfaces,” Langmuir 21, 1753–1757 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, P. R. Birkin, M. A. Ghanem, and M. C. Netti, “Highly ordered macroporous gold and platinum films formed by electrochemical deposition through templates assembled from submicron diameter monodisperse polystyrene spheres,” Chem. Mater. 14, 2199–2208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Pettersson, S. Ghosh, and O. Inganas, “Optical anisotropy in thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)poly(4-styrenesulfonate),” Org. Electron. 3, 143–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

F. Garcia De Abajo and A. Howie, “Relativistic electron energy loss and electron-induced photon emission in inhomogeneous dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5180–5183 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Abdelsalam, M.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. García de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia De Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett. 7, 2094–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. Cole, J. Baumberg, M. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. Russell, and P. Bartlett, “Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 1–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Abdelsalam, M. E.

M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, T. Kelf, and J. J. Baumberg, “Wetting of regularly structured gold surfaces,” Langmuir 21, 1753–1757 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ferry, M. Verschuuren, H. Li, E. Verhagen, B. Hongbo, R. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18, 237–245 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Design considerations for plasmonic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 4794–4808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. N. Saeta, V. E. Ferry, D. Pacifici, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “How much can guided modes enhance absorption in thin solar cells?” Opt. Express 17, 20975–20990 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).

J. N. Munday and H. A. Atwater, “Large integrated absorption enhancement in plasmonic solar cells by combining metallic gratings and antireflection coatings,” Nano Lett. (2010), .

Bai, W.

W. Bai, Q. Gan, G. Song, L. Chen, Z. Kafafi, and F. Bartoli, “Broadband short-range surface plasmon structures for absorption enhancement in organic photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 18, 620–630 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ballif, C.

K. Soderstrom, F. Haug, J. Escarre, O. Cubero, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent increase in n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells by guided mode excitation via grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 213508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, P.

T. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. Cole, J. Baumberg, M. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. Russell, and P. Bartlett, “Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 1–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, P. N.

S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. F. Soares, S. H. Pelfrey, A. E. Russell, J. J. Baumberg, and P. N. Bartlett, “Relating SERS intensity to specific plasmon modes on sphere segment void surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9284–9289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Teperik, F. J. García de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia De Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett. 7, 2094–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, T. Kelf, and J. J. Baumberg, “Wetting of regularly structured gold surfaces,” Langmuir 21, 1753–1757 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, P. R. Birkin, M. A. Ghanem, and M. C. Netti, “Highly ordered macroporous gold and platinum films formed by electrochemical deposition through templates assembled from submicron diameter monodisperse polystyrene spheres,” Chem. Mater. 14, 2199–2208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bartoli, F.

W. Bai, Q. Gan, G. Song, L. Chen, Z. Kafafi, and F. Bartoli, “Broadband short-range surface plasmon structures for absorption enhancement in organic photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 18, 620–630 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baumberg, J.

T. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. Cole, J. Baumberg, M. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. Russell, and P. Bartlett, “Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 1–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Baumberg, “Plasmon-enhanced low-cost photovoltaics,” EU Patent 2047521 (2007).

Baumberg, J. J.

S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. F. Soares, S. H. Pelfrey, A. E. Russell, J. J. Baumberg, and P. N. Bartlett, “Relating SERS intensity to specific plasmon modes on sphere segment void surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9284–9289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Teperik, F. J. García de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia De Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett. 7, 2094–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, T. Kelf, and J. J. Baumberg, “Wetting of regularly structured gold surfaces,” Langmuir 21, 1753–1757 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, P. R. Birkin, M. A. Ghanem, and M. C. Netti, “Highly ordered macroporous gold and platinum films formed by electrochemical deposition through templates assembled from submicron diameter monodisperse polystyrene spheres,” Chem. Mater. 14, 2199–2208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beck, F. J.

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Birkin, P. R.

P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, P. R. Birkin, M. A. Ghanem, and M. C. Netti, “Highly ordered macroporous gold and platinum films formed by electrochemical deposition through templates assembled from submicron diameter monodisperse polystyrene spheres,” Chem. Mater. 14, 2199–2208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Borisov, A. G.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. García de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. McCulloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5, 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brolo, A. G.

J. W. Menezes, J. Ferreira, M. J. L. Santos, L. Cescato, and A. G. Brolo, “Large-area fabrication of periodic arrays of nanoholes in metal films and their application in biosensing and plasmonic-enhanced photovoltaics,” Adv. Func. Mater. 20, 3918–3924 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Catchpole, K.

Catchpole, K. R.

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cescato, L.

J. W. Menezes, J. Ferreira, M. J. L. Santos, L. Cescato, and A. G. Brolo, “Large-area fabrication of periodic arrays of nanoholes in metal films and their application in biosensing and plasmonic-enhanced photovoltaics,” Adv. Func. Mater. 20, 3918–3924 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J.

Chao, C.

Chen, L.

W. Bai, Q. Gan, G. Song, L. Chen, Z. Kafafi, and F. Bartoli, “Broadband short-range surface plasmon structures for absorption enhancement in organic photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 18, 620–630 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choulis, S. A.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. McCulloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5, 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cintra, S.

T. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. Cole, J. Baumberg, M. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. Russell, and P. Bartlett, “Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 1–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cole, R.

T. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. Cole, J. Baumberg, M. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. Russell, and P. Bartlett, “Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 1–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cole, R. M.

S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. F. Soares, S. H. Pelfrey, A. E. Russell, J. J. Baumberg, and P. N. Bartlett, “Relating SERS intensity to specific plasmon modes on sphere segment void surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9284–9289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia De Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett. 7, 2094–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cook, S.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. McCulloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5, 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cubero, O.

K. Soderstrom, F. Haug, J. Escarre, O. Cubero, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent increase in n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells by guided mode excitation via grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 213508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10, 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Durrant, J. R.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. McCulloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5, 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Escarre, J.

K. Soderstrom, F. Haug, J. Escarre, O. Cubero, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent increase in n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells by guided mode excitation via grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 213508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10, 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, J.

J. W. Menezes, J. Ferreira, M. J. L. Santos, L. Cescato, and A. G. Brolo, “Large-area fabrication of periodic arrays of nanoholes in metal films and their application in biosensing and plasmonic-enhanced photovoltaics,” Adv. Func. Mater. 20, 3918–3924 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, V.

Ferry, V. E.

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Design considerations for plasmonic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 4794–4808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. N. Saeta, V. E. Ferry, D. Pacifici, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “How much can guided modes enhance absorption in thin solar cells?” Opt. Express 17, 20975–20990 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).

Gan, Q.

W. Bai, Q. Gan, G. Song, L. Chen, Z. Kafafi, and F. Bartoli, “Broadband short-range surface plasmon structures for absorption enhancement in organic photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 18, 620–630 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garcia De Abajo, F.

F. Garcia De Abajo and A. Howie, “Relativistic electron energy loss and electron-induced photon emission in inhomogeneous dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5180–5183 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garcia De Abajo, F. J.

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia De Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett. 7, 2094–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

García de Abajo, F. J.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. García de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ghanem, M. A.

P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, P. R. Birkin, M. A. Ghanem, and M. C. Netti, “Highly ordered macroporous gold and platinum films formed by electrochemical deposition through templates assembled from submicron diameter monodisperse polystyrene spheres,” Chem. Mater. 14, 2199–2208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, S.

L. A. Pettersson, S. Ghosh, and O. Inganas, “Optical anisotropy in thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)poly(4-styrenesulfonate),” Org. Electron. 3, 143–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Giles, M.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. McCulloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5, 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gobsch, G.

H. Hoppe, S. Shokhovets, and G. Gobsch, “Inverse relation between photocurrent and absorption layer thickness in polymer solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1, R40–R42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ha, C.-S.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. McCulloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5, 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haug, F.

K. Soderstrom, F. Haug, J. Escarre, O. Cubero, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent increase in n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells by guided mode excitation via grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 213508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, R. J.

N. C. Lindquist, W. A. Luhman, S.-H. Oh, and R. J. Holmes, “Plasmonic nanocavity arrays for enhanced efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hongbo, B.

Hoppe, H.

H. Hoppe, S. Shokhovets, and G. Gobsch, “Inverse relation between photocurrent and absorption layer thickness in polymer solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1, R40–R42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Howie, A.

F. Garcia De Abajo and A. Howie, “Relativistic electron energy loss and electron-induced photon emission in inhomogeneous dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5180–5183 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C.-M.

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10, 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Inganas, O.

K. Tvingstedt, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganas, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Pettersson, S. Ghosh, and O. Inganas, “Optical anisotropy in thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)poly(4-styrenesulfonate),” Org. Electron. 3, 143–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kafafi, Z.

W. Bai, Q. Gan, G. Song, L. Chen, Z. Kafafi, and F. Bartoli, “Broadband short-range surface plasmon structures for absorption enhancement in organic photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 18, 620–630 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kelf, T.

T. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. Cole, J. Baumberg, M. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. Russell, and P. Bartlett, “Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 1–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, T. Kelf, and J. J. Baumberg, “Wetting of regularly structured gold surfaces,” Langmuir 21, 1753–1757 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. McCulloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5, 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Li, H. B. T.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).

Lindquist, N. C.

N. C. Lindquist, W. A. Luhman, S.-H. Oh, and R. J. Holmes, “Plasmonic nanocavity arrays for enhanced efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luhman, W. A.

N. C. Lindquist, W. A. Luhman, S.-H. Oh, and R. J. Holmes, “Plasmonic nanocavity arrays for enhanced efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mahajan, S.

S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. F. Soares, S. H. Pelfrey, A. E. Russell, J. J. Baumberg, and P. N. Bartlett, “Relating SERS intensity to specific plasmon modes on sphere segment void surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9284–9289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia De Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett. 7, 2094–2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. Cole, J. Baumberg, M. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. Russell, and P. Bartlett, “Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 1–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McCulloch, I.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. McCulloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5, 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Menezes, J. W.

J. W. Menezes, J. Ferreira, M. J. L. Santos, L. Cescato, and A. G. Brolo, “Large-area fabrication of periodic arrays of nanoholes in metal films and their application in biosensing and plasmonic-enhanced photovoltaics,” Adv. Func. Mater. 20, 3918–3924 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mokkapati, S.

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morfa, A. J.

T. H. Reilly, J. van De Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van De Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Munday, J. N.

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Design considerations for plasmonic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 4794–4808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. N. Saeta, V. E. Ferry, D. Pacifici, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “How much can guided modes enhance absorption in thin solar cells?” Opt. Express 17, 20975–20990 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Munday and H. A. Atwater, “Large integrated absorption enhancement in plasmonic solar cells by combining metallic gratings and antireflection coatings,” Nano Lett. (2010), .

Nelson, J.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. McCulloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5, 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Netti, M. C.

P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, P. R. Birkin, M. A. Ghanem, and M. C. Netti, “Highly ordered macroporous gold and platinum films formed by electrochemical deposition through templates assembled from submicron diameter monodisperse polystyrene spheres,” Chem. Mater. 14, 2199–2208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S.-H.

N. C. Lindquist, W. A. Luhman, S.-H. Oh, and R. J. Holmes, “Plasmonic nanocavity arrays for enhanced efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pacifici, D.

Pala, R. A.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985).

Pelfrey, S. H.

S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. F. Soares, S. H. Pelfrey, A. E. Russell, J. J. Baumberg, and P. N. Bartlett, “Relating SERS intensity to specific plasmon modes on sphere segment void surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9284–9289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Persson, N.-K.

K. Tvingstedt, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganas, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pettersson, L. A.

L. A. Pettersson, S. Ghosh, and O. Inganas, “Optical anisotropy in thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)poly(4-styrenesulfonate),” Org. Electron. 3, 143–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Ferry, M. Verschuuren, H. Li, E. Verhagen, B. Hongbo, R. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18, 237–245 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 16, 21793–21800 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).

Rahachou, A.

K. Tvingstedt, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganas, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ree, M.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. McCulloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5, 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reilly, T. H.

T. H. Reilly, J. van De Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van De Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Romero, M. J.

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van De Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rowlen, K. L.

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van De Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Reilly, J. van De Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Russell, A.

T. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. Cole, J. Baumberg, M. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. Russell, and P. Bartlett, “Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 1–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Russell, A. E.

S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. F. Soares, S. H. Pelfrey, A. E. Russell, J. J. Baumberg, and P. N. Bartlett, “Relating SERS intensity to specific plasmon modes on sphere segment void surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9284–9289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Saeta, P. N.

Santos, M. J. L.

J. W. Menezes, J. Ferreira, M. J. L. Santos, L. Cescato, and A. G. Brolo, “Large-area fabrication of periodic arrays of nanoholes in metal films and their application in biosensing and plasmonic-enhanced photovoltaics,” Adv. Func. Mater. 20, 3918–3924 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schropp, R. E. I.

V. Ferry, M. Verschuuren, H. Li, E. Verhagen, B. Hongbo, R. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18, 237–245 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).

Shokhovets, S.

H. Hoppe, S. Shokhovets, and G. Gobsch, “Inverse relation between photocurrent and absorption layer thickness in polymer solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1, R40–R42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soares, B. F.

S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. F. Soares, S. H. Pelfrey, A. E. Russell, J. J. Baumberg, and P. N. Bartlett, “Relating SERS intensity to specific plasmon modes on sphere segment void surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9284–9289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soderstrom, K.

K. Soderstrom, F. Haug, J. Escarre, O. Cubero, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent increase in n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells by guided mode excitation via grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 213508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, G.

W. Bai, Q. Gan, G. Song, L. Chen, Z. Kafafi, and F. Bartoli, “Broadband short-range surface plasmon structures for absorption enhancement in organic photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 18, 620–630 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sugawara, Y.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. García de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. Cole, J. Baumberg, M. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. Russell, and P. Bartlett, “Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 1–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tenent, R. C.

T. H. Reilly, J. van De Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Teperik, T. V.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. García de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tuladhar, S. M.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. McCulloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 5, 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tvingstedt, K.

K. Tvingstedt, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganas, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van De Lagemaat, J.

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van De Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Reilly, J. van De Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

Verschuuren, M.

Verschuuren, M. A.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).

Walters, R.

Wang, C.

White, J.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10, 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10, 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zozoulenko, I. V.

K. Tvingstedt, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganas, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Func. Mater. (1)

J. W. Menezes, J. Ferreira, M. J. L. Santos, L. Cescato, and A. G. Brolo, “Large-area fabrication of periodic arrays of nanoholes in metal films and their application in biosensing and plasmonic-enhanced photovoltaics,” Adv. Func. Mater. 20, 3918–3924 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Design considerations for plasmonic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 4794–4808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

N. C. Lindquist, W. A. Luhman, S.-H. Oh, and R. J. Holmes, “Plasmonic nanocavity arrays for enhanced efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganas, A. Rahachou, and I. V. Zozoulenko, “Surface plasmon increase absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 113514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Soderstrom, F. Haug, J. Escarre, O. Cubero, and C. Ballif, “Photocurrent increase in n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells by guided mode excitation via grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 213508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van De Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).

T. H. Reilly, J. van De Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, P. R. Birkin, M. A. Ghanem, and M. C. Netti, “Highly ordered macroporous gold and platinum films formed by electrochemical deposition through templates assembled from submicron diameter monodisperse polystyrene spheres,” Chem. Mater. 14, 2199–2208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. F. Soares, S. H. Pelfrey, A. E. Russell, J. J. Baumberg, and P. N. Bartlett, “Relating SERS intensity to specific plasmon modes on sphere segment void surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9284–9289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, T. Kelf, and J. J. Baumberg, “Wetting of regularly structured gold surfaces,” Langmuir 21, 1753–1757 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (2)

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H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010).
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