Abstract

In this work, we design and demonstrate planar ridge microdisk resonators in silicon-on-insulator, which assemble the advantages of microring and microdisk resonators. The dependences of resonator optical modes on the slab thickness and the waveguide-to-resonator coupling gap are investigated. The highest Q-factor obtained is ~4 × 105. Using the thermo-optical effect, we attain a resonance wavelength tuning efficiency of ~66.5 pm/mW. We also compare the transmission spectra measured by using wavelength-scanning method and voltage-scanning method and show potential application for the adopted voltage-scanning method.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Zimmermann, Integrated Silicon Optoelectronics (Springer, 2000).
  2. L. Pavesi, “Will silicon be the photonic material of the third millenium?” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15(26), R1169–R1196 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 938–947 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Koonath, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, “Vertically-coupled micro-resonators realized using three-dimensional sculpting in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 1018–1020 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, “Beyond the Rayleigh scattering limit in high-Q silicon microdisks: theory and experiment,” Opt. Express 13(5), 1515–1530 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Soltani, S. Yegnanarayanan, and A. Adibi, “Ultra-high Q planar silicon microdisk resonators for chip-scale silicon photonics,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4694–4704 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, “A polymer microdisk photonic sensor integrated onto silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2096–2098 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Krioukov, D. J. W. Klunder, A. Driessen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Sensor based on an integrated optical microcavity,” Opt. Lett. 27(7), 512–514 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Hu, N. Carlie, N.-N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Planar waveguide-coupled, high-index-contrast, high-Q resonators in chalcogenide glass for sensing,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2500–2502 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. J. Johnson, M. Borselli, and O. Painter, “Self-induced optical modulation of the transmission through a high-Q silicon microdisk resonator,” Opt. Express 14(2), 817–831 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. R. Watt, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Ultralow power silicon microdisk modulators and switches,” Group IV Photonics, 2008 5th IEEE international Conference 4–6 (2008).
  14. M. Rosenblit, P. Horak, S. Helsby, and R. Folman, “Single-atom detection using whispering-gallery modes of microdisk resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 70(5), 053808 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popović, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Maximizing the Thermo-Optic Tuning Range of Silicon Photonic Structures,” Optical Switch 2007, (IEEE, 2007), pp.153–154.
  17. M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, “Adiabatic Resonant microrings (ARMs) with directly integrated thermal microphotonics,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, p.CPDB10 (2009).
  18. J. Song, H. Zhao, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Effective thermo-optical enhanced cross-ring resonator MZI interleavers on SOI,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21476–21482 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fast and low power Michelson interferometer thermo-optical switch on SOI,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15304–15311 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. M. Knox and P. P. Toulios, Integrated circuits for the millimeter through optical frequency range. Symposium on Submillimeter Waves, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, pp. 497–516. 1970.
  21. C.-Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1527–1529 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

2006 (3)

T. J. Johnson, M. Borselli, and O. Painter, “Self-induced optical modulation of the transmission through a high-Q silicon microdisk resonator,” Opt. Express 14(2), 817–831 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, “A polymer microdisk photonic sensor integrated onto silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2096–2098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

M. Rosenblit, P. Horak, S. Helsby, and R. Folman, “Single-atom detection using whispering-gallery modes of microdisk resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 70(5), 053808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Koonath, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, “Vertically-coupled micro-resonators realized using three-dimensional sculpting in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 1018–1020 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

L. Pavesi, “Will silicon be the photonic material of the third millenium?” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15(26), R1169–R1196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1527–1529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1998 (1)

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Adibi, A.

Agarwal, A.

Armani, D. K.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

Borselli, M.

Carlie, N.

Chao, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1527–1529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, “A polymer microdisk photonic sensor integrated onto silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2096–2098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coppinger, F.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Di Cioccio, L.

Driessen, A.

Fang, Q.

Fedeli, J.-M.

Feng, N.-N.

Folman, R.

M. Rosenblit, P. Horak, S. Helsby, and R. Folman, “Single-atom detection using whispering-gallery modes of microdisk resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 70(5), 053808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Greve, J.

Guo, L. J.

C.-Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1527–1529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Helsby, S.

M. Rosenblit, P. Horak, S. Helsby, and R. Folman, “Single-atom detection using whispering-gallery modes of microdisk resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 70(5), 053808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Horak, P.

M. Rosenblit, P. Horak, S. Helsby, and R. Folman, “Single-atom detection using whispering-gallery modes of microdisk resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 70(5), 053808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

Indukuri, T.

P. Koonath, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, “Vertically-coupled micro-resonators realized using three-dimensional sculpting in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 1018–1020 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

P. Koonath, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, “Vertically-coupled micro-resonators realized using three-dimensional sculpting in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 1018–1020 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, T. J.

Jokerst, N. M.

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, “A polymer microdisk photonic sensor integrated onto silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2096–2098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

Kippenberg, T. J.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klunder, D. J. W.

Koonath, P.

P. Koonath, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, “Vertically-coupled micro-resonators realized using three-dimensional sculpting in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 1018–1020 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krioukov, E.

Kwong, D. L.

Lagahe, C.

Liow, T. Y.

Lo, G. Q.

Otto, C.

Painter, O.

Pavesi, L.

L. Pavesi, “Will silicon be the photonic material of the third millenium?” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15(26), R1169–R1196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petit, L.

Regreny, P.

Rendina, I.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

Rojo Romeo, P.

Rosenblit, M.

M. Rosenblit, P. Horak, S. Helsby, and R. Folman, “Single-atom detection using whispering-gallery modes of microdisk resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 70(5), 053808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seassal, C.

Soltani, M.

Song, J.

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S. M.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, S. H.

Vahala, K. J.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Campenhout, J.

Van Thourhout, D.

Verstuyft, S.

Yegnanarayanan, S.

M. Soltani, S. Yegnanarayanan, and A. Adibi, “Ultra-high Q planar silicon microdisk resonators for chip-scale silicon photonics,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4694–4704 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimoto, T.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M. B.

Zhao, H.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. Koonath, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, “Vertically-coupled micro-resonators realized using three-dimensional sculpting in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 1018–1020 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1527–1529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, “A polymer microdisk photonic sensor integrated onto silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2096–2098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

L. Pavesi, “Will silicon be the photonic material of the third millenium?” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15(26), R1169–R1196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Rosenblit, P. Horak, S. Helsby, and R. Folman, “Single-atom detection using whispering-gallery modes of microdisk resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 70(5), 053808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

R. M. Knox and P. P. Toulios, Integrated circuits for the millimeter through optical frequency range. Symposium on Submillimeter Waves, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, pp. 497–516. 1970.

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popović, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Maximizing the Thermo-Optic Tuning Range of Silicon Photonic Structures,” Optical Switch 2007, (IEEE, 2007), pp.153–154.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, “Adiabatic Resonant microrings (ARMs) with directly integrated thermal microphotonics,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, p.CPDB10 (2009).

M. R. Watt, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Ultralow power silicon microdisk modulators and switches,” Group IV Photonics, 2008 5th IEEE international Conference 4–6 (2008).

H. Zimmermann, Integrated Silicon Optoelectronics (Springer, 2000).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical micrograph of the microdisk integrated with thermal heater. (b) Optical micrograph of planar silicon ridge microdisk resonator. (c) Zoom-in SEM of the crescent-shaped converter between channel waveguide and ridge waveguide. (d) Zoom-in SEM of the directional coupler between two ridge waveguides. (e) TEM of the cross section in coupling region. (f) Optical micrograph of the cascaded crescent-shaped converter for cut-back measurement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured TE-polarized throughput and drop transmission spectra of a fabricated planar ridge microdisk with r = 20 μm, h = 100 nm, and g = 250 nm. (a) The through and drop transmission spectra. (b) and (c) Zoon-in views of the two resonances spanning a FSR in linear scale with Lorentzian fittings.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured TE-polarized drop-port transmission spectra for r = 20 μm, g = 200 nm and h = 50, 100, and 150 nm. (b) Effective refractive indices comparison. Upper insets (i) – (iv) show the field distributions of the fundamental modes for the ridge waveguide structures with h = 0, 50, 100, and 150 nm. Lower inset shows three-layer waveguide structure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Spectra of drop transmission with different coupling gaps. (b) Q-factor variations as functions of coupling gaps and slab thicknesses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measured drop-port transmission spectra upon different voltage supplies. (b) Resonance wavelength shift as function of the electronic power. The demonstrated microdisk here is with r = 20 μm, g = 250 nm and h = 100 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparing of drop-port transmission spectra between (a) wavelength scanning method, and (b) voltage scanning method. The voltage scale is converted to wavelength by using Eq. (5).

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T = 1 κ 2 ( 1 t 2 γ 4 ) ( 1 t 2 γ 2 ) 2 + 4 t 2 γ 2 sin 2 ( θ )
D = κ 4 γ 2 ( 1 t 2 γ 2 ) 2 + 4 t 2 γ 2 sin 2 ( θ )
D max = κ 4 γ 2 ( 1 t 2 γ 2 ) 2   and   t D max = 4 t κ 2 γ 2 ( 1 γ 2 ) ( 1 t 2 γ 2 ) 3 < 0.
Δ θ 3 d B = 2 sin 1 [ 2 2 1 t 2 γ 2 1 + t 4 γ 4 ] 2 ( 1 t 2 γ 2 )
Q 2 π λ c F S R Δ θ 3 d B π λ c F S R ( 1 t 2 γ 2 )
λ ( n m ) = 1572 0.067 V 2 / R ( k Ω )

Metrics